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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916738/a-review-of-the-recent-advances-in-antimicrobial-coatings-for-urinary-catheters
#1
REVIEW
Priyadarshini Singha, Jason Locklin, Hitesh Handa
: More than 75% of hospital-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infections are initiated by urinary catheters, which are used during the treatment of 15-25% of hospitalized patients. Among other purposes, urinary catheters are primarily used for draining urine after surgeries and for urinary incontinence. During catheter-associated urinary tract infections, bacteria travel up to the bladder and cause infection. A major cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infection is attributed to the use of non-ideal materials in the fabrication of urinary catheters...
December 1, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914106/effect-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-frequency-of-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-acute-thoracolumbar-disk-herniation-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#2
N J Olby, S L Vaden, K Williams, E H Griffith, T Harris, C L Mariani, K R Muñana, P J Early, S R Platt, L Boozer, C Giovanella, R Longshore
BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910187/ureteral-stent-duration-and-the-risk-of-bk-polyomavirus-viremia-or-bacteriuria-after-kidney-transplantation
#3
Jonathan T Wingate, Jared Brandenberger, Andrew Weiss, Lauren G Scovel, Christian S Kuhr
OBJECTIVES: Ureteral stents are used in kidney transplantation (KTX) to decrease post-operative complications, but are associated with BK polyomavirus viremia (BKV). Our primary outcome was to determine the association between ureteral stent duration and BKV. Secondary outcome measures were the association between bacteriuria and stent duration or use of ureteral stent strings. METHODS: Between January 2010 and January 2015, 403 patients underwent KTX at Virginia Mason Medical Center and met inclusion criteria...
December 2, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906777/asymptomatic-bacteriuria-to-screen-or-not-to-screen-and-when-to-treat
#4
Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Truls E Bjerklund Johansen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is a common clinical condition that often leads to unnecessary treatment. The purpose of this review is to outline and evaluate the most recent literature on the management of ABU. RECENT FINDINGS: The role of ABU management has been evaluated in several patient subgroups: healthy patients without identified risk factors, pregnant women, postmenopausal women, women with recurrent UTI, patients with diabetes, elderly institutionalized patients, patients with renal transplants, patients with indwelling catheters and prior to surgery...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891369/the-diagnostic-value-of-urinalysis-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-fever-sepsis-or-suspected-urinary-tract-infection
#5
Katerina G Oikonomou, Adib Alhaddad
INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic validity of urinalysis in asymptomatic Hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and there is limited data on the diagnostic value of urinalysis in HD patients with fever, sepsis, or suspected Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of pyuria, bacteriuria, Leukocyte Esterase (LE) and nitrite positivity in symptomatic, febrile or/and septic HD patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876539/antimicrobial-resistance-in-urinary-tract-infections-at-a-large-urban-emergency-department-factors-contributing-to-empiric-treatment-failure
#6
Rossana Rosa, Lilian M Abbo, Kenley Raney, Hansel E Tookes, Mark Supino
: Objective To calculate the emergency department (ED)-level Escherichia coli percentage of isolates susceptible to commonly used antibiotics and to determine the risk factors associated with inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy among patients treated for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our ED. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study conducted at a large tertiary teaching hospital. Participants included patients older than 18years of age who had a urine culture with growth of >100,000 colonies of E...
November 9, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866177/cranberries-for-preventing-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections-in-uncircumcised-boys
#7
Kong-Sang Wan, Chih-Kuang Liu, Wen-Kai Lee, Ming-Chung Ko, Che-Sheng Huang
Background • Highly concentrated cranberry juice has long been considered to have protective properties against urinary tract infections (UTIs), on the basis of its content of cranberry proanthocyanidins, with A-type interflavan bonds. Objective • This study intended to evaluate the benefits of a highly concentrated cranberry juice for the prevention of repeated episodes of UTI in uncircumcised boys. Design • The study was a randomized, controlled trial. Setting • The study took place at Taipei City Hospital, Renai and Zhongxing Branches (Taipei City, Taiwan)...
November 2016: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861259/tailored-perioperative-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-urological-surgery-myth-or-reality
#8
Magnus J Grabe, Karl-Johan Lundström
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The controversies surrounding perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) are about the use and especially misuse of antibiotics. The overall lack of evidence to facilitate a rational perioperative AMP policy in urological surgery and the postoperative infectious complications remain a challenge. Therefore, a basic tool to aid decision-making would be useful. A model based on the patients' risk factors, the level of contamination and grading of surgical procedures is discussed...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859751/subclinical-bacteriuria-in-older-cats-and-its-association-with-survival
#9
J D White, N J Cave, A Grinberg, D G Thomas, C Heuer
BACKGROUND: Bacterial urinary tract infections are uncommon in cats in general but the prevalence increases to 29% in older cats with comorbidities (Veterinary Clinical Pathology 2008, 37, 317; Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 2007, 9, 124; Veterinary Microbiology 2009, 136, 130). Frequently, the infections are subclinical. The clinical relevance of subclinical bacteriuria (SB) is uncertain, and the optimal treatment requires clarification. OBJECTIVE: Prospective, observational study to: (i) identify the prevalence and incidence count of SB in older (≥7 years), nonazotemic cats, (ii) evaluate specific risk factors for SB, and (iii) investigate the potential relationship between untreated SB and survival...
November 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857893/a-study-on-the-aac-6-1-lb-cr-gene-prevalence-among-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strains-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteriaceae
#10
Nirupa Soundararajan, Priyadarshini Shanmugam, Caroline Devanbu, Shameem Banu Abdul Sattar
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics including quinolones. AIM: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance among the uropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, to determine the virulence factors of these isolates, and to detect the aac-(6(1))-lb-cr gene among those isolates with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin >256 mcg/ml...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845696/prospective-non-randomized-study-on-the-use-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-with-ciprofloxacin-in-flexible-urethrocystoscopy
#11
María Carmen Cano-García, Rosario Casares-Pérez, Miguel Arrabal-Martín, Sergio Merino-Salas, Miguel Ángel Arrabal-Polo
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to analyze whether there is a need for antibiotic prophylaxis in this outpatient procedure. METHODS: Prospective observational non-randomized study including 100 patients divided into two groups: - Group 1: 48 patients receiving 500 mg of ciprofloxacin prophylaxis 1 hour before urethrocystoscopy; - Group 2: 52 patients without antibiotic prophylaxis. Before inclusion of the patients in the study, we checked the absence of urinary tract infection by means of a urinalysis obtained 3 days before the procedure...
November 2016: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844263/the-resident-microflora-of-voided-midstream-urine-of-healthy-controls-standard-versus-expanded-urine-culture-protocols
#12
L Coorevits, S Heytens, J Boelens, G Claeys
The workup and interpretation of urine cultures is not always clear-cut, especially for midstream samples contaminated with commensals. Standard urine culture (SUC) protocols are designed in favor of growth of uropathogens at the expense of commensals. In selected clinical situations, however, it is essential to trace fastidious or new uropathogens by expanding the urine culture conditions (EUC). The aim of our study was to map the microflora in midstream urine specimens from healthy controls by means of EUC, in view of the interpretation of bacterial culture results in symptomatic patients...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843267/bacteriology-of-urine-specimens-obtained-from-men-with-symptomatic-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#13
Jude Orumuah Agbugui, E O Obarisiagbon, I I Osaigbovo
BACKGROUND: Bacteriuria and urinary tract infections are common sequelae of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus, the knowledge of urine bacteriology in men with symptomatic BPH in our environment may play a complementary role in management. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of bacteriuria and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial isolates in cultured urine samples of men with symptomatic BPH. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a 1 year prospective study...
July 2016: Nigerian Journal of Surgery: Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833443/urine-interleukin-6-interleukin-8-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-in-infants-with-urinary-tract-infection-and-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#14
Grażyna Krzemień, Agnieszka Szmigielska, Agnieszka Turczyn, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs in 1.1% of girls and 1.4% of boys during the first year of life. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is usually detected incidentally in 0.9% of girls and 2.5% of boys at this age. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of measurement of pro-inflammatory urine interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 concentrations and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) level in infants with febrile UTI, non-febrile UTI and ABU. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 35 children, mean age 6...
2016: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829327/virulence-factors-and-clinical-patterns-of-hypermucoviscous-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-urine
#15
Youn Jeong Kim, Sang Il Kim, Yang Ree Kim, Seong Heon Wie, Hae Kyung Lee, Soo-Young Kim, Yeon-Joon Park
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae with hypermucoviscosity (HM) phenotype is generally more virulent than HM-negative strains. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HM phenotype among urinary isolates and to compare the virulence factors, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and clinical characteristics of HM-positive and -negative K. pneumoniae isolated from urine of hospitalized patients. METHODS: From June to October 2013, a total of 81 non-repetitive K...
November 9, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819757/urethral-pressure-variation-a-neglected-contributing-factor-in-patients-with-overactive-bladder-syndrome
#16
Kirschner-Hermanns Ruth, Anding Ralf, Gadzhiev Nariman, Campbell Adele, Goping Ing, Huppertz Nadine
OBJECTIVE: To study urethral pressure variations during the whole filling phase among different groups of patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated 79 consecutive patients from January 2011 to June 2012. All patients were recruited within our routine practice in our continence clinic and were evaluated with urodynamic exam according to the standards of the International Continence Society (ICS) with an additional continuous measurement of the urethral pressure profile (cUPP) that was done in a supine position...
November 2, 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806709/benefits-and-harms-of-screening-for-and-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#17
Konstanze Angelescu, Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Wiebke Sieben, Fülöp Scheibler, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Most European and North American clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) as a routine pregnancy test. Antibiotic treatment of ASB in pregnant women is supposed to reduce maternal upper urinary tract infections (upper UTIs) and preterm labour. However, most studies supporting the treatment of ASB were conducted in the 1950s to 1980s. Because of subsequent changes in treatment options for ASB and UTI, the applicability of findings from these studies has come into question...
November 2, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787564/effect-of-cranberry-capsules-on-bacteriuria-plus-pyuria-among-older-women-in-nursing-homes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Manisha Juthani-Mehta, Peter H Van Ness, Luann Bianco, Andrea Rink, Sabina Rubeck, Sandra Ginter, Stephanie Argraves, Peter Charpentier, Denise Acampora, Mark Trentalange, Vincent Quagliarello, Peter Peduzzi
Importance: Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. Objective: To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015)...
November 8, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780014/clinical-presentations-and-epidemiology-of-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Suzanne E Geerlings
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777649/genome-sequences-and-annotation-of-two-urinary-isolates-of-e-coli
#20
Travis K Price, Arya Mehrtash, Laurynas Kalesinskas, Kema Malki, Evann E Hilt, Catherine Putonti, Alan J Wolfe
The genus Escherichia includes pathogens and commensals. Bladder infections (cystitis) result most often from colonization of the bladder by uropathogenic E. coli strains. In contrast, a poorly defined condition called asymptomatic bacteriuria results from colonization of the bladder with E. coli strains without symptoms. As part of an on-going attempt to identify and characterize the newly discovered female urinary microbiota, we report the genome sequences and annotation of two urinary isolates of E. coli: one (E78) was isolated from a female patient who self-reported cystitis; the other (E75) was isolated from a female patient who reported that she did not have symptoms of cystitis...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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