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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634475/cesarean-or-vaginal-birth-does-not-impact-the-longitudinal-development-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-a-cohort-of-exclusively-preterm-infants
#1
Christopher J Stewart, Nicholas D Embleton, Elizabeth Clements, Pamela N Luna, Daniel P Smith, Tatiana Y Fofanova, Andrew Nelson, Gillian Taylor, Caroline H Orr, Joseph F Petrosino, Janet E Berrington, Stephen P Cummings
The short and long-term impact of birth mode on the developing gut microbiome in neonates has potential implications for the health of infants. In term infants, the microbiome immediately following birth across multiple body sites corresponds to birth mode, with increased Bacteroides in vaginally delivered infants. We aimed to determine the impact of birth mode of the preterm gut microbiome over the first 100 days of life and following neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. In total, 867 stool samples from 46 preterm infants (21 cesarean and 25 vaginal), median gestational age 27 weeks, were sequenced (V4 region 16S rRNA gene, Illumina MiSeq)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628913/age-dependent-effects-of-alk5-inhibition-and-mechanism-of-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#2
Brian H Kim, Mariano Guardia Clausi, Michelle Frondelli, Israel C Nnah, Chaitali Saqcena, Radek Dobrowolski, Steven W Levison
Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the initial insult. In a recent set of studies, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of a small molecule antagonist for ALK5 (activin-like kinase 5 ), TGF-β receptor in a rat model of moderate perinatal HI and found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes. Here, we have extended those studies to evaluate the efficacy of delayed TGF-β receptor antagonism on postnatal day (P) 6 and P9 HI rat pups with and without hypothermia...
June 20, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628773/temperament-and-behavior-in-toddlers-born-preterm-with-related-clinical-problems
#3
Rafaela Guilherme Monte Cassiano, Claudia Maria Gaspardo, Ricardo Augusto de Deus Faciroli, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare temperament and behavior profiles among groups of preterm toddlers differentiated by level of prematurity and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), controlling for neonatal clinical conditions and chronological age. METHOD: The sample comprised 100 preterm toddlers segregated according to level of prematurity (75 very preterm and 25 moderate/late preterm) and presence of BPD (n=36) and ROP (n=63)...
June 16, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627444/associative-role-of-tyms6bpdel-polymorphism-and-resulting-hyperhomocysteinemia-in-the-pathogenesis-of-preterm-delivery-and-associated-complications-a-study-from-northeast-india
#4
Diptika Tiwari, Chandana Ray Das, Purabi Deka Bose, Sujoy Bose
Aberrations including genetic alterations in folate pathway are detrimental in multiple disease pathogenesis, including pregnancy. The present study is based on the screening of the associative role of TYMS 14946bp deletion(del) polymorphism and associated hyperhomocysteinemia in susceptibility to preterm delivery (PTD), which is strongly associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity. METHODS: A total of 209 PTD cases {extremely preterm (n=22), very preterm (n=43) and moderately preterm (n=144)} and 194 term delivery cases were evaluated for TYMS 14946bp deletion and its association with preterm delivery, pregnancy outcome, baby birth weight and homocysteine estimation...
June 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#5
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610460/vitamin-d-levels-in-newborns-and-association-with-neonatal-hypocalcemia
#6
Büşra Yılmaz, Canan Aygün, Erhan Çetinoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D has many important functions in our body. Especially in intrauterine and early infancy periods, Vitamin D plays a major role in bone development, growth, and the maturation of tissues such as lung and brain. Fetus is dependent on the mother in terms of Vitamin D and maternal Vitamin D deficiency results in a Vitamin D deficient newborn. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of Vitamin D in newborns and to investigate the association between Vitamin D status of the baby and neonatal hypocalcemia...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606371/stability-of-developmental-problems-after-school-entry-of-moderately-late-preterm-and-early-preterm-born-children
#7
Jorijn Hornman, Andrea F de Winter, Jorien M Kerstjens, Arend F Bos, Sijmen A Reijneveld
OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born moderately-late preterm, and 403 full term-born children from the Longitudinal Preterm Outcome Project (LOLLIPOP) cohort study. Developmental problems were assessed by the total score and the 5 domain scores of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at ages 4 (ASQ-4) and 5 (ASQ-5)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606228/-fat-emulsion-tolerance-in-preterm-infants-of-different-gestational-ages-in-the-early-stage-after-birth
#8
Hui Tang, Chuan-Zhong Yang, Huan Li, Wei Wen, Fang-Fang Huang, Zhi-Feng Huang, Yu-Ping Shi, Yan-Liang Yu, Li-Lian Chen, Rui-Qin Yuan, Xiao-Yu Zhu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the fat emulsion tolerance in preterm infants of different gestational ages in the early stage after birth. METHODS: A total of 98 preterm infants were enrolled and divided into extremely preterm infant group (n=17), early preterm infant group (n=48), and moderate-to-late preterm infant group (n=33). According to the dose of fat emulsion, they were further divided into low- and high-dose subgroups. The umbilical cord blood and dried blood filter papers within 3 days after birth were collected...
June 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604182/the-magnitude-of-elevated-maternal-serum-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-and-pregnancy-complications
#9
Reuven Sharony, Oren Zipper, Keren Amichay, Amir Wiser, Debora Kidron, Tal Biron-Shental, Ron Maymon
This study assessed the correlation between the magnitude of the elevation in maternal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (MShCG) levels and pregnancy complications. Among 80,716 screened pregnancies, 120 with moderately elevated MShCG (3.00-5.99 MoM) were compared to 84 with extremely elevated MShCG >6.00 MoM. A control series of 120 women with normal MShCG (<3.00 MoM) were matched. Rates of intrauterine growth restriction, preterm labour, antepartum foetal death (APFD), pre-eclampsia, and placental abruption were analysed...
July 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602020/techniques-of-monitoring-blood-glucose-during-pregnancy-for-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Foong Ming Moy, Amita Ray, Brian S Buckley, Helen M West
BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599397/infant-mortality-and-causes-of-death-by-birth-weight-for-gestational-age-in-non-malformed-singleton-infants-a-2002-2012-population-based-study
#11
Tanja Premru-Srsen, Ivan Verdenik, Barbara Mihevc Ponikvar, Lili Steblovnik, Ksenija Geršak, Lilijana Kornhauser Cerar
OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations between birth weight for gestational age (GA) and infant mortality as well as causes of infant death. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based observational study conducted between 2002 and 2012 included 203,620 non-malformed singleton live births from Slovenia. Poisson regression analyses were performed to estimate the crude relative risk (RR) and adjusted RR (aRR) for infant mortality by birth weight percentiles stratified by the GA subgroups term, moderate-to-late preterm, very preterm and extremely preterm...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595737/weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-the-black-white-disparity-in-preterm-birth
#12
Stephanie A Leonard, Lucia C Petito, Olof Stephansson, Jennifer A Hutcheon, Lisa M Bodnar, Mahasin S Mujahid, Yvonne Cheng, Barbara Abrams
PURPOSE: To quantify the relationship between pregnancy weight gain with early and late preterm birth and evaluate whether associations differed between non-Hispanic (NH) black and NH white women. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of all live births to NH black and NH white women in the United States 2011-2015 (n = 10,714,983). We used weight gain z-scores in multiple logistic regression models stratified by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and race to calculate population attributable risk (PAR) percentages for the contribution of high and low pregnancy weight gain to early and late preterm birth...
May 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587492/digits-and-narratives-of-the-experience-of-italian-families-facing-premature-births
#13
Maria Giulia Marini, Paola Chesi, Martina Bruscagnin, Monica Ceccatelli, Elisabetta Ruzzon
The objective of the research was to understand the experience of families living a premature birth and to outline the current care plan in Italy. The survey was addressed to 150 parents of children born under the 34th week of pregnancy. Topics of the investigation were the implications on their family, social and working contexts, determined through a questionnaire enriched by a collection of narratives. Written testimonies were clustered through a Narrative Medicine method and matched with quantitative information...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586127/cervical-stitch-cerclage-for-preventing-preterm-birth-in-singleton-pregnancy
#14
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Nancy Medley
BACKGROUND: Cervical cerclage is a well-known surgical procedure carried out during pregnancy. It involves positioning of a suture (stitch) around the neck of the womb (cervix), aiming to give mechanical support to the cervix and thereby reduce risk of preterm birth. The effectiveness and safety of this procedure remains controversial. This is an update of a review last published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of cervical stitch in singleton pregnancy at high risk of pregnancy loss based on woman's history and/or ultrasound finding of 'short cervix' and/or physical exam improves subsequent obstetric care and fetal outcome...
June 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583707/histologic-chorioamnionitis-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-preterm-infants-the-epidemiologic-study-on-low-gestational-ages-2-cohort
#15
Héloïse Torchin, Elsa Lorthe, François Goffinet, Gilles Kayem, Damien Subtil, Patrick Truffert, Louise Devisme, Valérie Benhammou, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Pierre-Yves Ancel
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very preterm infants, both in a general population and for those born after spontaneous preterm labor and after preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). STUDY DESIGN: This study included 2513 live born singletons delivered at 24-31 weeks of gestation from a national prospective population-based cohort of preterm births; 1731 placenta reports were available...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583705/associations-of-newborn-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-with-long-term-neurodevelopmental-impairments-in-very-preterm-children
#16
Peter J Anderson, Karli Treyvaud, Jeffrey J Neil, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Rodney W Hunt, Deanne K Thompson, Katherine J Lee, Lex W Doyle, Terrie E Inder
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between brain abnormalities on newborn magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental impairment at 7 years of age in very preterm children. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 223 very preterm infants (<30 weeks of gestation or <1250 g) born at Melbourne's Royal Women's Hospital had a brain MRI scan at term equivalent age. Scans were scored using a standardized system that assessed structural abnormality of cerebral white matter, cortical gray matter, deep gray matter, and cerebellum...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582386/cognitive-functioning-at-age-10-years-among-children-born-extremely-preterm-a-latent-profile-approach
#17
Timothy Heeren, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, Thomas M O'Shea, Alan Leviton, Karl C K Kuban
BACKGROUND: School-age children born extremely preterm (EP) are more likely than their term peers to have multiple neurocognitive limitations. We identify subgroups of EP children who share similar profiles on measures of IQ and executive function (EF), and describe the nature and prevalence of cognitive impairment in EP children. METHODS: Based on measures of IQ and EF, subgroups of EP children with common neurocognitive function are identified using latent profile analysis (LPA)...
June 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575725/regional-volumetric-assessment-of-the-brain-in-moderately-preterm-infants-30-35-gestational-weeks-scanned-at-term-equivalent-age-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Tetsu Niwa, Keiji Suzuki, Nobuyoshi Sugiyama, Yutaka Imai
BACKGROUND: Early volume analyses of the infantile brain may help predict neurodevelopmental outcome. However, brain volumes are not well understood in moderately preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA). AIM: This study retrospectively investigated the relationship between regional brain volumes and infant gestational age (GA) at birth in moderately preterm infants (30-35weeks' GA) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at TEA. METHODS: Forty infants scanned at TEA were enrolled...
May 30, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567102/neonatal-respiratory-distress-syndrome-chest-x-ray-or-lung-ultrasound-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Matthew Hiles, Anne-Marie Culpan, Catriona Watts, Theresa Munyombwe, Stephen Wolstenhulme
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a leading cause of morbidity in preterm new-born babies (<37 weeks gestation age). The current diagnostic reference standard includes clinical testing and chest radiography with associated exposure to ionising radiation. The aim of this review was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound against the reference standard in symptomatic neonates of ≤42 weeks gestation age. METHODS: A systematic search of literature published between 1990 and 2016 identified 803 potentially relevant studies...
May 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558955/seizures-in-preterm-neonates-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#20
Hannah C Glass, Renée A Shellhaas, Tammy N Tsuchida, Taeun Chang, Courtney J Wusthoff, Catherine J Chu, M Roberta Cilio, Sonia L Bonifacio, Shavonne L Massey, Nicholas S Abend, Janet S Soul
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize seizures among preterm neonates enrolled in the Neonatal Seizure Registry, a prospective cohort of consecutive neonates with seizures at seven pediatric centers that follow the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's neonatal electroencephalography monitoring guideline. STUDY DESIGN: Of 611 enrolled neonates with seizures, 92 (15%) were born preterm. Seizure characteristics were evaluated by gestational age at birth for extremely preterm (<28 weeks, N = 18), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks, N = 18), and moderate to late preterm (32 to <37 weeks, N = 56) and compared with term neonates...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
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