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Polymyxin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456841/successful-treatment-of-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventriculitis-with-polymyxin-b-and-tigecycline-a-case-report
#1
Wei Guo, Shao-Chun Guo, Min Li, Li-Hong Li, Yan Qu
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial ventriculitis/meningitis, especially those due to drug-resistant strains, has substantially increased over recent years. However, limited therapeutic options exist for the Acinetobacter baumannii ventriculitis/meningitis because of the poor penetration rate of most antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier. Case presentation: A 57-year-old male patient developed ventriculitis from an extensively drug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii after the decompressive craniectomy for severe traumatic brain injury...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456071/evaluation-of-sensititre-broth-microdilution-plate-for-determining-the-susceptibility-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-to-polymyxins
#2
Sandra S Richter, James Karichu, Joshua Otiso, Hillary Van Heule, George Keller, Eric Cober, Laura J Rojas, Andrea M Hujer, Kristine M Hujer, Steve Marshall, Frederico Perez, Susan D Rudin, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Keith S Kaye, Robert Salata, David van Duin, Robert A Bonomo
Colistin and polymyxin B MICs were determined for 106 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) isolates using Sensititre Research Use Only GNX2F plates (Thermo Fisher) and compared to CLSI broth macrodilution (BMD) as the reference method. For colistin, EUCAST breakpoints were applied and testing of isolates with very major (VM) errors was repeated in duplicate by both methods to determine a majority result. Essential agreement (MIC ± one dilution) of GNX2F with the reference method was 97.1% for polymyxin B and 92...
January 9, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#3
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439974/efficacy-of-systemically-administered-polymyxins-in-mouse-burn-wound-infection-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-a-proof-of-concept-study
#4
Yu-Wei Lin, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Tony Velkov, Qi Zhou, Jian Li
The efficacy of subcutaneously administered polymyxins against burn wound infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Klebsiella pneumoniae was examined in a murine infection model. Subcutaneously administered colistin and polymyxin B achieved a >2-log 10 reduction in the bacterial load for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii infections, while wound infections by K. pneumoniae were less responsive (<1-log 10 reduction). This study highlights the potential therapeutic benefits of parenteral polymyxins for treating burn wound infections...
February 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431605/multifactorial-chromosomal-variants-regulate-polymyxin-resistance-in-extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Miranda E Pitt, Alysha G Elliott, Minh Duc Cao, Devika Ganesamoorthy, Ilias Karaiskos, Helen Giamarellou, Cely S Abboud, Mark A T Blaskovich, Matthew A Cooper, Lachlan J M Coin
Extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (XDR-KP) infections cause high mortality and are disseminating globally. Identifying the genetic basis underpinning resistance allows for rapid diagnosis and treatment. XDR isolates sourced from Greece and Brazil, including 19 polymyxin-resistant and five polymyxin-susceptible strains, were subjected to whole genome sequencing. Seventeen of the 19 polymyxin-resistant isolates harboured variations upstream or within mgrB. The most common mutation identified was an insertion at nucleotide position 75 in mgrB via an ISKpn26-like element in the ST258 lineage and ISKpn13 in one ST11 isolate...
February 12, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423561/colistin-causes-profound-morphological-alteration-but-minimal-cytoplasmic-membrane-perforation-in-populations-of-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Noëlle H O'Driscoll, T P Tim Cushnie, Kerr H Matthews, Andrew J Lamb
Whilst colistin (polymyxin E) represents the last mainstream treatment option for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, details of its mechanism of action remain to be fully resolved. In this study, the effects of sub-inhibitory, inhibitory-bactericidal, and supra-bactericidal levels of colistin on the membrane integrity and morphology of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated using potassium loss, flow cytometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Supra-bactericidal colistin concentrations induced just 4-12% intracellular potassium loss from bacteria after 24 h...
February 8, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412662/the-synthesis-and-bioactivity-investigation-of-the-individual-components-of-cyclic-lipopeptide-antibiotics
#7
A-Long Cui, Xin-Xin Hu, Yan Gao, Jie Jin, Hong Yi, Xiu-Kun Wang, Tong-Ying Nie, Yang Chen, Qi-Yang He, Huifang Guo, Jian-Dong Jiang, Xue-Fu You, Zhuo-Rong Li
In this paper, twenty-six natural polymyxin components and a new derivative S2 were synthesized, and their differences in efficacy and toxicity have been investigated. Almost all of the synthesized components showed strong activity against both susceptible and resistant strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumannii. The toxicities were obviously different between the components. Only some of the components were tested for toxicity in vivo. Compounds E2, E2-Val, A2, M2, D2, and S2 showed obviously lower renal cytotoxicity and acute toxicity than polymyxins B and E...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411661/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#8
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410094/antibiotic-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-an-international-escmid-cross-sectional-survey-among-infection-diseases-specialists-practicing-in-large-hospitals
#9
Lea Papst, Bojana Beović, Céline Pulcini, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Keith S Kaye, George L Daikos, Lul Raka, Mical Paul
OBJECTIVES: To explore contemporary antibiotic management of infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) in hospitals. METHODS: Cross-sectional, internet-based questionnaire survey. We contacted representatives of all hospitals with more than 800 acute-care hospital beds in France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Kosovo, Slovenia, Spain and selected hospitals in the United States. We asked respondents to describe the most common actual practice at their hospital regarding management of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through close-ended questions...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408828/clinical-features-antibiotic-susceptibility-profile-and-outcomes-of-infectious-keratitis-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#10
Sotiria Palioura, Allister Gibbons, Darlene Miller, Terrence P OʼBrien, Eduardo C Alfonso, Oriel Spierer
PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, an uncommon cause of infectious keratitis, is difficult to treat because of its resistance to multiple antibiotics. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical features, antibiotic susceptibility profile, and outcomes of S. maltophilia keratitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of records from 1987 to 2016 identified 26 eyes of 26 patients who were treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute for an S. maltophilia corneal ulcer...
March 2018: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406804/comparative-evaluation-of-broth-microdilution-with-polystyrene-and-glass-coated-plates-agar-dilution-e-test-vitek-and-disk-diffusion-for-susceptibility-testing-of-colistin-and-polymyxin-b-on-carbapenem-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#11
Lipika Singhal, Megha Sharma, Salony Verma, Ramanpreet Kaur, Xavier Basil Britto, Surbhi Malhotra Kumar, Pallab Ray, Vikas Gautam
INTRODUCTION: With the increasing threat of multidrug-resistant organisms, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, the polymyxin class of drugs (colistin and polymyxin B) has become popular in clinical practice. A better understanding of antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods for colistin and polymyxin B is needed for optimal patient management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing for colistin and polymyxin B using the following methods: broth microdilution (BMD) (glass-coated plates [BMD-Gs] and polystyrene plates [BMD-Ps]), agar dilution (AD), E-test®, Vitek®, and disk diffusion...
February 6, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405135/an-update-on-technical-interpretative-and-clinical-relevance-of-antimicrobial-synergy-testing-methodologies
#12
REVIEW
Shakti Laishram, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Testing for antimicrobial interactions has gained popularity in the last decade due to the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant organisms and limited options for the treatment of these infections. In vitro combination testing provides information, on which two or more antimicrobials can be combined for a good clinical outcome. Amongst the various in vitro methods of drug interactions, time-kill assay (TKA), checkerboard (CB) assay and E-test-based methods are most commonly used. Comparative performance of these methods reveals the TKA as the most promising method to detect synergistic combinations followed by CB assay and E-test...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397687/transferability-of-mcr-1-2-polymyxin-resistance-complex-dissemination-and-genetic-mechanism
#13
Youjun Feng
Polymyxins, a group of cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, act as a last-resort defense against lethal infections by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Recent emergence and fast spread of mobilized colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 argues the renewed interest of colistin in clinical therapies, threatening global public health and agriculture production. This mini-review aims to present an updated overview on mcr-1, covering its global dissemination, the diversity of its hosts/plasmid reservoirs, the complexity in the genetic environment adjacent to mcr-1, the appearance of new mcr-like genes and the molecular mechanisms for MCR-1/2 colistin resistance...
February 3, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387342/efficacy-of-intravenous-plus-intrathecal-intracerebral-ventricle-injection-of-polymyxin-b-for-post-neurosurgical-intracranial-infections-due-to-mdr-xdr-acinectobacter-baumannii-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Sijun Pan, Xiaofang Huang, Yesong Wang, Li Li, Changyun Zhao, Zhongxiang Yao, Wei Cui, Gensheng Zhang
Background: Post-neurosurgical intracranial infections caused by multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to treat and associated with high mortality. In this study, we analyzed the therapeutic efficacy of intravenous combined with intrathecal/intracerebral ventricle injection of polymyxin B for this type of intracranial infection. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted from January 2013 to September 2017 at the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine (Hangzhou,China) and included 61 cases for which cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were positive for multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant A...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384621/a-fresh-shine-oncystic-fibrosis-inhalation-therapy-antimicrobial-synergy-of-polymyxin-b-in-combination-with-silver-nanoparticles
#15
Raad Jasim, Elena K Schneider, Meiling Han, Mohammad A K Azad, Maytham Hussein, Cameron Nowell, Mark A Baker, Jiping Wang, Jian Li, Tony Velkov
This in vitro study aimed to investigate the synergistic antibacterial activity of polymyxin B in combination with 2 nm silver nanoparticles (NPs) against Gram-negative pathogens commonly isolated from the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. The in vitro synergistic activity of polymyxin B with silver NPs was assessed using the checkerboard assay against polymyxinsusceptible and polymyxin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the lungs of CF patients. The combination was also examined against the Gram-negative species Haemophilus influenzae, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii that are less common in the CF lung...
April 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348804/lysine-analogue-of-polymyxin-b-as-a-significant-opportunity-for-photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy
#16
Florent Le Guern, Tan-Sothea Ouk, Catherine Ouk, Regis Vanderesse, Yves Champavier, Emilie Pinault, Vincent Sol
In order to highlight the potential of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy in case of infections by antibiotic resistant-strains, a new antimicrobial peptide conjugate has been synthesized, consisting of a derivative of polymyxin B and a cationic porphyrin covalently attached together to a spacer. A polymyxin-derived moiety was subjected to a primary structural modification in the replacement of four diaminobutyrate residues with lysine ones. This modification was done in order to strongly reduce bactericidal activity, with the aim to eliminate the potential rise of polymyxin-resistant strains...
January 11, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340452/detection-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-harboring-bla-ges-1-and-bla-ges-11-in-recife-brazil
#17
Valdemir Vicente da Silva Júnior, Laura Durão Ferreira, Lílian Rodrigues Alves, Adriane Borges Cabral, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo Jácome, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes, Maria Amélia Vieira Maciel
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important pathogen globally, presents several resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the presence of bla GES in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to three different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. The Guiana extended spectrum beta-lactamase (GES) enzymes are responsible for conferring broad spectrum resistance to beta-lactam drugs, including the carbapenems. METHODS: A total of 100 carbapenem-resistant P...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319510/metallo-beta-lactamase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-healthcare-setting-in-alexandria-egypt
#18
Amani F Abaza, Soraya A El Shazly, Heba S A Selim, Gehan S A Aly
Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a major healthcare associated pathogen that creates a serious public health disaster in both developing and developed countries. In this work we aimed at studying the occurrence of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing P. aeruginosa in a healthcare setting in Alexandria, Egypt. This cross sectional study included 1583 clinical samples that were collected from patients admitted to Alexandria University Students' Hospital. P. aeruginosa isolates were identified using standard microbiological methods and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns using single disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319449/management-and-closure-of-multiple-large-cutaneous-lesions-in-a-juvenile-cat-with-severe-acquired-skin-fragility-syndrome-secondary-to-iatrogenic-hyperadrenocorticism
#19
C Noël McKnight, Linda J Lew, David A Gamble
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-month-old castrated male cat was evaluated for a large, spontaneously developed cutaneous laceration over the left scapular region. The cat had a history of severe gingivostomatitis, conjunctivitis, giardiasis, and feline herpesvirus infection and had received systemic glucocorticoid treatment for 7 weeks prior to evaluation. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a 10 × 7-cm full-thickness cutaneous laceration over the left scapular region, extremely thin skin, crusts over the dorsal aspect of the neck and base of the skull, medially curling pinnae, and moderate gingivostomatitis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315029/correlations-among-resistances-to-different-antimicrobial-compounds-in-salmonella-strains-from-hen-eggshells
#20
Maria Luisa Fernández Márquez, María José Grande Burgos, Rubén Pérez Pulido, Antonio Gálvez, Rosario Lucas López
Persistence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella in the food chain may depend on strain tolerance to other antimicrobials and also on biofilm formation capacity. Yet, there is limited information on sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella to other antimicrobials, such as phenolic compounds, chemical preservatives, or antimicrobial peptides. This study aimed at correlating antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capacity in antibiotic-resistant, biocide-tolerant Salmonella strains from hen eggshells...
February 2018: Journal of Food Protection
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