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Gene mental retardation

John K L Wong, Hongsheng Gui, Maxwell Kwok, Ping Wing Ng, Colin H T Lui, Larry Baum, Pak Chung Sham, Patrick Kwan, Stacey S Cherny
Objective: We investigated the role of rare genetic variants and of de novo variants in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in patients with MTLE-HS and their unaffected parents (trios). Genes or gene sets that were enriched with predicted damaging rare variants in the patients as compared to population controls were identified. Patients and their parents were compared to identify whether the variants were de novo or inherited...
June 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Kristy L Kolc, Lynette G Sadleir, Ingrid E Scheffer, Atma Ivancevic, Rachel Roberts, Duyen H Pham, Jozef Gecz
Epilepsy and Mental Retardation Limited to Females (EFMR) is an infantile onset disorder characterized by clusters of seizures. EFMR is due to mutations in the X-chromosome gene PCDH19, and is underpinned by cellular mosaicism due to X-chromosome inactivation in females or somatic mutation in males. This review characterizes the neuropsychiatric profile of this disorder and examines the association of clinical and molecular factors with neuropsychiatric outcomes. Data were extracted from 38 peer-reviewed original articles including 271 individual cases...
June 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Thomas Mathew, Amrutha Avati, Delon D'Souza, Manjusha Therambil
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disease, typically characterized by pontine atrophy, vermian hypoplasia, infantile encephalopathy, generalized hypotonia, and intractable seizures. The purpose of this study is to describe the seizures and other neurological manifestations of RARS 2 gene mutations and to compare the clinical features with other causes of progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Detailed history, physical examination, and clinical and genetic work-up were performed in 2 siblings who presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
Kendrick J Jones, Sebastian Templet, Khaled Zemoura, Bozena Kuzniewska, Franciso X Pena, Hongik Hwang, Ding J Lei, Henny Haensgen, Shannon Nguyen, Christopher Saenz, Michael Lewis, Magdalena Dziembowska, Weifeng Xu
Experience induces de novo protein synthesis in the brain and protein synthesis is required for long-term memory. It is important to define the critical temporal window of protein synthesis and identify newly synthesized proteins required for memory formation. Using a behavioral paradigm that temporally separates the contextual exposure from the association with fear, we found that protein synthesis during the transient window of context exposure is required for contextual memory formation. Among an array of putative activity-dependent translational neuronal targets tested, we identified one candidate, a schizophrenia-associated candidate mRNA, neurogranin (Ng, encoded by the Nrgn gene) responding to novel-context exposure...
June 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yuxia Tan, Mei Hou, Shaochun Ma, Peipei Liu, Shungang Xia, Yu Wang, Liping Chen, Zongbo Chen
BACKGROUND: The link between the protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) gene and epilepsy suggests that an unusual form of X-linked inheritance affects females but is transmitted through asymptomatic males. Individuals with epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH19 gene display generalized or focal seizures with or without fever sensitivity. The clinical manifestation of the condition ranges from mild to severe, resulting in intellectual disability and behavioural disturbance. In the present study, we assessed mutations in the PCDH19 gene and the clinical features of a group of Chinese patients with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy and aimed to provide further insight into the understanding of epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females (EFMR; MIM 300088)...
June 4, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
I V Anisimova, E L Dadali, F A Konovalov, I A Akimova
AIM: To determine clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with non-syndromic mental retardation (NMR), type 20 with autosomal dominant type of inheritance (OMIM: 613443). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen patients were studied including four patients with mutations in the MEF2C gene revealed by exome sequencing. Three of the four mutations in the gene were found for the first time. RESULTS: Based on a comparative analysis of the clinical manifestations of 4 observed patients and 9 patients with type 20 NMR described in the literature, the authors determined common clinical characteristics of this syndrome...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jing Zhang, Jingjing Jiang, Yu Luo, Xiaomu Li, Zhiqiang Lu, Yujun Liu, Jie Huang, Yingyong Hou, Ying Pang, Mitchell Yee Fong Sun, Tracy S Wang, Douglas B Evans, Karel Pacak, Zhengping Zhuang, Xin Gao
PURPOSE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors of neural crest origin. Germline or somatic mutations of numerous genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PPGLs, including the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene and alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene. Although concurrent IDH1 and ATRX mutations are frequently seen in gliomas, they have never been reported together in PPGLs. The aim of this study was to characterize one paraganglioma with concurrent IDH1 and ATRX mutations identified by whole exome sequencing...
May 30, 2018: Endocrine
Thomas J Jentsch, Michael Pusch
CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes are surprisingly similar. Extensive structure-function analysis identified residues involved in ion permeation, anion-proton coupling and gating and led to attractive biophysical models...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Weipeng Wang, Bing Mao, Xiaoming Wei, Dan Yin, Hui Li, Liangwei Mao, Xueqin Guo, Yan Sun, Yun Yang
The genetic basis of congenital mental retardation includes chromosomal anomalies and single gene mutations. In addition to chromosome microarray analysis, next‑generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing have additionally been applied to identify single gene mutations. However, no methods exist to identify the cause of an anomaly in one step. The present study applied an improved targeted NGS method to diagnose an 8‑year‑old Chinese Han female with mental retardation in one step. The microdeletion 17p11...
May 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhengyou Miao, Xiaodan Liu, Weiwei Li, Qunyan He, Xia Liu
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and the leading monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder. It has previously been demonstrated that prenatal genetic diagnosis is efficient for the diagnosis of FXS. The present study investigated the diagnostic effects of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) and expanded CGG repeats. It was demonstrated that the nested PCR assay rapidly measured the multi-copies of the FMR1 gene in individual samples...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Thomas C Dockendorff, Mariano Labrador
The fragile X syndrome (FXS) arises from loss of expression or function of the FMR1 gene and is one of the most common monogenic forms of intellectual disability and autism. During the past two decades of FXS research, the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) has been primarily characterized as a cytoplasmic RNA binding protein that facilitates transport of select RNA substrates through neural projections and regulation of translation within synaptic compartments, with the protein products of such mRNAs then modulating cognitive functions...
May 23, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Hsiang-Chih Lu, Vanessa Eulo, Anthony J Apicelli, Melike Pekmezci, Yu Tao, Jingqin Luo, Angela C Hirbe, Sonika Dahiya
Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive soft tissue sarcomas that can occur sporadically or in the setting of the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome. These tumors carry a dismal overall survival. Previous work in our lab had identified ATRX chromatin remodeler ( ATRX ), previously termed, Alpha Thalassemia/Mental Retardation Syndrome X Linked as a gene mutated in a subset of MPNSTs. Given the great need for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for MPNSTs, we sought to determine the expression of ATRX in a larger subset of sporadic and NF1 associated MPNSTs (NF1-MPNSTs)...
May 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Youn Hee Jee, Jeffrey Baron, Ola Nilsson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genome-wide approaches including genome-wide association studies as well as exome and genome sequencing represent powerful new approaches that have improved our ability to identify genetic causes of human disorders. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in the genetic causes of short stature. RECENT FINDINGS: In addition to SHOX deficiency which is one of the most common causes of isolated short stature, PAPPA2, aggrecan, C-natriuretic peptide, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), NPR2 (CNP receptor), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11(PTPN11) (and other rasopathies), Fibrillin 1 (FBN1), IHH and BMP2 have been identified in isolated growth disorders with or without other mild skeletal findings...
May 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
M L Wu, X M Wang, J Li, Y Ding, Y Chen, G Y Chang, J Wang, Y P Shen
Objective: To expand the knowledge of the clinical and molecular characteristics of the children with Bloom syndrome. Methods: Clinical data of two siblings with classic Bloom syndrome of Shanghai Children's Medical Center from January 2009 to June 2017 were obtained and analyzed. The DNA of peripheral blood was collected from two Bloom syndrome siblings and their parents during 2015. The mutations were detected with high-throughput sequencing by Illumina sequencing platform. Results: The two siblings (probands) visited our department for short stature and growth retardation, they had full-term normal delivery after normal pregnancy of their mother...
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Richard Kiener, Markus Fleischmann, Marian Alexander Wiegand, Niels A W Lemmermann, Christiane Schwegler, Christine Kaufmann, Angelique Renzaho, Simone Thomas, Eva Felder, Hans Helmut Niller, Benedikt Asbach, Ralf Wagner
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a major cause of clinical complications during pregnancy as well as immunosuppression and the licensing of a protective HCMV vaccine remains an unmet global need. Herein, we designed and validated novel Sendai virus (SeV) vectors delivering T cell immunogens IE-1 and pp65. To enhance vector safety, we used a replication-deficient strain (rdSeV) that infects target cells in a non-productive manner while retaining viral gene expression. In this study, we explored the impact that transduction with rdSeV has on human dendritic cells (DCs) by comparing it to the parental, replication-competent Sendai virus strain (rcSeV) as well as the poxvirus strain Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Gulfem D Guler, Zev Rosenwaks, Jeannine Gerhardt
The fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a CGG repeat expansion at the fragile X mental retardation ( FMR1 ) gene. FMR1 alleles with more than 200 CGG repeats bear chromosomal fragility when cells experience folate deficiency. CGG repeats were reported to be able to form secondary structures, such as hairpins, in vitro . When such secondary structures are formed, repeats can lead to replication fork stalling even in the absence of any additional perturbation. Indeed, it was recently shown that the replication forks stall at the endogenous FMR1 locus in unaffected and FXS cells, suggesting the formation of secondary repeat structures at the FMR1 gene in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yui Watanabe, Reham Shareef Ebrhim, Mohamed A Abdullah, Roy E Weiss
Thyroid hormone synthesis requires the presence of iodide. The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a glycoprotein which mediates the active uptake of iodide from the blood stream into the thyroid grand. NIS defects due to SLC5A5 gene mutations are known to cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The proposita is a 28-year-old female whose origin is the North Sudan where neonatal screening for CH is not available. She presented with severe constipation and a goiter at the age of 40 days. Laboratory testing confirmed CH and she was started on levothyroxine (L-T4)...
May 15, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Andrew Ligsay, Marwa El-Deeb, Maria J Salcedo-Arellano, Nina Schloemerkemper, Jeremy S Grayson, Randi Hagerman
The fragile X premutation is characterized by a repeat expansion mutation (between 55 to 200 CGG repeats) in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, which leads to RNA toxicity at the cellular level. This may cause patients with the premutation to be particularly susceptible to environmental toxins, which could manifest clinically as new or worsening ataxia and memory loss. Multiple published case reports have also suggested general anesthetics as a potential toxin leading to negative side effects when used in patients with fragile X- associated disorders...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
O Sjaastad, N Blau, S L Rydning, V Peters, O Rødningen, A Stray-Pedersen, B Krossnes, C Tallaksen, J Koht
OBJECTIVES: A family with homocarnosinosis was reported in the literature in 1976. Three affected siblings had spastic paraplegia, retinitis pigmentosa, mental retardation, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homocarnosine concentrations 20 times higher than in controls. Based on the clinical findings and new genetic techniques, we have been able to establish a precise genetic diagnosis. METHOD: The medical records were re-evaluated, and genetic analyses were performed post-mortem in this original family...
May 6, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Xiaolei Ren, Chao Tu, Zhenchu Tang, Ruofei Ma, Zhihong Li
Sarcoma is a rare and heterogeneous type of cancer with an early mean onset age and a poor prognosis. However, its genetic basis remains unclear. A series of recent genomic studies in sarcomas have identified the occurrence of mutations in the α-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) gene. The ATRX protein belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins, which are frequently associated with α-thalassemia syndrome. Cancer cells depend on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative programmed mortality...
May 2018: Oncology Letters
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