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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088042/strategies-for-metabolite-profiling-based-on-liquid-chromatography
#1
REVIEW
Javier Saurina, Sonia Sentellas
This paper aims at covering the principal strategies based on liquid chromatography (LC) for metabolite profiling in the field of drug discovery and development. The identification of metabolites generated in the organism is an important task during the early stages of preclinical research to define the most proper strategy for optimizing, adjusting metabolic clearance and minimizing bioactivation. An early assessment of the metabolite profile may be critical since metabolites can contribute to pharmacological and/or toxicological effects...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087655/hagfish-houdinis-biomechanics-and-behavior-of-squeezing-through-small-openings
#2
Calli R Freedman, Douglas S Fudge
Hagfishes are able to squeeze through small openings to gain entry to crevices, burrows, hagfish traps, and carcasses, but little is known about how they do this, or what the limits of this ability are. The purpose of this study was to describe this ability, and to investigate possible mechanisms by which it is accomplished. We investigated the hypothesis that the passive movement of blood within a hagfish's flaccid subcutaneous sinus allows it to squeeze through narrow apertures that it would not be able to if it were turgid...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073898/two-stage-isothermal-enzymatic-amplification-for-concurrent-multiplex-molecular-detection
#3
Jinzhao Song, Changchun Liu, Michael G Mauk, Shelley C Rankin, James B Lok, Robert M Greenberg, Haim H Bau
BACKGROUND: The wide array of pathogens responsible for infectious diseases makes it difficult to identify causative pathogens with single-plex tests. Although multiplex PCR detects multiple targets, it is restricted to centralized laboratories, which delays test results or makes multiplexing unavailable, depriving healthcare providers of critical, real-time information. METHODS: To address the need for point-of-care (POC) highly multiplexed tests, we propose the 2-stage, nested-like, rapid (<40 min) isothermal amplification assay, dubbed rapid amplification (RAMP)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064390/beap-profiles-as-rapid-test-system-for-status-analysis-and-early-detection-of-process-incidents-in-biogas-plants
#4
Sarah Refai, Stefanie Berger, Kati Wassmann, Melanie Hecht, Thomas Dickhaus, Uwe Deppenmeier
A method was developed to quantify the performance of microorganisms involved in different digestion levels in biogas plants. The test system was based on the addition of butyrate (BCON), ethanol (ECON), acetate (ACON) or propionate (PCON) to biogas sludge samples and the subsequent analysis of CH4 formation in comparison to control samples. The combination of the four values was referred to as BEAP profile. Determination of BEAP profiles enabled rapid testing of a biogas plant's metabolic state within 24 h and an accurate mapping of all degradation levels in a lab-scale experimental setup...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046117/extremely-rare-polymorphisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-allow-inference-of-the-mutational-spectrum
#5
Yuan O Zhu, Gavin Sherlock, Dmitri A Petrov
The characterization of mutational spectra is usually carried out in one of three ways-by direct observation through mutation accumulation (MA) experiments, through parent-offspring sequencing, or by indirect inference from sequence data. Direct observations of spontaneous mutations with MA experiments are limited, given (i) the rarity of spontaneous mutations, (ii) applicability only to laboratory model species with short generation times, and (iii) the possibility that mutational spectra under lab conditions might be different from those observed in nature...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040701/thinking-critically-about-classifying-adverse-events-incidence-of-pancreatitis-in-patients-treated-with-nivolumab-ipilimumab
#6
Claire F Friedman, Varina Clark, Andrew V Raikhel, Tim Barz, Alexander N Shoushtari, Parisa Momtaz, Margaret K Callahan, Jedd D Wolchok, Paul B Chapman, Matthew D Hellmann, Michael A Postow
The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) were developed to document the adverse effects of chemotherapy but are now also used to document immune-related adverse events (irAE). Characterization of irAE by the CTCAE has implications for determining dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and, consequently, the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of investigational agents. In the phase I trial of nivolumab + ipilimumab, an asymptomatic increase in lipase was the primary DLT that informed the RP2D. We performed a retrospective study of 119 patients with melanoma who were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with the combination of nivolumab + ipilimumab to investigate the relationship between asymptomatic grade 3 or higher increases in amylase and/or lipase and pancreatitis, a known irAE...
April 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018337/trace-elements-induce-predominance-among-methanogenic-activity-in-anaerobic-digestion
#7
Babett Wintsche, Karin Glaser, Heike Sträuber, Florian Centler, Jan Liebetrau, Hauke Harms, Sabine Kleinsteuber
Trace elements (TE) play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control, and supplementation of TEs lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while TE deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by TE deprivation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012654/the-role-of-calcium-concentration-in-the-invasive-capacity-of-corbicula-fluminea-in-crystalline-basins
#8
Noé Ferreira-Rodríguez, Ignacio Fernández, Simone Varandas, Rui Cortes, M Leonor Cancela, Isabel Pardo
The natural variation of environmental factors in freshwater basins determines their biodiversity. Among them, calcium is a key physiological compound for freshwater invertebrates. It is required for shell formation, muscle contraction, it mediates gene expression and allows counteracting acidosis during stress periods, among other functions. Although the distribution of different freshwater species has been suggested to be linked with the environmental calcium concentration, as yet, no research studies have confirmed this...
December 21, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011771/improving-protein-disorder-prediction-by-deep-bidirectional-long-short-term-memory-recurrent-neural-networks
#9
Jack Hanson, Yuedong Yang, Kuldip Paliwal, Yaoqi Zhou
MOTIVATION: Capturing long-range interactions between structural but not sequence neighbors of proteins is a long-standing challenging problem in bioinformatics. Recently, long short-term memory (LSTM) networks have significantly improved the accuracy of speech and image classification problems by remembering useful past information in long sequential events. Here, we have implemented deep bidirectional LSTM recurrent neural networks in the problem of protein intrinsic disorder prediction...
December 22, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007884/genomic-trajectories-to-desiccation-resistance-convergence-and-divergence-among-replicate-selected-drosophila-lines
#10
Philippa C Griffin, Sandra B Hangartner, Alexandre Fournier-Level, Ary A Hoffmann
Adaptation to environmental stress is critical for long-term species persistence. With climate change and other anthropogenic stressors compounding natural selective pressures, understanding the nature of adaptation is as important as ever in evolutionary biology. In particular, the number of alternative molecular trajectories available for an organism to reach the same adaptive phenotype remains poorly understood. Here we investigate this issue in a set of replicated Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance, a classical physiological trait that has been closely linked to Drosophila species distributions...
December 22, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997147/field-measurements-of-black-carbon-yields-from-gas-flaring
#11
Bradley M Conrad, Matthew R Johnson
Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988442/regional-distribution-of-circumferential-residual-strains-in-the-human-aorta-according-to-age-and-gender
#12
Dimitrios P Sokolis, Giannis D Savva, Stavroula A Papadodima, Stavros K Kourkoulis
The biomechanical response of the human aorta varies with axial location, but little is known about the respective variation of residual strains. Such data are available for common lab animals, but in the traditional opening angle measurement the aorta is considered as an ideal cylinder and average residual strains are measured, so that the spatial variations of local residual strains are not determined. The present study provides opening angle and residual strain data throughout the course and around the circumference of the aorta harvested during autopsy...
December 8, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982125/imaging-electric-field-dynamics-with-graphene-optoelectronics
#13
Jason Horng, Halleh B Balch, Allister F McGuire, Hsin-Zon Tsai, Patrick R Forrester, Michael F Crommie, Bianxiao Cui, Feng Wang
The use of electric fields for signalling and control in liquids is widespread, spanning bioelectric activity in cells to electrical manipulation of microstructures in lab-on-a-chip devices. However, an appropriate tool to resolve the spatio-temporal distribution of electric fields over a large dynamic range has yet to be developed. Here we present a label-free method to image local electric fields in real time and under ambient conditions. Our technique combines the unique gate-variable optical transitions of graphene with a critically coupled planar waveguide platform that enables highly sensitive detection of local electric fields with a voltage sensitivity of a few microvolts, a spatial resolution of tens of micrometres and a frequency response over tens of kilohertz...
December 16, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978832/critical-illness-polyneuropathy-cip-in-neurological-early-rehabilitation-clinical-and-neurophysiological-features
#14
Simone B Schmidt, Jens D Rollnik
BACKGROUND: Critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) is a complex disease affecting 30-70% of critically ill patients. METHODS: Clinical (Barthel index, length of stay (LOS), morbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, routine lab results) and neurophysiological (neurography) data of 191 patients admitted to neurological early rehabilitation and diagnosed with CIP have been analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: CIP diagnosis was correct in 159 cases (83%)...
December 15, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977261/leveraging-school-based-research-to-inform-bullying-prevention-and-policy
#15
Dorothy L Espelage
School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature...
November 2016: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977047/basolateral-amygdala-supports-the-maintenance-of-value-and-effortful-choice-of-a-preferred-option
#16
Evan E Hart, Alicia Izquierdo
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is known to be involved in appetitive behavior, yet its role in cost-benefit choice of qualitatively different rewards (more/less preferred), beyond magnitude differences (larger/smaller), is poorly understood. We assessed the effects of BLA inactivations on effortful choice behavior. Rats were implanted with cannulae in BLA and trained to stable lever pressing for sucrose pellets on a progressive ratio schedule. Rats were then introduced to a choice: chow was concurrently available while they could work for the preferred sucrose pellets...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966370/investigation-of-the-role-of-flocculation-conditions-in-recuperative-thickening-on-dewatering-performance-and-biogas-production
#17
Jeffrey Cobbledick, Victor Zhang, Sasha Rollings-Scattergood, David R Latulippe
There is considerable interest in recuperative thickening (RT), the recycling of partially digested solids in an anaerobic digester outlet stream back into the incoming feed, as a 'high-performance' process to increase biogas production, increase system capacity, and improve biosolids stabilization. While polymer flocculation is commonly used in full-scale RT operations, no studies have investigated the effect of flocculation conditions on RT process performance. Our goal was to investigate the effect of polymer type and dosage conditions on dewatering performance and biogas production in a lab-scale RT system...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960296/identification-of-quorum-sensing-signal-molecule-of-lactobacillus-delbrueckii-subsp-bulgaricus
#18
Xiaoyang Pang, Cuiping Liu, Pengcheng Lyu, Shuwen Zhang, Lu Liu, Jing Lu, Changlu Ma, Jiaping Lv
Many bacteria in nature use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate gene expression. The quorum sensing system plays critical roles in the adaptation of bacteria to the surrounding environment. Previous studies have shown that during high-density fermentation, the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria was regulated by the QS system, and the two-component system (TCS, LBUL_RS00115/LBUL_RS00110) is involved in the autolysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. However, the QS signal molecule, which regulates this pathway, has not been identified...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936088/a-single-granule-level-approach-reveals-ecological-heterogeneity-in-an-upflow-anaerobic-sludge-blanket-reactor
#19
Kyohei Kuroda, Masaru K Nobu, Ran Mei, Takashi Narihiro, Benjamin T W Bocher, Takashi Yamaguchi, Wen-Tso Liu
Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor has served as an effective process to treat industrial wastewater such as purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater. For optimal UASB performance, balanced ecological interactions between syntrophs, methanogens, and fermenters are critical. However, much of the interactions remain unclear because UASB have been studied at a "macro"-level perspective of the reactor ecosystem. In reality, such reactors are composed of a suite of granules, each forming individual micro-ecosystems treating wastewater...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930821/assessment-of-asymmetrical-dimethylarginine-metabolism-in-patients-with-critical-illness
#20
Rawia A Ghashut, Scott Blackwell, Sylvia Ryan, Laura Willox, Donald C McMillan, John Kinsella, Dinesh Talwar
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients experience metabolic disorders including hypercatabolic state and hyperglycaemia and these are associated with poor outcome. Hyperglycaemia and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are reported to have significant influences on endothelial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and related arginine metabolism in patients with critical illness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two venous blood samples (EDTA) (104 patients), on admission and follow up sample in the last day in ICU (died or discharge sample median 7, IQR 6-8, range 5-15)...
December 8, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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