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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229110/reliability-of-the-chronic-mild-stress-model-of-depression-a-user-survey
#1
Paul Willner
The chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression is considered by many to be the animal model of depression that has the greatest validity and translational potential, but it has often been criticized for a perceived lack of reliability. The aims of this study were to establish the extent to which the procedure is reproducible, and to identify experimental variables relevant to its reliability. Because failures to replicate frequently remain unpublished, a survey methodology was used. A questionnaire was circulated to 170 labs identified from a PubMed search as having published a CMS study in the years 2010 or 2015 (with no selection in respect of the results reported)...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226537/automated-transepithelial-electrical-resistance-measurements-of-the-epiderm-reconstructed-human-epidermis-model
#2
Frank A Alexander, Joachim Wiest, Frank A Alexander, Joachim Wiest, Joachim Wiest, Frank A Alexander
Understanding the effect of exogenous substances on human skin is critical for toxicology assessment. To address this, numerous artificial models of the topmost layer of human skin, so-called reconstructed human epidermis (RhE), have been created in an attempt to produce a clear analogue for testing. Unfortunately, current testing modalities still rely on endpoint assays and are not capable of monitoring time-resolved changes in barrier function without using numerous redundant samples. In this work, a novel, time-resolved approach is realized by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of MatTek EpiDerm® reconstructed human epidermis model, utilizing an automated protocol with the Intelligent Mobile Lab for in vitro diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226426/physiological-mechanisms-for-stabilizing-the-limb-when-acting-against-physical-constraints
#3
P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre, P Senot, L Damm, M Tagliabue, J McIntyre
Smooth physical interaction with our environment, such as when working with tools, requires adaptability to unpredictable perturbations that can be achieved through impedance control of multi-joint limbs. Modulation of arm stiffness can be achieved either increasing co-contraction of antagonistic muscles or by increasing the gain of spinal reflex loops. According to the "automatic gain scaling" principle, the spinal reflex gain, as measured via the H-reflex, scales with muscle activation. A previous experiment from our labs suggested, however, that reflex gains might instead be scaled to the force exerted by the limb, perhaps as a means to counteract destabilizing external forces...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224905/emerging-trends-in-biosensing-using-stripping-voltammetric-detection-of-metal-containing-nanolabels-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Christos Kokkinos, Anastasios Economou
Over the last years, nanomaterials have found many applications in the development of electrochemical biosensors. Among other functions, metal nanoparticles (NPs) and quantum dots (QDs) (semiconducting nanocrystals composed of metal salts) are increasingly being used as voltammetric labels in affinity biosensing. Labeling is based on the attachment of the label(s) on the target biomolecules or on a biorecognition reporting probe. After an appropriate specific affinity interaction between the target and the reporting probe, the metallic nanolabels are converted to the respective cations which are quantified by a voltammetric technique...
April 8, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216262/efis-lecture-understanding-the-ctla-4-checkpoint-in-the-maintenance-of-immune-homeostasis
#5
REVIEW
Lucy S K Walker
The past 20 years have heralded fascinating developments in the field of CTLA-4 biology. The CTLA-4 protein is a critical negative regulator of T cell immunity and its absence provokes severe lymphoproliferative disease. In a surprising twist, the generation of mixed bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CTLA-4 predominantly functions in a cell-extrinsic manner, suggesting that CTLA-4 expressed on one cell can modify the behaviour of another cell. This was followed by the demonstration that CTLA-4 is highly expressed in regulatory T cells and can contribute to their suppressive activity...
February 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188232/closed-tube-pcr-with-nested-serial-invasion-probe-visualization-using-gold-nanoparticles
#6
Jianping Wang, Bingjie Zou, Yinjiao Ma, Xueping Ma, Nan Sheng, Jianzhong Rui, Yang Shao, Guohua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Detecting DNA biomarkers related to personalized medicine could improve the outcome of drug therapy. However, personalized medicine in a resource-restrained hospital is very difficult because DNA biomarker detection should be performed by well-trained staff and requires expensive laboratory facilities. METHODS: We developed a gold nanoparticle-based "Tube-Lab" to enable DNA analysis in a closed tube. Gold nanoparticle-modified probes (GNPs) were used to construct an inexpensive and simple DNA sensor for signal readout...
February 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174235/an-integrated-approach-identifies-mediators-of-local-recurrence-in-head-neck-squamous-carcinoma
#7
Francesca Citron, Joshua Armenia, Giovanni Franchin, Jerry Polesel, Renato Talamini, Sara D'Andrea, Sandro Sulfaro, Carlo M Croce, William Klement, Dave Otasek, Chiara Pastrello, Tomas Tokar, Igor Jurisica, Deborah French, Riccardo Bomben, Emanuela Vaccher, Diego Serraino, Barbara Belletti, Andrea Vecchione, Luigi Barzan, Gustavo Baldassarre
PURPOSE: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC) cause more than 300,000 deaths worldwide each year. Locoregional and distant recurrences represent worse prognostic events and accepted surrogate markers of patients' survival. No valid biomarker and salvage therapy exist to identify and treat patients at high-risk of recurrence. We aimed to verify if selected microRNAs (miRs) could be used as biomarkers of recurrence in HNSCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A Nanostring array was used to identify miRs associated with locoregional recurrence in 44 HNSCC patients...
February 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167769/multifunctional-inexpensive-and-reusable-nanoparticle-printed-biochip-for-cell-manipulation-and-diagnosis
#8
Rahim Esfandyarpour, Matthew J DiDonato, Yuxin Yang, Naside Gozde Durmus, James S Harris, Ronald W Davis
Isolation and characterization of rare cells and molecules from a heterogeneous population is of critical importance in diagnosis of common lethal diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and cancer. For the developing world, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics design must account for limited funds, modest public health infrastructure, and low power availability. To address these challenges, here we integrate microfluidics, electronics, and inkjet printing to build an ultra-low-cost, rapid, and miniaturized lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148254/building-trust-and-rapport-early-in-the-new-doctor-patient-relationship-a-longitudinal-qualitative-study
#9
Bich N Dang, Robert A Westbrook, Sarah M Njue, Thomas P Giordano
BACKGROUND: New patients are a particularly vulnerable population because they are at high risk of missing a subsequent visit or dropping out of care completely. However, few data exist on what new patients value in the beginning of a relationship with a new provider. Persons with HIV infection may be an ideal population to study the drivers of a positive initial patient-provider relationship, as it is a chronic and serious condition that requires a reliable, ongoing relationship with a provider...
February 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135070/an-enzyme-free-signal-amplification-technique-for-ultrasensitive-colorimetric-assay-of-disease-biomarkers
#10
Haihang Ye, Kuikun Yang, Jing Tao, Yijing Liu, Qian Zhang, Sanaz Habibi, Zhihong Nie, Xiaohu Xia
Enzyme-based colorimetric assays have been widely used in research laboratories and clinical diagnosis for decades. Nevertheless, as constrained by the performance of enzymes, their detection sensitivity has not been substantially improved in recent years, which inhibits many critical applications such as early detection of cancers. In this work, we demonstrate an enzyme-free signal amplification technique, based on gold vesicles encapsulated with Pd-Ir nanoparticles as peroxidase mimics, for colorimetric assay of disease biomarkers with significantly enhanced sensitivity...
February 3, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132883/modulation-of-bdnf-cleavage-by-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-contributes-to-alzheimer-s-neuropathology-and-cognitive-deficits
#11
Gorka Gerenu, Eva Martisova, Hilda Ferrero, Miguel Carracedo, Tomi Rantamäki, Maria Javier Ramirez, Francisco Javier Gil-Bea
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays pivotal roles in neuronal function. The cleaved - mature - form of BDNF (mBDNF), predominantly expressed in adult brains, critically determines its effects. However, insufficient proteolytic processing under pathology may lead to the precursor form of BDNF (proBDNF) and thereby increased neuronal apoptosis and synaptic weakening. Previous findings in our lab showed that cognitive stimulation (CS) delayed memory decline in Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), an effect that was tightly associated with augmented levels of mBDNF...
April 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132105/thermal-constraints-on-foraging-of-tropical-canopy-ants
#12
Michelle Elise Spicer, Alyssa Y Stark, Benjamin J Adams, Riley Kneale, Michael Kaspari, Stephen P Yanoviak
Small cursorial ectotherms risk overheating when foraging in the tropical forest canopy, where the surfaces of unshaded tree branches commonly exceed 50 °C. We quantified the heating and subsequent cooling rates of 11 common canopy ant species from Panama and tested the hypothesis that ant workers stop foraging at temperatures consistent with the prevention of overheating. We created hot experimental "sunflecks" on existing foraging trails of four ant species from different clades and spanning a broad range of body size, heating rate, and critical thermal maxima (CTmax)...
January 28, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127124/optimizing-laboratory-test-utilization-in-long-term-acute-care-hospitals
#13
Adan Mora, Brian S Krug, Antony M Grigonis, Amanda Dawson, Yuqing Jing, Samuel I Hammerman
Laboratory tests can be considered inappropriate if overused or when repeated, unnecessary "routine" testing occurs. For chronically critically ill patients treated in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs), inappropriate testing may result in unnecessary blood draws that could potentially harm patients or increase infections. A quality improvement initiative was designed to increase physician awareness of their patterns of lab utilization in the LTACH environment. Within a large network of LTACHs, 9 hospitals were identified as having higher patterns of lab utilization than other LTACHs...
January 2017: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125415/this-is-not-participatory-design-a-critical-analysis-of-eight-living-laboratories
#14
Ann Bygholm, Anne Marie Kanstrup
Design of Health Technology for elderly and care personnel has a high priority because of a severe increase of elderly citizens in need of health care combined with a decrease of resources in the health care sector. Desires for maintaining and improving the quality of care while reducing costs has resulted in a search for approaches that support co-operation between technology designers, elderly persons and health care professionals on innovating future care technology. Living laboratories, where areas of a care environment are transformed into a so-called platform for technology innovation, are popular...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095593/automated-face-detection-for-occurrence-and-occupancy-estimation-in-chimpanzees
#15
Anne-Sophie Crunchant, Monika Egerer, Alexander Loos, Tilo Burghardt, Klaus Zuberbühler, Katherine Corogenes, Vera Leinert, Lars Kulik, Hjalmar S Kühl
: Surveying endangered species is necessary to evaluate conservation effectiveness. Camera trapping and biometric computer vision are recent technological advances. They have impacted on the methods applicable to field surveys and these methods have gained significant momentum over the last decade. Yet, most researchers inspect footage manually and few studies have used automated semantic processing of video trap data from the field. The particular aim of this study is to evaluate methods that incorporate automated face detection technology as an aid to estimate site use of two chimpanzee communities based on camera trapping...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094081/emerging-human-fetuin-a-assays-for-biomedical-diagnostics
#16
REVIEW
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, E Marion Schneider, A G Venkatesh, John H T Luong
Human fetuin A (HFA) plays a prominent pathophysiological role in numerous diseases and pathophysiological conditions with considerable biomedical significance; one example is the formation of calciprotein particles in osteoporosis and impaired calcium metabolisms. With impressive advances in in vitro diagnostic assays during the last decade, ELISAs have become a workhorse in routine clinical diagnostics. Recent diagnostic formats involve high-sensitivity immunoassay procedures, surface plasmon resonance, rapid immunoassay chemistries, signal enhancement, and smartphone detection...
January 13, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088042/strategies-for-metabolite-profiling-based-on-liquid-chromatography
#17
REVIEW
Javier Saurina, Sonia Sentellas
This paper aims at covering the principal strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) for metabolite profiling in the field of drug discovery and development. The identification of metabolites generated in the organism is an important task during the early stages of preclinical research to define the most proper strategy for optimizing, adjusting metabolic clearance and minimizing bioactivation. An early assessment of the metabolite profile may be critical since metabolites can contribute to pharmacological and/or toxicological effects...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#18
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073898/two-stage-isothermal-enzymatic-amplification-for-concurrent-multiplex-molecular-detection
#19
Jinzhao Song, Changchun Liu, Michael G Mauk, Shelley C Rankin, James B Lok, Robert M Greenberg, Haim H Bau
BACKGROUND: The wide array of pathogens responsible for infectious diseases makes it difficult to identify causative pathogens with single-plex tests. Although multiplex PCR detects multiple targets, it is restricted to centralized laboratories, which delays test results or makes multiplexing unavailable, depriving healthcare providers of critical, real-time information. METHODS: To address the need for point-of-care (POC) highly multiplexed tests, we propose the 2-stage, nested-like, rapid (<40 min) isothermal amplification assay, dubbed rapid amplification (RAMP)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064390/beap-profiles-as-rapid-test-system-for-status-analysis-and-early-detection-of-process-incidents-in-biogas-plants
#20
Sarah Refai, Stefanie Berger, Kati Wassmann, Melanie Hecht, Thomas Dickhaus, Uwe Deppenmeier
A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
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