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Critical lab reports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776848/comparison-of-current-methods-used-to-detect-cryptosporidium-oocysts-in-stools
#1
REVIEW
Shahira A Ahmed, Panagiotis Karanis
In this review all of the methods that are currently in use for the investigation of Cryptosporidium in stool material are highlighted and critically discussed. It appears that more qualifications and background knowledge in this field regarding the diagnosis of the Cryptosporidium parasite is required. Furthermore, there is no standardization for the protocols that are commonly used to either detect oocysts in faeces or to diagnose the Cryptosporidium infection. It is therefore necessary to initiate further education and research that will assist in improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the faecal micro-cosmos...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774862/ferrets-as-models-for-influenza-virus-transmission-studies-and-pandemic-risk-assessments
#2
Jessica A Belser, Wendy Barclay, Ian Barr, Ron A M Fouchier, Ryota Matsuyama, Hiroshi Nishiura, Malik Peiris, Charles J Russell, Kanta Subbarao, Huachen Zhu, Hui-Ling Yen
The ferret transmission model is extensively used to assess the pandemic potential of emerging influenza viruses, yet experimental conditions and reported results vary among laboratories. Such variation can be a critical consideration when contextualizing results from independent risk-assessment studies of novel and emerging influenza viruses. To streamline interpretation of data generated in different laboratories, we provide a consensus on experimental parameters that define risk-assessment experiments of influenza virus transmissibility, including disclosure of variables known or suspected to contribute to experimental variability in this model, and advocate adoption of more standardized practices...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773780/moving-closer-to-tuberculosis-elimination-through-institutional-scientific-collaboration-opportunities-for-cuba-and-the-usa
#3
Helena J Chapman, Luisa A Armas-Pérez, Michael Lauzardo, Edilberto R González-Ochoa
Global efforts to eliminate tuberculosis by 2050 continue to challenge health systems. In countries with low reported tuberculosis incidence, such as the USA (3.1/100,000 population) and Cuba (6.9/100,000), differences in classification by income level and health systems' overall organizational structure are evident. However, the two countries' low tuberculosis incidence, geographic proximity, robust research capacity and shared health priority for tuberculosis elimination provide fertile territory to strengthen collaboration for tuberculosis control in clinical, laboratory and community settings...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771998/risk-factors-for-inappropriate-blood-requisition-among-hospitals-in-tanzania
#4
Wilhellmuss I Mauka, Tara B Mtuy, Michael J Mahande, Sia E Msuya, Innocent B Mboya, Abdul Juma, Rune N Philemon
BACKGROUND: Blood is a critical aspect of treatment in life saving situations, increasing demand. Blood requisition practices greatly effect sufficient supply in blood banks. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for inappropriate blood requisition in Tanzania. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study using secondary data of 14,460 patients' blood requests from 42 transfusion hospitals. Primary data were obtained by using cluster-sampling design. Data were analysed using a two-level mixed-effects Poisson regression to determine fixed-effects of individual-level factors and hospital level factors associated with inappropriate blood requests...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770452/the-effects-of-blood-transfusion-on-red-blood-cell-distribution-width-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pilot-study
#5
Savino Spadaro, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Alberto Fogagnolo, Federico Franchi, Sabino Scolletta, Riccardo Ragazzi, Alberto Fanni, Elisabetta Marangoni, Maurizio Govoni, Roberto Reverberi, Carlo Alberto Volta
BACKGROUND: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of anisocytosis, generally used in the differential diagnosis of anemia. Recently, RDW was associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are potential confounders on RDW values interpretation. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in RDW after RBC transfusion in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study including patients admitted to ICU requiring 1 RBC unit...
May 16, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769074/delay-in-reviewing-test-results-prolongs-hospital-length-of-stay-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Mei-Sing Ong, Farah Magrabi, Enrico Coiera
BACKGROUND: Failure in the timely follow-up of test results has been widely documented, contributing to delayed medical care. Yet, the impact of delay in reviewing test results on hospital length of stay (LOS) has not been studied. We examine the relationship between laboratory tests review time and hospital LOS. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of inpatients admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital in Sydney, Australia, between 2011 and 2012 (n = 5804)...
May 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765895/effect-of-smear-layer-deproteinization-on-bonding-of-self-etch-adhesives-to-dentin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Khaldoan H Alshaikh, Hamdi H H Hamama, Salah H Mahmoud
Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to critically analyze previously published studies of the effects of dentin surface pretreatment with deproteinizing agents on the bonding of self-etch (SE) adhesives to dentin. Additionally, a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of the above-mentioned surface pretreatment methods on the bonding of SE adhesives to dentin. Materials and Methods: An electronic search was performed using the following databases: Scopus, PubMed and ScienceDirect...
May 2018: Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765800/surface-characterization-of-nanoparticles-using-near-field-light-scattering
#8
Eunsoo Yoo, Yizhong Liu, Chukwuazam A Nwasike, Sebastian R Freeman, Brian C DiPaolo, Bernardo Cordovez, Amber L Doiron
The effect of nanoparticle surface coating characteristics on colloidal stability in solution is a critical parameter in understanding the potential applications of nanoparticles, especially in biomedicine. Here we explored the modification of the surface of poly(ethylene glycol)-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PEG-SPIOs) with the synthetic pseudotannin polygallol via interpolymer complexation (IPC). Changes in particle size and zeta potential were indirectly assessed via differences between PEG-SPIOs and IPC-SPIOs in particle velocity and scattering intensity using near-field light scattering...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760220/quantifying-atherogenic-lipoproteins-current-and-future-challenges-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine-and-vldl-cholesterol-a-consensus-statement-from-eas-and-eflm
#9
Michel R Langlois, M John Chapman, Christa Cobbaert, Samia Mora, Alan T Remaley, Emilio Ros, Gerald F Watts, Jan Borén, Hannsjörg Baum, Eric Bruckert, Alberico Catapano, Olivier S Descamps, Arnold von Eckardstein, Pia R Kamstrup, Genovefa Kolovou, Florian Kronenberg, Anne Langsted, Kari Pulkki, Nader Rifai, Grazyna Sypniewska, Olov Wiklund, B Rge G Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: The European Atherosclerosis Society-European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Consensus Panel aims to provide recommendations to optimize atherogenic lipoprotein quantification for cardiovascular risk management. CONTENT: We critically examined LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and LDL particle number assays based on key criteria for medical application of biomarkers. ( a ) Analytical performance: Discordant LDL cholesterol quantification occurs when LDL cholesterol is measured or calculated with different assays, especially in patients with hypertriglyceridemia >175 mg/dL (2 mmol/L) and low LDL cholesterol concentrations <70 mg/dL (1...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755526/salivary-levels-of-hemoglobin-for-screening-periodontal-disease-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Nomura, Ayako Okada, Yoh Tamaki, Hiroko Miura
Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease. It affects about 20-50% of global population in both developed and developing countries. Early detection of slight changes of periodontal tissue plays an important role in prevention of onset and progression of periodontal disease. Hence, there is a need of a screening test to assess periodontal tissue for health check-ups. Salivary levels hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed to assess the conditions of the inflammation of gingiva. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize critically the current evidences for Hb as periodontal screening test...
2018: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753036/explaining-the-amount-and-consistency-of-medical-care-and-self-management-support-in-asthma-a-survey-of-primary-care-providers-in-france-and-the-united-kingdom
#11
Marijn de Bruin, Alexandra L Dima, Nathalie Texier, Eric van Ganse
BACKGROUND: The quality of asthma primary care may vary between countries, health care practices, and health care professionals (HCPs). Identifying and explaining such differences is critical for health services improvement. OBJECTIVES: To examine the quality of asthma primary care in France and United Kingdom, and identify within-country and between-country predictors amenable to intervention. METHODS: An online questionnaire to capture asthma medical care and self-management support, practice characteristics, and psychosocial determinants, was completed by 276 HCPs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750547/uncertain-call-likelihood-negatively-affects-sleep-and-next-day-cognitive-performance-while-on-call-in-a-laboratory-environment
#12
Madeline Sprajcer, Sarah M Jay, Grace E Vincent, Andrew Vakulin, Leon Lack, Sally A Ferguson
On-call working arrangements are employed in a number of industries to manage unpredictable events, and often involve tasks that are safety- or time-critical. This study investigated the effects of call likelihood during an overnight on-call shift on self-reported pre-bed anxiety, sleep and next-day cognitive performance. A four-night laboratory-based protocol was employed, with an adaptation, a control and two counterbalanced on-call nights. On one on-call night, participants were instructed that they would definitely be called during the night, while on the other on-call night they were told they may be called...
May 11, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746803/urine-specific-gravity-as-an-indicator-of-dehydration-in-olympic-combat-sport-athletes-considerations-for-research-and-practice
#13
Damir Zubac, Reid Reale, Hrvoje Karnincic, Anamaria Sivric, Igor Jelaska
Urine specific gravity (USG ) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of USG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via USG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass...
May 10, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735336/dose-dependent-inhibitory-effect-of-rosuvastatin-in-japanese-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-on-serum-concentration-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-invitation-trial
#14
Koichiro Fujisue, Takuhiro Shirakawa, Shinichi Nakamura, Nobuyasu Yamamoto, Shuichi Oshima, Toshiyuki Matsumura, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Nobutaka Hirai, Shinji Tayama, Natsuki Nakamura, Toyoki Hirose, Hideki Maruyama, Kazuteru Fujimoto, Ichiro Kajiwara, Tomohiro Sakamoto, Koichi Nakao, Naritsugu Sakaino, Seiji Hokimoto, Yasuhiro Nagayoshi, Jun Hokamaki, Hideki Shimomura, Kenji Sakamoto, Eiichiro Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Izumiya, Koichi Kaikita, Hisao Ogawa, Kenichi Tsujita
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is mainly characterized by the rupture of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been shown to play a critical role in inflammatory processes underlying plaque rupture. Some reports suggested statins inhibit the increased MMP levels after AMI. However, there are a few comparison studies between the different dosages of the same statin and circulating levels of MMPs. PURPOSE: This study will preliminarily investigate the potential effects of appropriate or low dose of rosuvastatin on circulating MMPs levels in AMI patients...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729139/toward-harmonization-of-clinical-molecular-diagnostic-reports-findings-of-an-international-survey
#15
Deborah A Payne, Katarina Baluchova, Graciela Russomando, Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, Cyril Mamotte, Francois Rousseau, Ron H N van Schaik, Kristin Marriott, Masato Maekawa, K C Allen Chan
BACKGROUND: The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 standard provides recommendations for the postexamination reporting phase to enhance quality in clinical laboratories. The purpose of this study was to encourage a broad discussion on current reporting practices for molecular diagnostic tests by conducting a global survey of such practices. METHODS: The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine's Committee for Molecular Diagnostics (IFCC C-MD) surveyed laboratories on selected ISO 15189 recommendations and topics...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728199/errors-of-classification-with-potassium-blood-testing-the-variability-and-repeatability-of-critical-clinical-tests
#16
Paul A Friedman, Christopher G Scott, Kent Bailey, Nikola A Baumann, David Albert, Zachi I Attia, Dorothy J Ladewig, Omar Yasin, John J Dillon, Bhupinder Singh
OBJECTIVE: To understand the performance of a currently used clinical blood test with regard to the frequency and size of variation of the results. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From November 29, 2012, through November 29, 2013, patients were recruited at 65 sites as part of a previously reported clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01737697). Eligible outpatients who had been fasting for at least 8 hours underwent venous phlebotomy at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes to measure plasma potassium levels in whole blood using a point-of-care device (i-STAT, Abbott Laboratories)...
May 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726121/meeting-the-urgent-need-for-rabies-education-in-haiti
#17
M O V Osinubi, N Fenelon, J L Dyer, R Franka, M Etheart, A Ali, M Birhane, N Phaimyr Jn Charles, A Destine, N Saleme, C Newman, K Crowdis, C Lutfy, C E Rupprecht, R M Wallace, V R Johnson
The highest rate of human rabies deaths reported in the Americas is in Haiti, and most of these deaths result from rabies virus infections that occur after individuals are bitten by infected dogs and do not receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. One barrier to rabies prevention in Haiti is a lack of knowledge about this disease among healthcare professionals and community members. During the past 4 years, The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has collaborated with public health officials and partners to develop, test and refine educational materials aimed at filling this need for rabies education...
May 3, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725664/successful-use-of-continuous-vasodilator-infusion-to-treat-critical-vasospasm-threatening-a-distal-bypass
#18
Gregory A Magee, Anastasia Plotkin, Jeniann A Yi, Kathryn E Bowser, David P Kuwayama
Vasospasm immediately after lower extremity arterial bypass may represent an uncommon cause of early graft failure. We report a successful case of catheter-directed, intra-arterial continuous vasodilator infusion to salvage a bypass graft threatened by severe, refractory vasospasm after incomplete response to nicardipine, verapamil, and nitroglycerin boluses. A continuous nitroglycerin infusion was administered for 24 hours, by which time the vasospasm resolved. At 12 months postoperatively, the graft remained patent with normal results of vascular laboratory studies...
March 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases and Innovative Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725623/melioidosis-in-thailand-present-and-future
#19
Soawapak Hinjoy, Viriya Hantrakun, Somkid Kongyu, Jedsada Kaewrakmuk, Tri Wangrangsimakul, Siroj Jitsuronk, Weerawut Saengchun, Saithip Bhengsri, Thantapat Akarachotpong, Somsak Thamthitiwat, Ornuma Sangwichian, Siriluck Anunnatsiri, Rasana W Sermswan, Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai, Chayada Sitthidet Tharinjaroen, Kanya Preechasuth, Ratchadaporn Udpaun, Poomin Chuensombut, Nisarat Waranyasirikul, Chanihcha Anudit, Surapong Narenpitak, Yaowaruk Jutrakul, Prapit Teparrukkul, Nittaya Teerawattanasook, Kittisak Thanvisej, Alisa Suphan, Punchawee Sukbut, Kritchavat Ploddi, Poolsri Sirichotirat, Bongkoch Chiewchanyon, Kamolchanok Rukseree, Maliwan Hongsuwan, Gumphol Wongsuwan, Pornpan Sunthornsut, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Sandy Sachaphimukh, Prapass Wannapinij, Wirongrong Chierakul, Claire Chewapreecha, Janjira Thaipadungpanit, Narisara Chantratita, Sunee Korbsrisate, Apichai Taunyok, Susanna Dunachie, Prasit Palittapongarnpim, Stitaya Sirisinha, Rungrueng Kitphati, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Wipada Chaowagul, Ploenchan Chetchotisak, Toni Whistler, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin, Direk Limmathurotsakul
A recent modelling study estimated that there are 2800 deaths due to melioidosis in Thailand yearly. The Thailand Melioidosis Network (formed in 2012) has been working closely with the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) to investigate and reduce the burden of this disease. Based on updated data, the incidence of melioidosis is still high in Northeast Thailand. More than 2000 culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis are diagnosed in general hospitals with microbiology laboratories in this region each year. The mortality rate is around 35%...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721914/echocardiography-in-arterial-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Giovanni de Simone, Costantino Mancusi, Roberta Esposito, Nicola De Luca, Maurizio Galderisi
Hypertension is a condition characterized by pressure and/or volume overloads and echocardiography is helpful and feasible to understand hemodynamic mechanisms. Echocardiographic information is sometimes critical and susceptible of modifying decision making. In this review, we provide detailed descriptions of the parameters that can be derived from a standard transthoracic echocardiogram, including some more recent techniques. We will also explain how each parameter might have impact in the evaluation of the hypertensive patient and give indications on when to refer patients to echo-labs, which parameters are critical and which ones might be redundant, and how to use the information obtained in the report...
May 2, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
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