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Colistin resistant

Zhiyong Zong, Samuel Fenn, Christopher Connor, Yu Feng, Alan McNally
Objectives: The increase in infections as a result of MDR strains of Escherichia coli is a global health crisis. The emergence of globally disseminated lineages of E. coli carrying ESBL genes has been well characterized. An increase in strains producing carbapenemase enzymes and mobile colistin resistance is now being reported, but to date there is little genomic characterization of such strains. Methods: Routine screening of patients within an ICU of West China Hospital identified a number of E...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Aurélie Jayol, Nicolas Kieffer, Laurent Poirel, François Guérin, Deniz Güneser, Vincent Cattoir, Patrice Nordmann
The commercial Rapid Polymyxin NP test was evaluated to detect colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 223 enterobacterial isolates corresponding to 136 resistant (including 38 MCR-like producers), 19 heteroresistant, and 78 colistin-susceptible isolates were tested. The test was performed according to the manufacturer's instruction, and the color of the wells was read after 2 and 3 hours of incubation. The results were compared with those of the homemade Rapid Polymyxin NP test, and manual broth microdilution according to EUCAST guidelines was used as the reference method to determine the performance of the test...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Rezak Drali, Meryem Berrazeg, Laldja Lilia Zidouni, Fella Hamitouche, Amina Aicha Abbas, Abdelhamid Deriet, Fawzia Mouffok
Colistin is currently regarded as one of the 'last-resort' antibiotics used for the treatment of critical infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recently, there have been numerous reports of the emergence of a transferable plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene, mcr-1 in patients, animals, food, and environment. Here, we characterize the support of colistin resistance among environmental isolates collected from seawater of Algiers coast. Our study was carried out on 246 isolates resistant to colistin (MIC > 2 μg/L)...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fangyou Yu, Jingnan Lv, Siqiang Niu, Hong Du, Yi-Wei Tang, Robert A Bonomo, Barry N Kreiswirth, Liang Chen
Carbapenem-resistant and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKp) strains have emerged while antimicrobial treatment options remain limited. Herein, we tested the in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam and other comparator antibiotics against 65 CR-hvKp isolates. Ceftazidime-avibactam, colistin and tigecycline are highly active in vitro against CR-hvKp isolates (MIC90 ≤ 1μg/ml), including KPC-2-producing ST11 CR-hvKp. Based upon previous clinical experience and the in vitro data presented herein, we posit that ceftazidime-avibactam is a considered therapeutic option against CR-hvKp infections...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ryan K Shields, M Hong Nguyen, Binghua Hao, Ellen G Kline, Cornelius J Clancy
We tested ceftazidime-avibactam and colistin against 24 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) by time-kills. Ceftazidime-avibactam (0.25x, 1x, 4x MIC) was bactericidal against 8%, 21%, and 88% of isolates, respectively. Colistin (2μg/mL) was bactericidal against 83% (12 hours) and 42% (24 hours) of isolates. In combination, synergy and antagonism was identified against 13% and 46% of isolates, respectively. The combination did not suppress ceftazidime-avibactam resistance. Colistin plus ceftazidime-avibactam did not provide benefit over ceftazidime-avibactam against most CRE isolates...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Dee Shortridge, Michael A Pfaller, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm
This study evaluated the in vitro activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators against 2647 Enterobacteriaceae and 355 Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonduplicate isolates collected from hospitalized patients with bloodstream infections in US hospitals from 2013 to 2015.Ceftolozane-tazobactam (95.5% susceptible), amikacin (99.2% susceptible), and meropenem (98.4% susceptible) were the most active against Enterobacteriaceae. For Enterobacteriaceae, 1.4% (n = 37) were carbapenem-resistant (CRE), and 10.2% (n = 271) exhibited an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) non-CRE phenotype...
May 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Bradley M Minrovic, David Jung, Roberta J Melander, Christian Melander
Antibiotic resistance has become increasingly prevalent over the past few decades, and this combined with a dearth in the development of new classes of antibiotics to treat multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections has led to a significant global health problem and the increased usage of colistin as the last resort antibiotic. Colistin, however, presents dose dependent toxicity in the clinic. One potential approach to combatting this problem is the use of an antibiotic adjuvant, a compound that is non-toxic to the bacteria, that enhances the potency of colistin and ultimately allows for reducing dosing...
June 11, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Catherine André, Véronique Dubois, Patrice Nordmann
The commercial SuperPolymyxin medium (ELITechGroup, Puteaux, France), currently licensed in Europe, is aimed to screen for either intrinsic or acquired colistin resistance in Gram negatives. It was tested for screening colistin-resistant Gram-negative rods from bacterial cultures of 145 colistin-resistant and 86 colistin-susceptible Gram-negative rods isolates. It exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 95.2% (138/145) and 95.3% (82/86), respectively. The sensitivity for the detection of the 25 isolates carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, and mcr-4) from bacterial cultures was of 100%...
May 17, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sakda Yainoy, Monchanok Hiranphan, Thanawat Phuadraksa, Warawan Eiamphungporn, Surapee Tiengrim, Visanu Thamlikitkul
Development and evaluations of the Rapid Polymyxin NP test for detection of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae have been recently reported. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the test using a larger number of Enterobacteriaceae, and a larger proportion of isolates with a colistin MIC close to the breakpoint. Out of 339 isolates, the Rapid Polymyxin NP test detected colistin resistance in 13 isolates of Escherichia coli, 213 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 9 isolates of Enterobacter aerogenes, and 10 isolates of the other Enterobacteriaceae species...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sara Lomonaco, Matthew A Crawford, Christine Lascols, Ruth E Timme, Kevin Anderson, David R Hodge, Debra J Fisher, Segaran P Pillai, Stephen A Morse, Erum Khan, Molly A Hughes, Marc W Allard, Shashi K Sharma
The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemases, bacterial enzymes able to inactivate most β-lactam antibiotics, in Enterobacteriaceae is of increasing concern. The concurrent spread of resistance against colistin, an antibiotic of last resort, further compounds this challenge further. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can play a significant role in the rapid and accurate detection/characterization of existing and emergent resistance determinants, an essential aspect of public health surveillance and response activities to combat the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria...
2018: PloS One
Abdol Ahad Dogonchi, Ezzat Allah Ghaemi, Abdollah Ardebili, Sajjad Yazdansetad, Abazar Pournajaf
Objective: Carbapenems are effective agents to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . However, there is a potential threat of emergence of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-mediated resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates. Materials and Methods: Different clinical specimens were subjected to conventional culture-based identification of P...
April 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Sally Tohamy Tohamy, Khaled Mohamed Aboshanab, Hadir Ahmed El-Mahallawy, Mona R El-Ansary, Salwa Selim Afifi
Introduction: Bloodstream infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are among the most frequent complications in immunocompromised cancer patients because of their considerable morbidity and mortality. Several guidelines on antimicrobial therapy have addressed empirical treatment for such serious infections; however, the emergence of microbial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide. Materials and methods: In this study, starting from November 2015 to October 2016, a total of 529 blood specimens were collected from febrile neutropenic cancer patients at a tertiary care cancer hospital in Egypt...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
María E Pachón-Ibáñez, Gema Labrador-Herrera, Tania Cebrero-Cangueiro, Caridad Díaz, Younes Smani, José P Del Palacio, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Alvaro Pascual, Jerónimo Pachón, M Carmen Conejo
Despite the relevance of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CP-Kp) infections there are a scarce number of studies to evaluate in vivo the efficacy of combinations therapies. The bactericidal activity of colistin, rifampin, and its combination was studied (time-kill curves) against four clonally unrelated clinical isolates of CP-Kp, producing VIM-1, VIM-1 plus DHA-1(acquired AmpC β-lactamase), OXA-48 plus CTX-M-15 (extended spectrum β-lactamase) and KPC-3, respectively, with colistin MICs of 0...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
M Thwaites, D Hall, D Shinabarger, A W Serio, K M Krause, A Marra, C Pillar
The next-generation aminoglycoside plazomicin, in development for infections due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae, was evaluated alongside comparators for bactericidal activity in minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill (TK) assays against MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolates with characterized aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance mechanisms. Overall, plazomicin and colistin were the most potent, with plazomicin demonstrating an MBC50/90 of 0.5/4 μg/mL and sustained 3-log10 kill against MDR Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter spp...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Mohamed Rhouma, Salma Bessalah, Imed Salhi, William Thériault, John Morris Fairbrother, Philippe Fravalo
Camels (Camelus dromedarius) are known to harbor multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to be involved in the transmission of various microorganisms to humans. Data on the occurrence of colistin resistant Escherichia coli as well as mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes in camels are lacking. We investigated the presence of colistin resistance and mcr (1-2) genes in E. coli from the feces of camels in Tunisia. Presumptive E. coli isolates from camel-calves in southern Tunisia were qualitatively screened for growth on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2 mg/L of colistin...
June 5, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Yiyun Liu, Liu Jian-Hua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Abbas Bahador, Zahra Farshadzadeh, Reza Raoofian, Masoumeh Mokhtaran, Babak Pourakbari, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Farhad B Hashemi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii causes difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, which often lead to morbidity due to the development of antimicrobial drug resistance and expression of virulence genes. Data regarding the association of resistance to colistin, a last treatment option, and the virulence gene expression of A. baumannii is scarce. METHODS: We evaluated the MLVA genotype, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm formation of 100 A. baumannii isolates from burn patients, and further compared the in vitro and in vivo expression of four virulence genes among five colistin-resistant A...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Yoon-Kyoung Hong, Ji-Young Lee, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the colistin resistance rate among 356 Enterobacter spp. clinical isolates from eight hospitals in Korea. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. While 51 of 213 (23.9%) Enterobacter cloacae isolates were colistin-resistant, only six of 143 (4.2%) E. aerogenes isolates showed resistance. We also identified the skip well phenotype in eight E. cloacae and three E. aerogenes isolates. Multilocus sequence typing for E. cloacae and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR for E...
June 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Naoufal Rahmatallah, Hicham El Rhaffouli, Idriss Lahlou Amine, Yassine Sekhsokh, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri, Mohammed El Houadfi
Monitoring the use of antibacterial agents in food-producing animals is crucial in order to reduce antimicrobial resistance, selection and dissemination of resistant bacterial strains, and drug residues in the animal food products. The broiler production sector is considered a great consumer of antibacterials and incriminated in the rise of antimicrobial resistance level in zoonotic bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter. Following recommendations from the OIE and WHO, a survey was conducted about the use and consumption of several antibacterial agents in Moroccan broiler flocks...
May 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
Jin Wang, Ji-Tong He, Yan Bai, Rui Wang, Yun Cai
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is globally recognized as one of the greatest threats to public health, and combination therapy may be the chemotherapeutic option. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effects of colistin/fosfomycin combination against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae . The antibacterial effects were determined in a one-compartment in vitro pharmacokinetic model over a period of 24 h. The initial inoculum was 108  CFU/mL. Low, medium, and high C max values of colistin at 0...
2018: BioMed Research International
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