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Critical labs

Mona Irrmischer, Simon J Houtman, Huibert D Mansvelder, Michael Tremmel, Ulrich Ott, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Our focus of attention naturally fluctuates between different sources of information even when we desire to focus on a single object. Focused attention (FA) meditation is associated with greater control over this process, yet the neuronal mechanisms underlying this ability are not entirely understood. Here, we hypothesize that the capacity of attention to transiently focus and swiftly change relates to the critical dynamics emerging when neuronal systems balance at a point of instability between order and disorder...
January 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shikha Chawla, Sourabh Ghosh
Current therapeutic strategies to reduce scarring in full thickness skin defect offer limited success due to poor understanding of scar tissue formation and the underlying signaling pathways. There is an urgent need to develop human cell based in vitro scar tissue models as animal testing is associated with ethical and logistic complications and inter-species variations. Pro-inflammatory cytokines play critical role in regulating scar development through complex interplay and interaction with the ECM and corresponding signaling pathways...
January 9, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Anixa Muiños-Bühl, Oscar González-Recio, María Muñoz, Cristina Óvilo, Juan García-Casco, Ana I Fernández
There is a growing interest in understanding the role of the gut microbiome on productive and meat quality-related traits in livestock species in order to develop new useful tools for improving pig production systems and industry. Faecal samples are analysed as a proxy of gut microbiota and here the selection of suitable protocols for faecal sampling and DNA isolation is a critical first step in order to obtain reliable results, even more to compare results obtained from different studies. The aim of the current study was to establish in a cost-effective way, using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis technique, a protocol for porcine faecal sampling and storage at farm and slaughterhouse and to determine the most efficient microbiota DNA isolation kit among those most widely used...
January 9, 2018: Current Microbiology
Jon A Arnot, Donald Mackay
The chemical dietary absorption efficiency (ED) quantifies the amount of chemical absorbed by an organism relative to the amount of chemical an organism is exposed to following ingestion. In particular, ED can influence the extent of bioaccumulation and biomagnification for hydrophobic chemicals. A new ED model is developed to quantify chemical process rates in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The new model is calibrated with critically evaluated measured ED values (n = 250) for 80 hydrophobic persistent chemicals...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
S Helene Richter
The scientific literature is full of articles discussing poor reproducibility of findings from animal experiments as well as failures to translate results from preclinical animal studies to clinical trials in humans. Critics even go so far as to talk about a "reproducibility crisis" in the life sciences, a novel headword that increasingly finds its way into numerous high-impact journals. Viewed from a cynical perspective, Fett's law of the lab "Never replicate a successful experiment" has thus taken on a completely new meaning...
August 31, 2017: Lab Animal
Shahin Shadnia, Nasim Zamani, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hamed Shafaroodi, Mina Padandar, Mohammad Hasan Rezaeizadeh
BACKGROUND: Prognostic value of cortisol and thyroid function tests (TFTs) has previously been evaluated in medical ICUs. We aimed to evaluate prognostic efficacy of cortisol and TFTs in critically ill poisoned patients admitted to toxicology intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In a prospective study of consecutively enrolled subjects admitted to the toxicology ICU, lab analyses included TFTs (total T3 and T4 as well as TSH) and cortisol levels drawn between 8 am-10 am during period of the first 24 hours post-ingestion/exposure...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Kourtney P Nickerson, Aaron C Petrey, Christine McDonald, Carol A de la Motte
Intestinal epithelium plays a critical role in host defense against orally acquired pathogens. Dysregulation of this protective barrier is a primary driver of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's and ulcerative colitis) and also infant gastrointestinal infections. Previously, our lab reported that hyaluronan (HA) isolated from human milk induces the expression of the antimicrobial peptide β-defensin in vivo and protects against Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we demonstrated that commercially available 35 kDa size HA induces the expression of β-defensin, upregulates the expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and attenuates murine Citrobacter rodentium infection in vivo...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Jiaying Li, Jianfa Gao, Phong K Thai, Xiaoyan Sun, Jochen F Mueller, Zhiguo Yuan, Guangming Jiang
Systematic sampling and analysis of wastewater samples is increasingly adopted for estimating drug consumption in communities. An understanding of the in-sewer transportation and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers is critical for reducing the uncertainty of this evidence-based estimation method. In this study, biomarkers stability was investigated in lab-scale sewer reactors with typical sewer conditions. Kinetic models using the Bayesian statistics method were developed to simulate biomarkers transformation in reactors...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Vanessa Fernandes Cardoso, António Francesko, Clarisse Ribeiro, Manuel Bañobre-López, Pedro Martins, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez
Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are emerging as an important class of biomedical functional nanomaterials in areas such as hyperthermia, drug release, tissue engineering, theranostic, and lab-on-a-chip, due to their exclusive chemical and physical properties. Although some works can be found reviewing the main application of magnetic NPs in the area of biomedical engineering, recent and intense progress on magnetic nanoparticle research, from synthesis to surface functionalization strategies, demands for a work that includes, summarizes, and debates current directions and ongoing advancements in this research field...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Sandeep Kumar Vashist
Recent years have witnessed tremendous advances in point-of-care diagnostics (POCD), which are a result of continuous developments in biosensors, microfluidic, bioanalytical platforms, assay formats, lab-on-a-chip technologies, and complementary technologies. This special issue targets the critical advances in POCD and provides guided insights and directions for future research.
December 18, 2017: Biosensors
Yushi Huang, Olivia Campana, Donald Wlodkowic
Aquatic toxicity testing in environmental monitoring and chemical risk assessment is critical to assess water quality for human use as well as predict impact of pollutants on ecosystems. In recent years, studies have increasingly focused on the relevance of sub-lethal effects of environmental contaminants. Sub-lethal toxicity endpoints such as behavioural responses are highly integrative and have distinct benefits for assessing water quality because they occur rapidly and thus can be used to sense the presence of toxicants...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yaw-Jen Chang, Yi-Hua Fan, Shia-Chung Chen, Kuan-Hua Lee, Liao-Yong Lou
A blood-typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This article presents a lab-on-disc blood-typing system to conduct a total of eight assays for a patient, including forward-typing tests, reverse-typing tests, and irregular-antibody tests. These assays are carried out in a microfluidic disc simultaneously. A blood-typing apparatus was designed to automatically manipulate the disc. The blood type can be determined by integrating the results of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination in the microchannels...
December 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
Jeremy Veillard, Krycia Cowling, Asaf Bitton, Hannah Ratcliffe, Meredith Kimball, Shannon Barkley, Laure Mercereau, Ethan Wong, Chelsea Taylor, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Hong Wang
Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators...
December 2017: Milbank Quarterly
Subha Madhavan, Deborah Ritter, Christine Micheel, Shruti Rao, Angshumoy Roy, Dmitriy Sonkin, Matthew Mccoy, Malachi Griffith, Obi L Griffith, Peter Mcgarvey, Shashikant Kulkarni
A growing number of academic and community clinics are conducting genomic testing to inform treatment decisions for cancer patients (1). In the last 3-5 years, there has been a rapid increase in clinical use of next generation sequencing (NGS) based cancer molecular diagnostic (MolDx) testing (2). The increasing availability and decreasing cost of tumor genomic profiling means that physicians can now make treatment decisions armed with patient-specific genetic information. Accumulating research in the cancer biology field indicates that there is significant potential to improve cancer patient outcomes by effectively leveraging this rich source of genomic data in treatment planning (3)...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
I Rodríguez-Ruiz, V Babenko, S Martínez-Rodríguez, J A Gavira
Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC), or micro-Total Analysis Systems (μTAS), is recognized as a powerful analytical technology with high capabilities, though end-user products for protein purification are still far from being available on the market. Remarkable progress has been achieved in the separation of nucleic acids and proteins using electrophoretic microfluidic devices, while pintsize devices have been developed for protein isolation according to miniaturized chromatography principles (size, charge, affinity, etc...
December 7, 2017: Analyst
Michael E Ross, Michele S Stanley, John G Day, Andrea J C Semião
The determination of rates of macroalgal growth and productivity via temporal fresh weight (FW) measurements is attractive, as it does not necessitate the sacrifice of biomass. However, there is no standardised method for FW analysis; this may lead to potential discrepancies when determining growth rates or productivity and make literature comparison problematic. This study systematically assessed a variety of lab-scale methods for macroalgal FW measurement for growth rate determination. Method efficacy was assessed over a 14-day period as impact upon algal physiology, growth rate on basis of FW and dry weight (DW), nitrate removal, and maintenance of structural integrity...
2017: Journal of Applied Phycology
Richard L Angelo
Using a switching stick from the posterior portal is a frequently employed method of identifying the location for the subscapularis split for a shoulder arthroscopic Latarjet. However, in a recent cadaveric study, in none of the 20 specimens studied did this technique result in the split being placed in the preferred position-the junction of the superior two-thirds and the inferior one-third of the subscapularis. As a result, if the position of the coracoid graft is too superior, the anteroinferior extension of the glenoid arc and the vector of the conjoined sling may be suboptimal and fail to restrain humeral head translation...
December 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Vijay S Chudiwal, Sadhana Shahi, Swapnil Chudiwal
The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release gastro-retentive (SRGR) tablet formulation of Nicardipine Hydrochloride for once-a-day dosing using quality by design (QbD) approach. Quality target product profile (QTPP) of Nicardipine HCl SRGR tablet formulation was defined and critical quality attributes (CQAs) were identified. Potential risk factors were identified using a fish bone diagram and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) tool and screened by Plackett-Burman design and finally Nicardipine HCl SRGR tablet formulation was optimized using Box-Behnken design...
December 2, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Trung D Nguyen, Michelle E Walker, Jennifer M Gardner, Vladimir Jiranek
Vacuolar acidification serves as a homeostatic mechanism to regulate intracellular pH, ion and chemical balance, as well as trafficking and recycling of proteins and nutrients, critical for normal cellular function. This study reports on the importance of vacuole acidification during wine-like fermentation. Ninety-three mutants (homozygous deletions in lab yeast strain, BY4743), which result in protracted fermentation when grown in a chemically defined grape juice with 200 g L-1 sugar (pH 3.5), were examined to determine whether fermentation protraction was in part due to a dysfunction in vacuolar acidification (VA) during the early stages of fermentation, and whether VA was responsive to the initial sugar concentration in the medium...
April 2018: Food Microbiology
Y Kalma, L Bar-El, S Asaf-Tisser, M Malcov, A Reches, J Hasson, H Amir, F Azem, D Ben-Yosef
STUDY QUESTION: What is the optimal timing for blastomere biopsy during the 8-cell stage, at which embryos will have the best implantation potential? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fast-cleaving embryos that are biopsied during the last quarter (Q4) of the 8-cell stage and are less affected by the biopsy procedure, and their implantation potential is better than that of embryos biopsied earlier during the 8-cell stage (Q1-Q3). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Blastomer biopsy from cleavage-stage embryos is usually performed on the morning of Day 3 when the embryos are at the 6- to 8-cell stage and is still the preferred biopsy method for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for monogentic disorders or chromosomal translocations...
November 20, 2017: Human Reproduction
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