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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26414590/venous-thromboembolism-identifying-patients-at-risk-and-establishing-prophylaxis
#1
REVIEW
Shant Shirvanian, Victor F Tapson
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with substantial healthcare costs. Identification of patients at risk of developing VTE enables appropriate thromboprophylaxis to be implemented. Although no predisposing risk factors can be identified in many patients in whom VTE develops, most have at least one underlying risk factor which can be categorized according to whether it confers low, moderate, or high risk. Clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis, both non-pharmacological and pharmacological, in a host of medical settings and there is sufficient evidence to support routine prophylaxis in many groups of patients...
December 2015: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076989/chocolate-consumption-and-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation-from-the-physicians-health-study
#2
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Owais Khawaja, Andrew B Petrone, Yousuf Kanjwal, John M Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
Chocolate consumption has been shown to protect against various cardiovascular end points; however, little is known about the association between chocolate consumption and incident atrial fibrillation (AF). Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between chocolate consumption and incident AF in a cohort of 18,819 US male physicians. Chocolate consumption was ascertained from 1999 to 2002 through a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Incident AF was ascertained through yearly follow-up questionnaires...
August 15, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25947914/analysis-of-the-interaction-between-clopidogrel-aspirin-and-proton-pump-inhibitors-using-the-fda-adverse-event-reporting-system-database
#3
Yukiya Suzuki, Honami Suzuki, Ryogo Umetsu, Hiroaki Uranishi, Junko Abe, Yuri Nishibata, Yasuaki Sekiya, Nobuteru Miyamura, Hideaki Hara, Teruo Tsuchiya, Yasutomi Kinosada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent widely used in combination with aspirin to limit the occurrence of cardiovascular (embolic/thrombotic) events. Consensus guidelines recommend proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a gastrointestinal (GI) prophylactic measure for all patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the simultaneous use of clopidogrel, aspirin, and PPIs on hemorrhagic and embolic/thrombotic events using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25559342/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-clopidogrel
#4
REVIEW
Xi-Ling Jiang, Snehal Samant, Lawrence J Lesko, Stephan Schmidt
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remain life-threatening disorders, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with ACS. However, there is substantial inter-individual variability in the response to clopidogrel treatment, in addition to prolonged recovery of platelet reactivity as a result of irreversible binding to P2Y12 receptors. This high inter-individual variability in treatment response has primarily been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for cytochrome (CYP) 2C19, which affect the pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel...
February 2015: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25521039/stimulation-of-mucin-mucus-and-viscosity-during-lubiprostone-in-patients-with-chronic-constipation-may-potentially-lead-to-increase-of-lubrication
#5
Marek Majewski, Irene Sarosiek, Grzegorz Wallner, Stanley A Edlavitch, Jerzy Sarosiek
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical trial was to explore whether lubiprostone increases the rate of mucus and mucin secretion and its viscosity in chronic constipation (CC) patients. The secretion of chloride (CS) into the gastrointestinal tract lumen is pivotal in the body's ability to process non-digestible food components. CS sets the optimal rate of hydration for non-digestible food components, their fluidity, and their adequate propulsion along the alimentary tract. Chloride is also instrumental in the secretion of alimentary tract mucus, and the formation of a gel-like, viscous mucus-buffer layer...
2014: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25486915/a-review-of-traditional-and-novel-oral-anticoagulant-and-antiplatelet-therapy-for-dermatologists-and-dermatologic-surgeons
#6
REVIEW
Deanna G Brown, Eric C Wilkerson, W Elliot Love
BACKGROUND: Dermatologic surgeons will increasingly encounter patients on novel oral antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a complete overview of the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and side effects of traditional and novel oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapies along with dietary supplements with anticoagulant or antiplatelet properties. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed for "aspirin," "warfarin," "clopidogrel," "dabigatran," "rivaroxaban," "apixaban," "prasugrel," and "ticagrelor...
March 2015: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25311633/chocolate-consumption-and-risk-of-heart-failure-in-the-physicians-health-study
#7
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Andrew B Petrone, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé
AIMS: To test the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 20 278 men from the Physicians' Health Study. Chocolate consumption was assessed between 1999 and 2002 via a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and HF was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires with validation in a subsample. We used Cox regression to estimate multivariable adjusted relative risk of HF...
December 2014: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25123696/cangrelor-a-novel-intravenous-antiplatelet-agent-with-a-questionable-future
#8
REVIEW
Laura H Waite, Yvonne L Phan, Sarah A Spinler
Current percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) guidelines recommend the use of a P2Y12 inhibitor with aspirin and an injectable anticoagulant. However, available oral P2Y12 inhibitor therapy is limited by significant drug interactions, unclear oral absorption in selected clinical conditions, and delayed onset and offset of activity that may be cumbersome for patients requiring coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Cangrelor, a novel intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor, offers potential advantages compared with currently available oral agents, particularly in regard to rapid onset and offset of platelet inhibition...
October 2014: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24918808/proton-pump-inhibitors-in-patients-requiring-antiplatelet-therapy-new-fda-labeling
#9
David A Johnson, Robert Chilton, Harley R Liker
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Proton-pump inhibitors should also be considered for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy who have other risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including use of aspirin. Thus, evidence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has caused concern. Here, we discuss comparative studies suggesting that the extent to which a PPI reduces exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and attenuates its antithrombotic effect differs among PPIs...
May 2014: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24779202/interaction-analysis-of-aspirin-with-selective-amino-acids
#10
Ghulam Murtaza, Sabiha Karim, Muhammad Najam-ul-Haq, Mahmood Ahmad, Tariq Ismail, Shujaat Ali Khan, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad, Izhar Hussain
This study was conducted to assess the compatibility of aspirin with selective amino acids by studying the effect of amino acids on the solubility of aspirin, so that the attention could be paid towards the use of proteinous foods along with aspirin. Two different types of dissolution media, i.e., 0.5% solution of each amino acid and 100 mL of distilled water (100 mL each), were prepared. Then, 1 g of aspirin was added in both media and shaked gently. Ten milliliters of sample was withdrawn at different time intervals, i...
January 2014: Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24659084/the-role-of-rivaroxaban-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-acute-coronary-syndromes
#11
REVIEW
Prabashni Reddy, Robert P Giugliano
Rivaroxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a novel oral anticoagulant approved for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and also approved in Europe (but not in the United States) to prevent recurrent ischemic events in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes. Advantages of rivaroxaban over oral anticoagulants such as warfarin are the lack of need for ongoing monitoring, a fixed-dose regimen, and fewer drug and food interactions. Drawbacks include a lack of an antidote and the absence of a widely available method to reliably monitor the anticoagulant effect...
November 2014: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24605405/-new-treatments-for-stroke-and-thromboembolism-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation
#12
REVIEW
Arthur Shiyovich, Vladimir Khalameizer, Amos Katz
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in Western countries (prevalence 1-2%). Patients with AF have a 5-fold increased risk of stroke, and 15%-20% of all strokes are attributable to AF. Moreover, mortality, morbidity and economic burden from stroke complicating AF are particularly high. Thus, preventing stroke and thromboembolism is the cornerstone in AF management, with the vitamin K antagonist (VKA) - warfarin as the leading drug for many years. Although warfarin is effective in stroke reduction, only 55% of eligible patients with AF received it, 28% of patients discontinue it by 1-year, rates of major bleeding are higher that 20% and patients remain in the therapeutic range (INR 2-3) only 58% of the time...
January 2014: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24348072/the-risk-of-bleeding-with-duloxetine-treatment-in-patients-who-use-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials-and-post-marketing-adverse-event-reports
#13
David G Perahia, Mark E Bangs, Qi Zhang, Yingkai Cheng, Jonna Ahl, Elijah P Frakes, Michael J Adams, James M Martinez
PURPOSE: To assess the safety of duloxetine with regards to bleeding-related events in patients who concomitantly did, versus did not, use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin. METHODS: Safety data from all placebo-controlled trials of duloxetine conducted between December 1993 and December 2010, and post-marketing reports from duloxetine-treated patients in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), were searched for bleeding-related treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs)...
2013: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23914351/apixaban-in-the-prevention-of-stroke-and-systemic-embolism-in-nonvalvular-atrial-fibrillation
#14
REVIEW
L Pujadas-Mestres, G Escolar, E Arellano-Rodrigo, A M Galán
Conventional anticoagulant therapies can significantly reduce the risk of stroke and related complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Classic oral anticoagulants based on vitamin K antagonism have shown effectiveness in the prevention of thromboembolic complications in this clinical setting. Unfortunately, vitamin K antagonists that have shown effectiveness in the prevention of thromboembolic complications in patients with nonvalvular AF hold inherent limitations including delayed onset of action, narrow therapeutic index, variability of their response, need for repeated control and numerous interactions with food and other drugs...
July 2013: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23872145/intestinal-absorption-of-lysozyme-an-egg-white-allergen-in-rats-kinetics-and-effect-of-nsaids
#15
Tomoharu Yokooji, Koh Hamura, Hiroaki Matsuo
The absorption pathway(s) of a representative food allergen, lysozyme, and the mechanisms of lysozyme absorption facilitated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were examined by intestinal closed-loop and re-circulating perfusion methods in rats. The absorption rate of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lysozyme in the proximal intestine was higher than that for a marker of non-specific absorption, FD-10, and was suppressed by colchicine (endocytosis inhibitor). Aspirin increased the absorption of FITC-lysozyme in the proximal intestine with no effects on tissue accumulation...
August 16, 2013: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23687449/novel-oral-anticoagulants-for-stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-a-focus-on-the-older-patient
#16
Scott W Yates
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia that is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly in the elderly. Traditionally, a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin is prescribed for stroke prevention. Warfarin is effective at lowering stroke risk but has several limitations due to food restrictions, drug interactions, and a narrow therapeutic window. Various novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are available or under development to provide alternative treatment options. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of three NOACs (dabigatran etexilate, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) in addition to warfarin and aspirin, for prevention of stroke in patients with AF, focusing on the elderly population...
2013: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23431005/challenging-the-fda-black-box-warning-for-high-aspirin-dose-with-ticagrelor-in-patients-with-diabetes
#17
James J DiNicolantonio, Victor L Serebruany
Ticagrelor, a novel reversible antiplatelet agent, has a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) black box warning to avoid maintenance doses of aspirin (ASA) >100 mg/daily. This restriction is based on the hypothesis that ASA doses >100 mg somehow decreased ticagrelor's benefit in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) U.S. cohort. However, these data are highly postrandomized, come from a very small subgroup in PLATO (57% of patients in the U.S. site), and make no biological sense. Moreover, the ticagrelor-ASA interaction was not significant by any multivariate Cox regression analyses...
March 2013: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23406675/antithrombotics-for-stroke-prevention-in-non-valvular-atrial-fibrillation-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Kathy Berra
Nurses and nurse practitioners play an integral role in initiating and managing antithrombotic prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Since the advent of warfarin in the 1950s, there have been few changes in this field until recently. Warfarin has been used for decades and has well-demonstrated efficacy. However, it also has well-known drawbacks, including an unpredictable dose response, need for anticoagulation monitoring, frequent dose adjustments, and many drug and food interactions. A new generation of anticoagulants, which includes direct thrombin inhibitors and selective Factor Xa inhibitors, shows the potential to significantly improve options for antithrombotic prophylaxis and to positively affect patient outcomes...
February 2014: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23181787/developments-in-the-field-of-allergy-in-2011-through-the-eyes-of-clinical-and-experimental-allergy
#19
REVIEW
S H Arshad, S C Dharmage, F Ferreira, E D Fixman, G Gadermaier, M Hauser, A P Sampson, L M Teran, M Wallner, A J Wardlaw
As in previous years, we felt it would be of value to our readership to summarize the new information provided by the authors who have published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy in 2011 and set this in the context of recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and management of allergic disease in all its many manifestations. In 2011, about 210 articles were published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy including editorials, reviews, opinion articles, guidelines, letters, book reviews and of course at the heart of the journal, papers containing original data...
December 2012: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23160166/an-update-on-antithrombotic-therapy-in-atrial-fibrillation-the-role-of-newer-and-emergent-drugs
#20
REVIEW
Prakash Deedwania, Grace W Huang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is associated with potentially dreadful cardioembolic complications such as stroke. The risk of stroke is stratified based on the patient's comorbid conditions using several scoring systems. Patients are treated with oral anticoagulation using warfarin or aspirin based on their cardioembolic stroke risk. Although warfarin has been the only effective therapy, it is underutilized clinically due to concern for multiple drug-to-drug and drug-to-food interactions and hemorrhagic complications...
2012: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
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