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Critical lab reports

Arun Agarwal, Aakanksha Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, underdiagnosed, fatal and devastating hyperinflammatory syndrome that has gained increasing recognition over the past decade. Patients with HLH present with clinical and laboratory evidence of uncontrolled inflammation. Delay in diagnosis and management inevitably leads to a rapidly progressive and fatal course. In this case series, we present 7 cases of secondary HLH (sHLH) in adults with their presentation, course, and outcomes...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
M Barburoglu, A Arat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is very limited data concerning utilization of flow diverters in children. Our aim is to report results for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms and carotid cavernous fistulas by using flow diverters in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of children (17 years of age or younger) treated with flow diverters between May 2011 and July 2014 was performed. Clinical and laboratory data and angiographic findings were extracted...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Daniel W Abbott, Kenneth D Friedman, Matthew S Karafin
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathic hemolytic anemia that requires emergent treatment with plasma exchange and is one of the most important conditions for which apheresis service professionals are consulted. Careful interpretation of initial laboratory values and the peripheral blood smear is a critical first step to determining the need for plasma exchange because other conditions can show deceptively similar red cell morphology, and ADAMTS13 levels are often not rapidly available...
September 28, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Saad Mohammed Dahlawi, Samreen Siddiqui
Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Angel Paternina-Caicedo, Jezid Miranda, Ghada Bourjeily, Andrew Levinson, Carmelo Dueñas, Camilo Bello Muñoz, José A Rojas-Suarez
BACKGROUND: Every day, about 830 women die worldwide from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Obstetric early-warning scores have been proposed as a potential tool to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality, based upon the identification of predetermined abnormal values in the vital signs or laboratory parameters, to generate a rapid and effective medical response. Several early-warning scores have been developed for obstetrical patients, but the majority are the result of a clinical consensus rather than statistical analyses of clinical outcome measures (i...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Richard X Davey
BACKGROUND: The misnamed 'vitamin' D is actually the hormone calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyhydroxyvitamin D). It has a central regulatory role in calcium metabolism, and more widely in the immune system. The prohormone calcifediol (25 hydroxyvitamin D) is more easily measured in the laboratory and is the analyte used in reference interval formulation. Being highly lipid soluble, both calcifediol and calcitriol travel in the bloodstream on carriage proteins, principally on vitamin D binding protein, DBP...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Michael A Bohl, James Forseth, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. CASE DESCRIPTION: A series of six neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Max Wolff, Klaus-Martin Krönke, John Venz, Anja Kräplin, Gerhard Bühringer, Michael N Smolka, Thomas Goschke
Self-control is commonly assumed to depend on executive functions (EFs). However, it is unclear whether real-life self-control failures result from deficient EF competencies or rather reflect insufficient conflict-induced mobilization of executive control, and whether self-control depends more critically on function-specific EF competencies or general executive functioning (GEF), that is, common competencies that underlie all EFs. Here we investigated whether failure-related action versus state orientation, a personality trait related to the conflict-induced mobilization of cognitive control, moderates the effect of general and function-specific control competencies on self-control...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Greer Dawson, Robin Gilmour, Sean Tobin, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: In New South Wales (NSW), influenza surveillance is informed by a number of discrete data sources, including laboratories, emergency departments, death registrations and community surveillance programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the NSW influenza surveillance system using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. Importance of study: Having a strong influenza surveillance system is important for both seasonal and pandemic influenza preparedness...
April 15, 2016: Public Health Research & Practice
Shan Yuan, Shirong Wang
Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) has become a widely applied therapeutic approach for many hematologic and nonhematologic diseases. Adequate PBSC mobilization is critical to the success of ASCT. However, many factors can contribute to poor mobilization. Plerixafor is an effective yet costly adjunct agent that has been increasingly used to improve mobilization in a variety of diagnoses and clinical settings. However, to achieve both optimal cell collection yields and cost-effectiveness, the role of plerixafor in PBSC mobilization needs to be well defined in terms of triggers for initiating its use and criteria for monitoring response...
October 12, 2016: Transfusion
Tarig Elraiyah, Calvin R Jerde, Shikshya Shrestha, Rentian Wu, Qian Nie, Nasra H Giama, Vivekananda Sarangi, Lewis R Roberts, Steven M Offer, Robert B Diasio
Clinical studies have identified specific genetic variants in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, DPYD gene) as predictors of severe adverse toxicity to the commonly used chemotherapeutic 5-fluorouracil; however, these studies have focused on European and European-American populations. Our lab recently demonstrated that additional variants in non-European haplotypes are predictive of 5-FU toxicity. The objective of this study was to identify potential risk variants in an under-studied East African population relevant to our institution's catchment area...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Dawn M Klein, Kassi Pham, Leila Samy, Adam Bluth, Kim M Nazi, Matthew Witry, J Stacey Klutts, Kathleen M Grant, Adi V Gundlapalli, Gary Kochersberger, Laurie Pfeiffer, Sergio Romero, Brian Vetter, Carolyn L Turvey
INTRODUCTION: Information continuity is critical to person-centered care when patients receive care from multiple healthcare systems. Patients can access their electronic health record data through patient portals to facilitate information exchange. This pilot was developed to improve care continuity for rural Veterans by (1) promoting the use of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) patient portal to share health information with non-VA providers, and (2) evaluating the impact of health information sharing at a community appointment...
October 11, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Timothy D Nelson, Katherine M Kidwell, Maren Hankey, Jennifer Mize Nelson, Kimberly Andrews Espy
OBJECTIVE: Although numerous studies have documented the effects of sleep loss on executive control (EC) and related abilities, research examining the impact of early EC on subsequent sleep problems is lacking. Therefore, the current study reports on a longitudinal investigation of EC in preschool as a predictor of sleep-wake problems and daytime sleepiness in early adolescence. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 141 children (48.6% female) recruited from the community for a longitudinal study spanning preschool through early adolescence, with an oversampling for high sociodemographic risk (34...
October 11, 2016: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
Benedetta Mazzanti, Serena Urbani, Simone Dal Pozzo, Paola Bufano, Lara Ballerini, Alessia Gelli, Irene Sodi, Irene Donnini, Massimo Di Gioia, Stefano Guidi, Julien Camisani, Riccardo Saccardi
BACKGROUND: Clinical grade processing of harvested bone marrow is required in various clinical situations, particularly in the management of ABO mismatching in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and in regenerative medicine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a single-centre experience using a fully automated, clinical grade, closed system (Sepax, Biosafe, Switzerland). From 2003 to 2015, 125 procedures were performed in our laboratory, including buffy-coat production for HSCT (n=58), regenerative medicine in an orthopaedic setting (n=54) and density-gradient separation in a trial for treatment of critical limb ischaemia (n=13)...
September 27, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Camilla M Whittington, Kevin Danastas, Georges E Grau, Christopher R Murphy, Michael B Thompson
Vascular endothelial growth factor A is a major mediator of angiogenesis, a critically important process in vertebrate growth and development as well as pregnancy. Here we report for the first time the expression of a rare and unusually potent splice variant, VEGF 111 , in vivo in mammals. This variant has previously only been found in mammals in cultured human cells exposed to genotoxic agents. Our discovery of VEGF 111 in the uterus of both a eutherian (rat) and a marsupial (fat-tailed dunnart) suggests that the splice variant may be common to all mammals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Mohammad Mahdi Moein, Aziza El Beqqali, Mohamed Abdel-Rehim
Bioanalysis is an essential part in drug discovery and development. Bioanalysis is related to the analysis of analytes (drugs, metabolites, biomarkers) in biological samples and it involves several steps from sample collection to sample analysis and data reporting. The first step is sample collection from clinical or preclinical studies; then sending the samples to laboratory for analysis. Second step is sample clean-up (sample preparation) and it is very important step in bioanalysis. In order to reach reliable results, a robust and stable sample preparation method should be applied...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Hidemi Suzuki, Atsushi Hata, Yuki Shina, Takamasa Yun, Kazuhisa Tanaka, Yuichi Sakairi, Hironobu Wada, Taiki Fujiwara, Takahiro Nakajima, Takekazu Iwata, Masako Chiyo, Shigetoshi Yoshida, Ichiro Yoshino
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) is a critical impediment to the long-term survival after lung transplantation. A rat orthotopic lung transplantation model was developed in the early 1970s, and using this model, our laboratory has shown that the immunopathogenesis of CLAD involves both allogeneic immunity and autoimmunity. However, further investigation of CLAD is limited by the scarcity of transgenic and knockout strains. The model most widely used to study CLAD, the mouse model of heterotopic tracheal transplantation, has some incomplete pathophysiologic features of CLAD, which limits the utility of this model...
October 2016: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Lijun Liu, Derrick Hasterok
An accurate viscosity structure is critical to truthfully modeling lithosphere dynamics. Here, we report an attempt to infer the effective lithospheric viscosity from a high-resolution magnetotelluric (MT) survey across the western United States. The high sensitivity of MT fields to the presence of electrically conductive fluids makes it a promising proxy for determining mechanical strength variations throughout the lithosphere. We demonstrate how a viscosity structure, approximated from electrical resistivity, results in a geodynamic model that successfully predicts short-wavelength surface topography, lithospheric deformation, and mantle upwelling beneath recent volcanism...
September 30, 2016: Science
Jeremy Thomas, Joseph Loane, Richard Matthews, Scott Maxwell, Tim Ingman, Mathew Beesley, Lynda Ferrigan
AIMS: To critically evaluate HER2 testing data for 3500 consecutive cases over 28 months for a single laboratory and review these findings in the light of current UK reporting guidelines. METHODS: We have reviewed all data relating to the HER2 testing service including reagents and analytical machine, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) scoring profiles. We have examined the place of double counting and rapid screening of FISH and when it is and is not safe to do so...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Qi Zheng, Elizabeth A Grice
Accurate mapping of next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads to reference genomes is crucial for almost all NGS applications and downstream analyses. Various repetitive elements in human and other higher eukaryotic genomes contribute in large part to ambiguously (non-uniquely) mapped reads. Most available NGS aligners attempt to address this by either removing all non-uniquely mapping reads, or reporting one random or "best" hit based on simple heuristics. Accurate estimation of the mapping quality of NGS reads is therefore critical albeit completely lacking at present...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
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