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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090671/lgp2-plays-an-essential-role-in-hcv-infection-induced-interferon-responses
#1
Lei Hei, Jin Zhong
: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that detect non-self RNA and activate downstream interferon (IFN) signaling. One of the RLRs, Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) was originally thought to be a negative feedback regulator in RIG-I signaling pathway, but growing evidence indicates LGP2 is one co-factor of Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) in MDA5-mediated IFN signaling activation...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080202/chemical-probes-targeting-epigenetic-proteins-applications-beyond-oncology
#2
Suzanne Ackloo, Peter J Brown, Susanne Müller
Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors and antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about four thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077402/elemental-metabolomics
#3
Ping Zhang, Constantinos A Georgiou, Vladimir Brusic
Elemental metabolomics is quantification and characterization of total concentration of chemical elements in biological samples and monitoring of their changes. Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have enabled simultaneous measurement of concentrations of > 70 elements in biological samples. In living organisms, elements interact and compete with each other for absorption and molecular interactions. They also interact with proteins and nucleotide sequences. These interactions modulate enzymatic activities and are critical for many molecular and cellular functions...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076488/use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-trauma-patients-an-analysis-of-cost-effectiveness-for-use-in-brazil
#4
Marcelo A Pinto, Jair G da Silva, Aljamir D Chedid, Marcio F Chedid
Introduction: Use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma has been the subject of growing interest by researchers and health professionals. However, there are still several open questions regarding its use. In some aspects medical literature is controversial. The points of disagreement among experts include questions such as: Which patients should receive TXA in trauma? Should treatment be performed in the pre-hospital environment? Is there any need for laboratory parameters before starting TXA treatment? What is the drug safety profile? The main issue on which there is still no basis in literature is: What is the indication for treatment within massive transfusion protocols? Objective: Answer the questions proposed based on critical evaluation of the evidence gathered so far and carry out a study of cost-effectiveness of TXA use in trauma adapted to the Brazilian reality...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076008/pictorial-review-of-false-positive-results-on-radioiodine-scintigrams-of-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#5
Amy V Chudgar, Jagruti C Shah
Radioiodine has served an important role in the diagnostic workup and treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer for more than 6 decades. The interpretation of radioiodine scintigraphic studies should be performed in conjunction with a comprehensive history, histopathologic correlation, and pertinent laboratory values, as well as correlation with available anatomic images and the findings from physical examination. A thorough understanding of the physiology and biodistribution of radioiodine is critical when interpreting radioiodine scintigraphic studies to avoid misinterpretation of physiologic and nonthyroid pathologic variants as thyroid cancer metastases...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060883/an-automated-experimenter-free-method-for-the-standardised-operant-cognitive-testing-of-rats
#6
Marion Rivalan, Humaira Munawar, Anna Fuchs, York Winter
Animal models of human pathology are essential for biomedical research. However, a recurring issue in the use of animal models is the poor reproducibility of behavioural and physiological findings within and between laboratories. The most critical factor influencing this issue remains the experimenter themselves. One solution is the use of procedures devoid of human intervention. We present a novel approach to experimenter-free testing cognitive abilities in rats, by combining undisturbed group housing with automated, standardized and individual operant testing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050887/assessment-of-in-silico-protein-sequence-analysis-in-the-clinical-classification-of-variants-in-cancer-risk-genes
#7
Iain D Kerr, Hannah C Cox, Kelsey Moyes, Brent Evans, Brianna C Burdett, Aric van Kan, Heather McElroy, Paris J Vail, Krystal L Brown, Dechie B Sumampong, Nicholas J Monteferrante, Kennedy L Hardman, Aaron Theisen, Erin Mundt, Richard J Wenstrup, Julie M Eggington
Missense variants represent a significant proportion of variants identified in clinical genetic testing. In the absence of strong clinical or functional evidence, the American College of Medical Genetics recommends that these findings be classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). VUSs may be reclassified to better inform patient care when new evidence is available. It is critical that the methods used for reclassification are robust in order to prevent inappropriate medical management strategies and unnecessary, life-altering surgeries...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048712/mo-fg-campus-tep3-02-benchmarks-of-a-proton-relative-biological-effectiveness-rbe-model-for-dna-double-strand-break-dsb-induction-in-the-fluka-mcnp-topas-and-raystation%C3%A2-treatment-planning-system
#8
R Stewart, S Streitmatter, E Traneus, V Moskvin, J Schuemann
PURPOSE: Validate implementation of a published RBE model for DSB induction (RBEDSB) in several general purpose Monte Carlo (MC) code systems and the RayStation™ treatment planning system (TPS). For protons and other light ions, DSB induction is a critical initiating molecular event that correlates well with the RBE for cell survival. METHODS: An efficient algorithm to incorporate information on proton and light ion RBEDSB from the independently tested Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) has now been integrated into MCNP (Stewart et al...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048387/mo-a-brc-00-tg167-clinical-recommendations-for-innovative-brachytherapy-devices-and-applicators
#9
Ravinder Nath
: Although a multicenter, Phase III, prospective, randomized trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine, it is rarely used to evaluate innovative radiotherapy devices because of many practical and ethical reasons. It is usually sufficient to compare the dose distributions and dose rates for determining equivalence of the innovative device to an existing one. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of an innovative brachytherapy device or application is a critical part in which physicists are actively involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048159/mo-a-brc-02-tg167-report-detailed-description
#10
M Rivard
: Although a multicenter, Phase III, prospective, randomized trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine, it is rarely used to evaluate innovative radiotherapy devices because of many practical and ethical reasons. It is usually sufficient to compare the dose distributions and dose rates for determining equivalence of the innovative device to an existing one. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of an innovative brachytherapy device or application is a critical part in which physicists are actively involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046775/mo-a-brc-01-tg167-report-introduction
#11
R Nath
: Although a multicenter, Phase III, prospective, randomized trial is the gold standard for evidence-based medicine, it is rarely used to evaluate innovative radiotherapy devices because of many practical and ethical reasons. It is usually sufficient to compare the dose distributions and dose rates for determining equivalence of the innovative device to an existing one. Thus, quantitative evaluation of the dosimetric characteristics of an innovative brachytherapy device or application is a critical part in which physicists are actively involved...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042729/critical-laboratory-values-in-hemostasis-towards-consensus
#12
Giuseppe Lippi, Dorothy Adcock, Ana-Maria Simundic, Armando Tripodi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
The term 'critical values' can be defined to entail laboratory test results which significantly lie outside the normal (reference) range and necessitate immediate reporting to safeguard patient health, as well as those displaying a highly and clinically significant variation compared to previous data. The identification and effective communication of "highly pathological" values has engaged the minds of many clinicians, healthcare and laboratory professionals for decades, since these activities are vital to good laboratory practice...
December 31, 2016: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040183/detection-of-premature-stop-codons-leading-to-truncated-internalin-a%C3%A2-among-food-and-clinical-strains-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#13
Margarida Ferreira da Silva, Vânia Ferreira, Rui Magalhães, Gonçalo Almeida, Artur Alves, Paula Teixeira
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for outbreaks and sporadic cases of listeriosis, a severe invasive disease. Internalin A (InlA) a protein encoded by inlA has a key role in the mechanism of pathogenesis in L. monocytogenes infection, specifically in the invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells. Studies on inlA have shown that mutations leading to premature stop codons (PMSCs) occur naturally and are associated with impaired virulence of L. monocytogenes strains. Increasing evidence suggests that inlA PMSCs mutations are frequent in strains from foods, but rare among clinical isolates...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027991/successful-treatment-of-severe-clostridium-difficile-infection-by-administration-of-crushed-fidaxomicin-via-a-nasogastric-tube-in-a-critically-ill-patient
#14
Sven Arends, Jerome Defosse, Cori Diaz, Frank Wappler, Samir G Sakka
OBJECTIVE: To report the successful use of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube for treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection in a critically ill patient. DATA SOURCES: Clinical observation of a patient, images of abdominal computed tomography, antimicrobial therapy and course of infection parameters. DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant information contained in the medical observation of the patient and selection of image and laboratory parameters performed in the patient...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027117/precision-medicine-starts-with-preanalytics-real-time-assessment-of-tissue-fixation-quality-by-ultrasound-time-of-flight-analysis
#15
Melissa L Lerch, Daniel R Bauer, David Chafin, Abbey Theiss, Michael Otter, Geoffrey S Baird
Personalized medicine promises diagnosis and treatment of disease at the individual level and relies heavily on clinical specimen integrity and diagnostic assay quality. Preanalytics, the collection and handling steps of a clinical specimen before immunohistochemistry or other clinical assay, are critically important to enable the correct diagnosis of disease. However, the effects of preanalytics are often overlooked due to a lack of standardization and limited assessment tools to quantify their variation. Here, we report a novel real-time ultrasound time-of-flight instrument that is capable of monitoring and imaging the critical step in formalin fixation, diffusion of the fixative into tissue, which provides a quantifiable quality metric for tissue fixation in the clinical laboratory ensuring consistent downstream molecular assay results...
December 23, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026914/synthetic-vs-natural-diatoms-bioderived-porous-materials-for-the-next-generation-of-healthcare-nanodevices
#16
Ilaria Rea, Monica Terracciano, Luca De Stefano
Nanostructured porous materials promise a next generation of innovative devices for healthcare and biomedical applications. The fabrication of such materials generally requires complex synthesis procedures, not always available in laboratories or sustainable in industries, and has adverse environmental impact. Nanosized porous materials can also be obtained from natural resources, which are an attractive alternative approach to man-made fabrication. Biogenic nanoporous silica from diatoms, and diatomaceous earths, constitutes largely available, low-cost reservoir of mesoporous nanodevices that can be engineered for theranostic applications, ranging from subcellular imaging to drug delivery...
December 27, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018869/pathogens-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-profiles-in-critically-ill-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-a-descriptive-study
#17
Rachel D Savage, Robert A Fowler, Asgar H Rishu, Sean M Bagshaw, Deborah Cook, Peter Dodek, Richard Hall, Anand Kumar, François Lamontagne, François Lauzier, John Marshall, Claudio M Martin, Lauralyn McIntyre, John Muscedere, Steven Reynolds, Henry T Stelfox, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is vital to guiding empirical treatment of infections. Collating and reporting routine data on clinical isolate testing may offer more timely information about resistance patterns than traditional surveillance network methods. METHODS: Using routine microbiology testing data collected from the Bacteremia Antibiotic Length Actually Needed for Clinical Effectiveness retrospective cohort study, we conducted a descriptive secondary analysis among critically ill patients in whom bloodstream infections had been diagnosed in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in Canada...
October 2016: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009675/effects-of-foot-and-ankle-devices-on-balance-gait-and-falls-in-adults-with-sensory-perception-loss-a-systematic-review
#18
Joanne Paton, Anna L Hatton, Keith Rome, Bridie Kent
BACKGROUND: Foot and ankle devices are being developed as a method of preventing people with sensory perception loss sustaining a fall. Such devices are believed to work by reducing the likelihood of a fall by improving the balance and gait of the user. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to evaluate the effectiveness of foot and ankle devices for the prevention of falls and the improvement of balance and gait in adults with sensory perception loss. INCLUSION CRITERIA TYPES OF PARTICIPANTS: Participants were community-dwelling adults with bilateral pathological sensory perception loss...
December 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004622/moving-towards-a-reliable-hiv-incidence-test-current-status-resources-available-future-directions-and-challenges-ahead
#19
G Murphy, C D Pilcher, S M Keating, R Kassanjee, S N Facente, A Welte, E Grebe, K Marson, M P Busch, P Dailey, N Parkin, J Osborn, S Ongarello, K Marsh, J M Garcia-Calleja
In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms...
December 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002572/activation-in-bipolar-disorders-a-systematic-review
#20
Jan Scott, Greg Murray, Chantal Henry, Gunnar Morken, Elizabeth Scott, Jules Angst, Kathleen R Merikangas, Ian B Hickie
Importance: Increased activity and energy alongside mood change are identified in the DSM-5 as cardinal symptoms of mania and hypomania. A wide range of existing research suggests that this revision may be valid, but systematic integration of the evidence has not been reported. The term activation is understood as emerging from underlying physiological change and having objective (observable motor activity) and related subjective (energy) levels. Objectives: To systematically review studies of the clinical phenomenon of activation in bipolar disorder, to determine whether activation is statistically abnormal in bipolar disorder and demonstrably distinct from mood, and to identify any significant between- and within-individual differences in the dynamics of activation...
December 21, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
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