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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198203/enteral-administration-of-twice-daily-dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-as-a-part-of-a-triple-therapy-regimen-in-a-critically-ill-patient-with-hiv
#1
Sarah Lynn Turley, Patricia Pecora Fulco
The administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in intubated critically ill patients may be challenging. Limited pharmacokinetic data exist characterizing the effects of crushed ART with subsequent enteral administration on antiretroviral drug concentrations or the clinical impact on HIV virologic suppression. We report a case of a 27-year-old HIV-positive male with presumed multidrug-resistant HIV and a diagnosis of lymphoma who required enteral ART administration after intensive care unit admission. Crushed twice-daily dolutegravir (separated from enteral nutrition by 2 hours) and rilpivirine (concurrently with a bolus feed) were administered via an orogastric tube...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187026/an-algorithmic-approach-to-the-suspected-septic-wrist
#2
Jeffrey R Claiborne, Leslie G Branch, Michael Reynolds, Anthony J Defranzo
An acutely painful, erythematous wrist can be due to a variety of pathologic processes, including crystalline arthropathy, infection, trauma, osteoarthritis, and systemic disease. The broad differential diagnosis of the inflamed wrist and nonspecific clinical findings make accurate diagnosis challenging. There is no published clinical or laboratory criterion that reliably differentiates septic wrist arthritis from a sterile inflammatory arthropathy. For septic joint patients, long-term results are notably poorer in patients with a delay in treatment, therefore establishing evidenced-based guidelines deserves attention...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182626/ultrasensitive-detection-of-serum-hepatitis-b-virus-by-coupling-ultrafiltration-dna-extraction-with-real-time-pcr
#3
Bin Wu, Feng Xiao, Peiwen Li, Yan Du, Jinqiong Lin, Kaihua Ming, Bin Chen, Xiuxia Lei, Banglao Xu, Dayu Liu
BACKGROUND: A simple and reliable DNA extraction of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical in developing an ultrasensitive detection method for HBV infection. Current commercially available serum Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) DNA extraction methods are time-consuming, expensive and/or require specialized equipment, which hinders wide adoption of clinical laboratories. This study offers a report on an ultrasensitive HBV DNA detection method by coupling serum HBV DNA extraction by ultrafiltration (UF) with real-time PCR (qPCR) detection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176520/-pulmonary-co-infection-due-to-nocardia-cyriacigeorgica-and-aspergillus-fumigatus
#4
R Trastoy, T Manso, X García, G Barbeito, D Navarro, P Rascado, M L Pérez Del Molino
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary nocardiosis is an uncommon pulmonary infection caused by aerobic gram-positive bacteria of the genus Nocardia. Nocardia sp. are environmental organisms spread worldwide. Approximately 50 Nocardia species have been described to date, about 30 of which are known to cause human disease. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica was first reported in 2001. CASE REPORT: We report a case of infection caused by N. cyriacigeorgica in a patient with B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphoma and diabetes mellitus...
February 8, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169507/predictive-factors-for-fatal-tick-borne-spotted-fever-in-brazil
#5
S V de Oliveira, M C A Willemann, G S Gazeta, R N Angerami, R Gurgel-Gonçalves
In Brazil, two pathogenic Rickettsia species have been identified causing tick-borne spotted fever (SF). The aetiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii causes serious illness, particularly in the south-eastern region of the country. Moreover, the Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic Rainforest cause milder clinical manifestations in south-eastern, south and north-east regions. This study has sought to analyse predictive factors for fatal SF. A case-control study was performed using disease notification records in Brazil...
February 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157942/enhanced-mmw-and-smmw-thz-imaging-system-performance-prediction-and-analysis-tool-for-concealed-weapon-detection-and-pilotage-obstacle-avoidance
#6
Steven R Murrill, Charmaine C Franck, Eddie L Jacobs, Douglas T Petkie, Frank C De Lucia
The U.S. Army Research Laboratory has continued to develop and enhance a millimeter-wave (MMW) and submillimeter-wave (SMMW)/terahertz (THz)-band imaging system performance prediction and analysis tool for both the detection and identification of concealed weaponry and for pilotage obstacle avoidance. The details of the MATLAB-based model that accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, active illumination, target and background orientation, target and background thermal emission, and various imaging system architectures have been reported on in 2005, 2007, and 2011...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151948/model-for-end-stage-liver-disease-excluding-inr-meld-xi-score-in-critically-ill-patients-easily-available-and-of-prognostic-relevance
#7
Bernhard Wernly, Michael Lichtenauer, Marcus Franz, Bjoern Kabisch, Johanna Muessig, Maryna Masyuk, Uta C Hoppe, Malte Kelm, Christian Jung
PURPOSE: MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for prognostic relevance. METHODS: A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male) admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147377/case-report-acute-flair-of-ulcerative-colitis-during-pregnancy-is-still-a-major-problem
#8
Marijana Protic, Srdjan Markovic, Dino Tarabar
Although severe flare of ulcerative colitis (UC) is uncommon, it significantly increases the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight and other adverse fetal outcomes. It is critical to optimize aggressive medical treatment with both mother and fetal health. Here, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with a severe flare of UC at the 16th gestational week. The diagnosis of extensive UC was established 8 years ago. From the time she was diagnosed, she had 5 moderate flares successfully treated with oral and topical mesalamine...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131792/interleukin-1-signaling-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-is-necessary-for-heroin-conditioned-immunosuppression
#9
Lee W Hutson, Christina L Lebonville, Meghan E Jones, Rita A Fuchs, Donald T Lysle
Heroin administration suppresses the production of inducible nitric oxide (NO), as indicated by changes in splenic inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and plasma nitrate/nitrite. Since NO is a measure of host defense against infection and disease, this provides evidence that heroin can increase susceptibility to pathogens by directly interacting with the immune system. Previous research in our laboratory has demonstrated that these immunosuppressive effects of heroin can also be conditioned to environmental stimuli by repeatedly pairing heroin administration with a unique environmental context...
January 25, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129360/influenza-vaccination-of-healthcare-workers-critical-analysis-of-the-evidence-for-patient-benefit-underpinning-policies-of-enforcement
#10
Gaston De Serres, Danuta M Skowronski, Brian J Ward, Michael Gardam, Camille Lemieux, Annalee Yassi, David M Patrick, Mel Krajden, Mark Loeb, Peter Collignon, Fabrice Carrat
BACKGROUND: Four cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) conducted in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) have reported reductions in patient risk through increased healthcare worker (HCW) influenza vaccination. This evidence has led to expansive policies of enforcement that include all staff of acute care hospitals and other healthcare settings beyond LTCFs. We critique and quantify the cRCT evidence for indirect patient benefit underpinning policies of mandatory HCW influenza vaccination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124968/-accurate-diagnosis-of-pseudomonas-luteola-in-routine-microbiology-laboratory-on-the-occasion-of-two-isolates
#11
Muharrem Çiçek, Gülşen Hasçelik, H Kaan Müştak, K Serdar Diker, Burçin Şener
Pseudomonas luteola which was previously known as Chryseomonas luteola; is a gram-negative, non-fermentative, aerobic, motile, non-spore-forming bacillus. It is frequently found as a saprophyte in soil, water and other damp environments and is an opportunistic pathogen in patients with underlying medical disorders or with indwelling catheters. It has been reported as an uncommon cause of bacteremia, sepsis, septic arthritis, meningitis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Thus, early and accurate identification of this rare species is important for the treatment and also to provide information about the epidemiology of P...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118746/frontal-intermittent-rhythmic-delta-activity-firda-in-the-neurological-intensive-care
#12
Nese Dericioglu, Farid Khasiyev, E Murat Arsava, M Akif Topcuoglu
INTRODUCTION: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA), a transient rhythmic slow wave pattern over the anterior EEG leads, has been reported in a wide variety of cerebral lesions and different metabolic disturbances. Few authors have analyzed the frequency and clinical significance of FIRDA in the critical care setting. We aimed to better understand these issues in our intensive care cohort and if possible, try to delineate its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Video-EEG reports of consecutive adult patients in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) since 2009 were retrospectively reviewed to identify cases with FIRDA...
January 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106320/classification-of-genes-standardized-clinical-validity-assessment-of-gene-disease-associations-aids-diagnostic-exome-analysis-and-reclassifications
#13
Erica D Smith, Kelly Radtke, Mari Rossi, Deepali N Shinde, Sourat Darabi, Dima El-Khechen, Zöe Powis, Katherine Helbig, Kendra Waller, Dorothy K Grange, Sha Tang, Kelly D Farwell Hagman
Ascertaining a diagnosis through exome sequencing can provide potential benefits to patients, insurance companies, and the healthcare system. Yet as diagnostic sequencing is increasingly employed, vast amounts of human genetic data are produced that need careful curation. We discuss methods for accurately assessing the clinical validity of gene-disease relationships to interpret new research findings in a clinical context and increase the diagnostic rate. The specifics of a gene-disease scoring system adapted for use in a clinical laboratory are described...
January 20, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102836/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-dosimetry-of-dispersed-engineered-nanomaterials
#14
Glen M DeLoid, Joel M Cohen, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Evidence continues to grow of the importance of in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Accurate dose metrics are particularly important for in vitro cellular screening to assess the potential health risks or bioactivity of ENMs. To ensure meaningful and reproducible quantification of in vitro dose, with consistent measurement and reporting between laboratories, it is necessary to adopt standardized and integrated methodologies for (i) generation of stable ENM suspensions in cell culture media; (ii) colloidal characterization of suspended ENMs, particularly of properties that determine particle kinetics in an in vitro system (size distribution and formed agglomerate effective density); and (iii) robust numerical fate and transport modeling for accurate determination of the ENM dose delivered to cells over the course of the in vitro exposure...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101334/implementation-of-short-incubation-maldi-tof-ms-identification-from-positive-blood-cultures-in-routine-diagnostics-and-effects-on-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy
#15
Robin Köck, Jörg Wüllenweber, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Karsten Becker, Evgeny A Idelevich
BACKGROUND: Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) of biomass from shortly incubated solid media. METHODS: This single-center analysis compared the applicability of MALDI-TOF-based species identification from shortly incubated cultures in laboratory routine vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101272/isolation-and-characterization-of-agrobacterium-strains-from-soil-a-laboratory-capstone-experience
#16
Kim R Finer, Lee Fox, John J Finer
In this investigation, the students' goal was to isolate and characterize Agrobacterium strains from soil. Following selection and enrichment on 1A-t medium, putative Agrobacterium isolates were characterized by Gram stain reaction and biochemical tests. Isolates were further evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with different primer sets designed to amplify specific regions of bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Primer sets included AGRH to identify isolates that were members of the Rhizobiaceae, BIOVAR1 primers to identify members of Agrobacterium biovar group I, and a third set, VIRG, to determine presence of virG (only present in pathogenic Agrobacterium strains)...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090671/lgp2-plays-an-essential-role-in-hcv-infection-induced-interferon-responses
#17
Lei Hei, Jin Zhong
: Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRR) that detect non-self RNA and activate downstream interferon (IFN) signaling. One of the RLRs, Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) was originally thought to be a negative feedback regulator in RIG-I signaling pathway, but growing evidence indicates LGP2 is one co-factor of Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) in MDA5-mediated IFN signaling activation...
January 16, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080202/chemical-probes-targeting-epigenetic-proteins-applications-beyond-oncology
#18
Suzanne Ackloo, Peter J Brown, Susanne Müller
Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors and antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about four thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro...
January 12, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077402/elemental-metabolomics
#19
Ping Zhang, Constantinos A Georgiou, Vladimir Brusic
Elemental metabolomics is quantification and characterization of total concentration of chemical elements in biological samples and monitoring of their changes. Recent advances in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry have enabled simultaneous measurement of concentrations of > 70 elements in biological samples. In living organisms, elements interact and compete with each other for absorption and molecular interactions. They also interact with proteins and nucleotide sequences. These interactions modulate enzymatic activities and are critical for many molecular and cellular functions...
January 10, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076488/use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-trauma-patients-an-analysis-of-cost-effectiveness-for-use-in-brazil
#20
Marcelo A Pinto, Jair G da Silva, Aljamir D Chedid, Marcio F Chedid
Introduction: Use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in trauma has been the subject of growing interest by researchers and health professionals. However, there are still several open questions regarding its use. In some aspects medical literature is controversial. The points of disagreement among experts include questions such as: Which patients should receive TXA in trauma? Should treatment be performed in the pre-hospital environment? Is there any need for laboratory parameters before starting TXA treatment? What is the drug safety profile? The main issue on which there is still no basis in literature is: What is the indication for treatment within massive transfusion protocols? Objective: Answer the questions proposed based on critical evaluation of the evidence gathered so far and carry out a study of cost-effectiveness of TXA use in trauma adapted to the Brazilian reality...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
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