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Critical labs

Recep Kaan Dereli, Xiaofei Wang, Frank P van der Zee, Jules B van Lier
The impact of nitrogen on biological performance and sludge filterability of anaerobic membrane bioreactors was investigated in two lab-scale cross-flow anaerobic membrane bioreactors that were fed with cheese whey at two different COD:TKN ratios (50 and 190). Nitrogen deprivation adversely affected the biological treatment performance and reactor stability, as indicated by volatile fatty acids accumulation. On the other hand, nitrogen (urea) supplementation resulted in a reduced sludge median particle size and decreased sludge filterability...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
S Dolatabadi, B Ahmadi, A Rezaei-Matehkolaei, H Zarrinfar, A Skiada, H Mirhendi, R Nashibi, F Niknejad, M Nazeri, A Rafiei, M Gharaghani, M Erami, S Taghipour, F Piri, K Makimura
Mucormycosis is a devastating infection caused by Mucoralean fungi (Mucormycotina, Mucorales). Data concerning the global epidemiology of mucormycosis are scarce and little is known about the characteristics of mucormycosis in Iran. In this study, we aimed to understand the distribution of this infection in Iran retrospectively and to ascertain whether the patterns of infection are associated with specific host factors or not. A total of 208 cases were included in this study occurring during 2008-2014 and were validated according to (EORTC/MSG) criteria...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Che-Wei Lin, Elizabeth H Chang, Daniel L Clinciu, Yun-Ting Peng, Wen-Chen Huang, Chien-Chih Wu, Jen-Chieh Wu, Yu-Chuan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been used in many areas of healthcare training over the years. However, it constantly needs to be upgraded and enhanced due to technological and teaching changes. We aim at implementing an integrative OSCE method which employs informatics via the virtual patient within the pharmacy education curriculum at Taipei Medical University to enhance the pharmacy students' competence for using and disseminating information and to also improve critical thinking and clinical reasoning...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Karen Wain
The genetic counseling profession continues to expand and respond to the changing landscape of genomic medicine. "Non-traditional" genetic counseling roles have become more commonplace and the transferability of the genetic counselor skill set has been widely acknowledged, particularly in genetic laboratory settings. As these expanding roles continue to mature, all genetic counselors can benefit by learning and adopting clinically relevant skills, such as genomic variant interpretation, which can be applied to direct patient care...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Gabriel Gallo-Oller, Raquel Ordoñez-Ciriza, Javier Dotor
Since its first description, Western blot has been widely used in molecular labs. It constitutes a multistep method that allows the detection and/or quantification of proteins from simple to complex protein mixtures. Western blot quantification method constitutes a critical step in order to obtain accurate and reproducible results. Due to the technical knowledge required for densitometry analysis together with the resources availability, standard office scanners are often used for the imaging acquisition of developed Western blot films...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Bharat Kumar, Jennifer Strouse, Melissa Swee, Petar Lenert, Manish Suneja
INTRODUCTION: Hydralazine is an antihypertensive medication that has been associated with drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL) as well as ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Although rare, early diagnosis is critical since drug cessation is the mainstay of therapy. This retrospective study aims to characterize the clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features of this disease. METHODS: Once approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board at the University of Iowa, all patients carrying a diagnosis of vasculitis (ICD9 code: 447...
January 12, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Rajeswari Swaminathan, Yungui Huang, Katherine Miller, Matthew Pastore, Sayaka Hashimoto, Theodora Jacobson, Danielle Mouhlas, Simon Lin
The adoption rate of genome sequencing for clinical diagnostics has been steadily increasing leading to the possibility of improvement in diagnostic yields. Although laboratories generate a summary clinical report, sharing raw genomic data with healthcare providers is equally important, both for secondary research studies as well as for a deeper analysis of the data itself, as seen by the efforts from organizations such as American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and Global Alliance for Genomics and Health...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Luisa M Diele-Viegas, Laurie J Vitt, Barry Sinervo, Guarino R Colli, Fernanda P Werneck, Donald B Miles, William E Magnusson, Juan C Santos, Carla M Sette, Gabriel H O Caetano, Emerson Pontes, Teresa C S Ávila-Pires
We summarize thermal-biology data of 69 species of Amazonian lizards, including mode of thermoregulation and field-active body temperatures (Tb). We also provide new data on preferred temperatures (Tpref), voluntary and thermal-tolerance ranges, and thermal-performance curves (TPC's) for 27 species from nine sites in the Brazilian Amazonia. We tested for phylogenetic signal and pairwise correlations among thermal traits. We found that species generally categorized as thermoregulators have the highest mean values for all thermal traits, and broader ranges for Tb, critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and optimal (Topt) temperatures...
2018: PloS One
Harish Ravishankar, Felicity Roddick, Dimuth Navaratna, Veeriah Jegatheesan
Microfiltration membranes having different blends of graphene-oxide (GO) (0-1 wt%) and Polysulfone (PSf) (15-20 wt%) were prepared using the classical non-solvent induced phase inversion process. The prepared membranes were characterised for their structural morphology, surface properties, mechanical strength, porosity and pure water flux. Based on the initial characterisation results, four membranes (15 wt% PSf, 15 wt% PSf + 0.25 wt% GO, 15 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO and 20 wt% PSf + 1 wt% GO) were chosen for critical flux study, that was conducted using flux-step method in a lab scale MBR system...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Alexander L Greninger, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Negar Makhsous, Derek Hanson, Jill Chase, Gerhard Krueger, Hong Xie, Meei-Li Huang, Lindsay Saunders, Dharam Ablashi, David M Koelle, Linda Cook, Keith R Jerome
Quantitative PCR is the diagnostic pillar for clinical virology testing, and reference materials are necessary for accurate, comparable quantitation between clinical laboratories. Accurate quantitation of HHV-6A/B is important for detection of viral reactivation and inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6A/B in immunocompromised patients. Reference materials in clinical virology commonly consist of laboratory-adapted viral strains that may be affected by the culture process. We performed next-generation sequencing to make relative copy number measurements at single nucleotide resolution of eight candidate HHV-6A and seven HHV-6B reference strains and DNA materials from the HHV-6 Foundation and Advanced Biotechnologies...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
Patricia Arranz, Kelly J Benoit-Bird, Brandon L Southall, John Calambokidis, Ari S Friedlaender, Peter L Tyack
Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Rachel C Evans, Samuel O Kyeremateng, Lutz Asmus, Matthias Degenhardt, Joerg Rosenberg, Karl G Wagner
The aim of this work was to investigate the use of torasemide as a highly sensitive indicator substance and to develop a formulation thereof for establishing quantitative relationships between hot-melt extrusion process conditions and critical quality attributes (CQAs). Using solid-state characterization techniques and a 10 mm lab-scale co-rotating twin-screw extruder, we studied torasemide in a Soluplus® (SOL)-polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG 1500) matrix, and developed and characterized a formulation which was used as a process indicator to study thermal- and hydrolysis-induced degradation, as well as residual crystallinity...
February 27, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Jinghui Zhang, Chenchang Liu, Guofeng You
Human organic anion transporter-3 (hOAT3) is richly expressed in the kidney, where it plays critical roles in the secretion of clinically important drugs, including anti-viral therapeutics, anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. In the current study, we examined the role of AG490, a specific inhibitor of the Janus tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK2), in hOAT3 transport activity in the kidney COS-7 cells. AG490 induced a time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of hOAT3-mediated uptake of estrone sulfate, a prototypical substrate for the transporter...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Lourdes Santiago-López, Jose E Aguilar-Toalá, Adrián Hernández-Mendoza, Belinda Vallejo-Cordoba, Andrea M Liceaga, Aarón F González-Córdova
Traditionally, cheese is manufactured by converting fluid milk to a semisolid mass through the use of a coagulating agent, such as rennet, acid, heat plus acid, or a combination thereof. Cheese can vary widely in its characteristics, including color, aroma, texture, flavor, and firmness, which can generally be attributed to the production technology, source of the milk, moisture content, and length of aging, in addition to the presence of specific molds, yeast, and bacteria. Among the most important bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a critical role during the cheese-making process...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Tatiana Heid Furley, Julie Brodeur, Helena C Silva de Assis, Pedro Carriquiriborde, Katia R Chagas, Jone Corrales, Marina Denadai, Julio Fuchs, Renata Mascarenhas, Karina Sb Miglioranza, Diana Margarita Miguez Caramés, José Maria Navas, Danaythi Nugegoda, Estela Planes, Ignacio Alejandro Rodriguez-Jorquera, Martha Orozco-Medina, Alistair Ba Boxall, Murray A Rudd, Bryan W Brooks
The Global Horizon Scanning Project (GHSP) is an innovative initiative that aims to identify important global environmental quality research needs. Here we report 20 key research questions from Latin America (LA). Members of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) LA and other scientists from LA were asked to submit research questions that would represent priority needs to address in the region. One hundred questions were received, then partitioned among categories, examined, and some rearranged during a workshop in Buenos Aires, Argentina...
February 22, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Frank A Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Skin is a critical organ that plays a crucial role in defending the internal organs of the body. For this reason, extensive work has gone into creating artificial models of the epidermis for in vitro skin toxicity tests. These tissue models, called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), are used by researchers in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and environmental arenas to evaluate skin toxicity upon exposure to xenobiotics. Here, we present a label-free solution that leverages the use of the intelligent mobile lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD), a noninvasive, sensor-based platform, to monitor the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of RhE models and adherent cells cultured on porous membrane inserts...
February 21, 2018: Genes
Nicole M Racine, Hannah G Gennis, Rebecca Pillai Riddell, Saul Greenberg, Hartley Garfield
Social and emotional competencies, such as distress regulation, are established in early childhood and are critical for the development of children's mental health and wellbeing. Routine vaccinations in primary care provide a unique opportunity to relate responses to a universal, relatively standardized, distress regulation paradigm (i.e., pain-related distress) to key developmental outcomes. The current study sought to examine distress regulation during routine vaccination in infancy and preschool as predictors of outcomes related to socioemotional competence in preschool...
February 21, 2018: Children
Najla Kfoury, Tao Sun, Kwanha Yu, Nathan Rockwell, Kelsey L Tinkum, Zongtai Qi, Nicole M Warrington, Peter McDonald, Anuradha Roy, Scott J Weir, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen, Joshua B Rubin
Mechanisms underlying sex differences in cancer incidence are not defined but likely involve dimorphism (s) in tumor suppressor function at the cellular and organismal levels. As an example, sexual dimorphism in retinoblastoma protein (Rb) activity was shown to block transformation of female, but not male, murine astrocytes in which neurofibromin and p53 function was abrogated (GBM astrocytes). Correlated sex differences in gene expression in the murine GBM astrocytes were found to be highly concordant with sex differences in gene expression in male and female GBM patients, including in the expression of components of the Rb and p53 pathways...
February 20, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Collin Matsumoto, Yan Jiang, Jacqueline Emathinger, Pearl Quijada, Nathalie Nguyen, Andrea De La Torre, Maryam Moshref, Jonathan Nguyen, Aimee B Levinson, Minyoung Shin, Mark A Sussman, Nirmala Hariharan
Aging severely limits myocardial repair and regeneration. Delineating the impact of age-associated factors such as short telomeres is critical to enhance the regenerative potential of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). We hypothesized that short telomeres activate p53 and induce autophagy to elicit the age-associated change in CPC fate. We isolated CPCs and compared mouse strains with different telomere lengths for phenotypic characteristics of aging. Wild mouse strain Mus musculus castaneus (CAST) possessing short telomeres exhibits early cardiac aging with cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, fibrosis and senescence, as compared to common lab strains FVB and C57 bearing longer telomeres...
February 14, 2018: Stem Cells
Samin Kim, Quoc Bao Nguyen, Michael J Wolyniak, Gregory Frechette, Christian R Lehman, Brandon K Fox, Paula Sundstrom
The mechanisms that fungi use to co-regulate subsets of genes specifically associated with morphogenic states represent a basic unsolved problem in fungal biology. Candida albicans is an important model of fungal differentiation both for rapid interconversion between yeast and hyphal growth forms and for white/opaque switching mechanisms. The Sundstrom lab is interested in mechanisms regulating hypha-specific expression of adhesin genes that are critical for C. albicans hyphal growth phenotypes and pathogenicity...
2018: PloS One
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