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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930821/assessment-of-asymmetrical-dimethylarginine-metabolism-in-patients-with-critical-illness
#1
Rawia A Ghashut, Scott Blackwell, Sylvia Ryan, Laura Willox, Donald C McMillan, John Kinsella, Dinesh Talwar
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients experience metabolic disorders including hypercatabolic state and hyperglycaemia and these are associated with poor outcome. Hyperglycaemia and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are reported to have significant influences on endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and related arginine metabolism in patients with critical illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two venous blood samples (EDTA) (104 patients), on admission and follow up sample in the last day in ICU (died or discharge sample median 7, IQR 6-8, range 5-15)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923544/niemann-pick-disease-type-c-and-roscoe-brady
#2
REVIEW
Marc C Patterson, Steven U Walkley
The Niemann-Pick family of diseases was poorly understood until Roscoe Brady and his colleagues began their investigations in the 1960s. Following Brady's discovery of the defect in acid sphingomyelinase in Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B, Peter Pentchev, a senior scientist in the group, launched a series of investigations of an unusual lipid storage disease in a spontaneous mouse model. These led initially to identification of the cholesterol trafficking defect in the mouse, and then in human Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC)...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919225/comparison-of-the-first-three-waves-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-circulation-in-the-mainland-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china
#3
Nijuan Xiang, A Danielle Iuliano, Yanping Zhang, Ruiqi Ren, Xingyi Geng, Bili Ye, Wenxiao Tu, Ch Ao Li, Yong Lv, Ming Yang, Jian Zhao, Yali Wang, Fuqiang Yang, Lei Zhou, Bo Liu, Yuelong Shu, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li
BACKGROUND: H7N9 human cases were first detected in mainland China in March 2013. Circulation of this virus has continued each year shifting to typical winter months. We compared the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics for the first three waves of virus circulation. METHODS: The first wave was defined as reported cases with onset dates between March 31-September 30, 2013, the second wave was defined as October 1, 2013-September 30, 2014 and the third wave was defined as October 1, 2014-September 30, 2015...
December 5, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915036/a-rapid-assay-for-detection-of-rose-rosette-virus-using-reverse-transcription-recombinase-polymerase-amplification-using-multiple-gene-targets
#4
Binoy Babu, Brian K Washburn, Steven H Miller, Kristina Poduch, Tulin Sarigul, Gary W Knox, Francisco M Ochoa-Corona, Mathews L Paret
Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out(®) series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909259/assessing-progress-in-implementing-uganda-s-nutrition-action-plan-district-level-insights
#5
Edgar Agaba, Amanda Pomeroy-Stevens, Shibani Ghosh, Jeffrey K Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The 2011 Uganda Nutrition Action Plan (UNAP) established 2016 maternal and child nutrition targets. However, there is a lack of routine district-level data collection to assess UNAP implementation. OBJECTIVE: To use Nutrition Innovation Lab (NIL) data to inform policy makers on the progress of UNAP-related indicators. METHODS: The NIL collected serial household-level survey data (n = 3600) in 6 districts, including 2 UNAP implementation districts, in 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904162/impact-of-catheterization-lab-computer-software-settings-on-hemodynamic-assessment-of-aortic-stenosis
#6
Zaher Fanari, Anitha Rajamanickam, Mathew Grove, Sumaya Hammami, Cassie Walls, Paul Kolm, William Weintraub, Andrew J Doorey
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of Cardiac Output (CO) is a critical measurement in the calculation of aortic valve area (AVA). Due to the known inaccuracy of estimated Fick calculations, many measure thermodilution (TD) CO as well due to previous studies showing better correlation with the gold standard direct CO. Previous studies showed suboptimal correlation between both methods. Most physicians assume that the TD CO is chosen by catheterization laboratory software for AVA evaluation...
July 2016: Delaware Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902940/a-novel-lab-on-chip-platform-with-integrated-solid-phase-pcr-and-supercritical-angle-fluorescence-saf-microlens-array-for-highly-sensitive-and-multiplexed-pathogen-detection
#7
Tran Quang Hung, Wai Hoe Chin, Yi Sun, Anders Wolff, Dang Duong Bang
Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detection technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP-PCR directly on top of the SAF microlens array...
November 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899109/challenges-for-strengthening-the-health-workforce-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-perspectives-from-key-stakeholders
#8
Yi Qian, Fei Yan, Wei Wang, Shayna Clancy, Kongsap Akkhavong, Manithong Vonglokham, Somphou Outhensackda, Truls Østbye
BACKGROUND: The Lao People's Democratic Republic is facing a critical shortage and maldistribution of health workers. Strengthening of the health workforce has been adopted as one of the five priorities of the National Health Sector Strategy (2013-2025). This study aims to identify, explore, and better understand the key challenges for strengthening the Laotian health workforce. METHODS: This study applied exploratory and descriptive qualitative methods and adapted a working life-span framework...
November 29, 2016: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896989/opening-the-door-to-the-large-scale-use-of-clinical-lab-measures-for-association-testing-exploring-different-methods-for-defining-phenotypes
#9
Christopher R Bauer, Daniel Lavage, John Snyder, Joseph Leader, J Matthew Mahoney, Sarah A Pendergrass
The past decade has seen exponential growth in the numbers of sequenced and genotyped individuals and a corresponding increase in our ability of collect and catalogue phenotypic data for use in the clinic. We now face the challenge of integrating these diverse data in new ways new that can provide useful diagnostics and precise medical interventions for individual patients. One of the first steps in this process is to accurately map the phenotypic consequences of the genetic variation in human populations. The most common approach for this is the genome wide association study (GWAS)...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890940/whatever-happened-to-formal-methods-for-security
#10
J Voas, K Schaffer
We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset...
August 2016: Computer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888055/dietary-choline-levels-modify-the-effects-of-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-rats
#11
Nirelia M Idrus, Kristen R Breit, Jennifer D Thomas
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor...
November 23, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879336/beyond-antimicrobial-resistance-evidence-for-a-distinct-role-of-the-acrd-efflux-pump-in-salmonella-biology
#12
Michelle M C Buckner, Jessica M A Blair, Roberto M La Ragione, Jane Newcombe, Daniel J Dwyer, Alasdair Ivens, Laura J V Piddock
: For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863513/epidemiology-of-rubella-virus-cases-in-the-pre-vaccination-era-of-ethiopia-2009-2015
#13
Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Kathleen Gallagher, Ayesheshem Ademe, Birke Teshome, Mesfin Tefera, Anjelo Asha, Aklog Afework, Esete Assefa, Yoseph HaileMariam, Yonas HaileGiorgis, Hiwot Ketema, Dejenie Shiferaw, Ayenachew Bekele, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede
BACKGROUND: Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859065/a-multifunctional-chemical-cue-drives-opposing-demographic-processes-and-structures-ecological-communities
#14
Richard K Zimmer, Graham A Ferrier, Steven J Kim, Catherine S Kaddis, Cheryl Ann Zimmer, Joseph A Loo
Foundation species provide critical resources to ecological community members and are key determinants of biodiversity. The barnacle Balanus glandula is one such species and dominates space among the higher reaches of wave-swept shores (Northeastern Pacific Ocean). This animal produces a cuticular glycoprotein (named "MULTIFUNCin") of 199.6 kDa, and following secretion, a 390 kDa homodimer in native form. From field and lab experiments, we found that MULTIFUNCin significantly induces habitat selection by conspecific larvae, while simultaneously acting as a potent feeding stimulant to a major barnacle predator (whelk, Acanthinucella spirata)...
September 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856549/investigating-the-role-of-an-inquiry-based-biology-lab-course-on-student-attitudes-and-views-toward-science
#15
Erica Jeffery, Kathy Nomme, Thomas Deane, Carol Pollock, Gülnur Birol
Students' academic experiences can influence their conceptualization of science. In contrast experts hold particular beliefs, perceptions, opinions, and attitudes about science that are often absent in first-year undergraduate students. Shifts toward more expert-like attitudes and views have been linked to improved student engagement, critical-thinking ability, conceptual understanding, and academic performance. In this study, we investigate shifts in attitudes and views toward science by students in four biology classes with differences in student enrollment, academic support, and instruction...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843737/does-elimination-of-a-laboratory-sample-clotting-stage-requirement-reduce-overall-turnaround-times-for-emergency-department-stat-biochemical-testing
#16
Sarah Compeau, Michael Howlett, Stephanie Matchett, Jennifer Shea, Jacqueline Fraser, Rose McCloskey, Paul Atkinson
INTRODUCTION:  Laboratory turnaround times (TAT) influence length of stay for emergency department (ED) patients. We studied biochemistry TATs around the implementation of a plasma separating tube (PST) that omitted a 20-minute clotting step in processing when compared to the standard serum separating tubes (SST). METHODS:  We compared laboratory TATs using PST vs SST in a prospective before-and-after study with a washout period. TATs for creatinine, urea, electrolytes, troponin, and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as well as hemolysis rates, were collected for all ED patients...
October 6, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834391/hippocampal-gabab-1a-receptors-constrain-generalized-contextual-fear
#17
Joseph F Lynch, Patrick Winiecki, T Lee Gilman, Jordan M Adkins, Aaron M Jasnow
Many anxiety disorders are characterized by generalization of fear responses to neutral or ambiguous stimuli. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms contributing to generalized fear is essential for formulating successful treatments for anxiety disorders. Previous research shows that GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition plays a critical role in cued fear generalization, as animals with genetically deleted presynaptic GABAB(1a) receptors cannot discriminate between CS+ and CS- tones. Work from our lab has further identified that GABAB(1a) receptors are necessary for maintaining contextual memory precision, thereby constraining generalized contextual fear...
November 11, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830991/critical-assessment-of-pendimethalin-in-terms-of-persistence-bioaccumulation-toxicity-and-potential-for-long-range-transport
#18
Marco Vighi, Michael Matthies, Keith R Solomon
Pendimethalin (PND, CAS registry number 40487-42-1) is a dinitroaniline herbicide that selectively controls broad-leaf and grassy weeds in a variety of crops and in noncrop areas. It has been on the market for about 30 yr and is currently under review for properties related to persistence (P), bioaccumulation (B), and toxicity (T) in the European Union (EU). A critical review of these properties as well as potential for long-range transport (LRT) was conducted. Pendimethalin has a geometric mean (GM) half-life of 76-98 d in agriculturally relevant soils under aerobic conditions in the lab...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814364/deep-learning-automates-the-quantitative-analysis-of-individual-cells-in-live-cell-imaging-experiments
#19
David A Van Valen, Takamasa Kudo, Keara M Lane, Derek N Macklin, Nicolas T Quach, Mialy M DeFelice, Inbal Maayan, Yu Tanouchi, Euan A Ashley, Markus W Covert
Live-cell imaging has opened an exciting window into the role cellular heterogeneity plays in dynamic, living systems. A major critical challenge for this class of experiments is the problem of image segmentation, or determining which parts of a microscope image correspond to which individual cells. Current approaches require many hours of manual curation and depend on approaches that are difficult to share between labs. They are also unable to robustly segment the cytoplasms of mammalian cells. Here, we show that deep convolutional neural networks, a supervised machine learning method, can solve this challenge for multiple cell types across the domains of life...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805788/the-stability-challenges-of-oxygen-evolving-electrocatalysts-towards-a-common-fundamental-understanding-and-mitigation-of-catalyst-degradation
#20
Camillo Spoeri, Jason Tai Hong Kwan, Arman Bonakdarpour, David Wilkinson, Peter Strasser
The electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an important reaction in the industrial production of numerous inorganic chemicals. However, over the last decade it has also received growing attention as scalable proton- and electron-providing process for use in the production of solar fuels, such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or alcohols carried out in water- and CO2-electrolyzers. To operate these devices efficiently and economically , active and stable electrocatalysts are required. While advances have been made in understanding and tuning OER efficiency and activity, the stability of OER catalysts and the reduction of their degradation continue to be major challenges...
November 1, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
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