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Manjie Li, Zhaowei Liu, Yongcan Chen, Yang Hai
Interaction between old, corroded iron pipe surfaces and bulk water is crucial to the water quality protection in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). Iron released from corrosion products will deteriorate water quality and lead to red water. This study attempted to understand the effects of pipe materials on corrosion scale characteristics and water quality variations in WDS. A more than 20-year-old hybrid pipe section assembled of unlined cast iron pipe (UCIP) and galvanized iron pipe (GIP) was selected to investigate physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales and their effects on water quality variations...
October 18, 2016: Water Research
Nnamdi G Nelson, Faten A Suhaidi, Ross S DeAngelis, Nu-Chu Liang
Ethanol can be a food source but its effects on energy balance and contribution to obesity remain inconclusive. In this study, we hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on energy intake and body weight would depend on the administration dose, pattern and the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) time-course. Experiment 1 examined changes in food intake, diet preference, and body weight after saline or ethanol (1 and 3g/Kg) injection (IP). Experiment 2 compared the effects in rats that received either 3g/Kg/day ethanol administered all at once (EtOH_S) or in 2 1...
October 20, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Vishal Kothari, Yuwen Luo, Talia Tornabene, Ann Marie O'Neill, Michael W Greene, Geetha Thangiah, Jeganathan Ramesh Babu
High fat diet-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet related illnesses, including dementia. Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, and is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in brain. This study was designed to determine whether diet-induced changes in peripheral insulin sensitivity could contribute to alterations in brain insulin signaling and cognitive functions. Four week old, male C57BL/6NHsd mice were randomly assigned a high fat diet (40% energy from fat) with 42g/L liquid sugar (HFS) added to the drinking water or a normal chow diet (12% energy from fat) for 14weeks...
October 19, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Tingting Wu, James D Englehardt
An urban net-zero water treatment system, designed for energy-positive water management, 100% recycle of comingled black/grey water to drinking water standards, and mineralization of hormones and other organics, without production of concentrate, was constructed and operated for two years, serving an occupied four-bedroom, four-bath university residence hall apartment. The system comprised septic tank, denitrifying membrane bioreactor (MBR), iron-mediated aeration (IMA) reactor, vacuum ultrafilter, and peroxone or UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation, with 14% rainwater make-up and concomitant discharge of 14% of treated water (ultimately for reuse in irrigation)...
October 5, 2016: Water Research
María Serrano Iglesias, María de Lourdes Samaniego Vaesken, Gregorio Varela Moreiras
: The aim of this study was to draw an updated map of the nutrition facts in the different categories of non-alcoholic beverages in the Spanish market based on the information declared on the labels of these products; we expect this first step to justify the need for the coordination and harmonization of food composition tables in Spain so that there will be an updated database available to produce realistic scientific nutrient intake estimates in accordance with the actual market scenario...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Junghyun H Lee
BACKGROUND: A considerable amount of research suggests that the frequent use of caffeinated energy drinks may be associated with undesirable effects, particularly so in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the associations between energy drink intake and mental health problems, in isolation or in combination with junk food consumption, in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, collected from 68,043 adolescents aged 12-18 years (mean age 15...
October 13, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Joseph J Knapik, Daniel W Trone, Susan McGraw, Ryan A Steelman, Krista G Austin, Harris R Lieberman
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate 89% of Americans regularly consume caffeine, but these data do not include military personnel. This cross-sectional study examined caffeine use in Navy and Marine Corps personnel, including prevalence, amount of daily consumption, and factors associated with use. A random sample of Navy and Marine Corps personnel was contacted and asked to complete a detailed questionnaire describing their use of caffeine-containing substances, in addition to their demographic, military, and lifestyle characteristics...
October 9, 2016: Nutrients
Jyotika Basdav, Firoza Haffejee, T Puckree
BACKGROUND: Introspection into the factors that affect student success at higher education institutions has gained significant momentum in recent years. Teaching and learning has come under the spotlight with quality enhancement and teaching development funding focussing on student support, enhancing the student environment, and enhancing academics as teachers. Included in this are aspects that try to understand the student. An aspect that is not receiving attention is student health, specifically headaches which could impact student success...
2016: SpringerPlus
N Guess
BACKGROUND: Diets reduced or low in carbohydrates are becoming increasingly popular. The replacement foods and their accompanying nutrients determine the health effects of such diets. However, little is known about the dietary intake of people consuming reduced or low carbohydrate diets. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the dietary and nutrient intake of individuals aged 16-75 years consuming less than 40% of energy from carbohydrate (n = 430) was compared with individuals consuming equal to or more than 40% energy from carbohydrate (n = 1833) using the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Fabien Szabo de Edelenyi, Nathalie Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie Arnault, Rebeca González, Camille Buscail, Pilar Galan
BACKGROUND: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI) only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort...
October 11, 2016: Nutrients
Richard Hardy, Nathalie Kliemann, Taylor Evansen, Jefferson Brand
OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationships between energy drink consumption, nutrition knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics in a convenience sample of student-athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 194 student-athletes (112 female and 82 male). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of human nutrition, energy drink consumption habits...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Jaqueline Lopes Pereira, Aline Mendes, Sandra Patricia Crispim, Dirce Maria Marchioni, Regina Mara Fisberg
BACKGROUND: Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls...
2016: PloS One
Jun-Beom Park, Kyungdo Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Youngkyung Ko
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been reported to be associated with oral health behavior. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the relationship between SES and oral health behaviors in a large sample of the Korean population. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted between 2008 and 2010 by the Division of Chronic Disease Surveillance under the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, were used in the present study...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Tracy Hampton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Circulation
Rachel Golan, Ilan Shelef, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Ilana Harman-Boehm, Shula Witkow, Michael Friger, Yoash Chassidim, Idit F Liberty, Benjamin Sarusi, Dana Serfaty, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Noa Cohen, Sivan Ben-Avraham, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
OBJECTIVE: To generate evidence-based conclusions about the effect of wine consumption on weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation and distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: In the 2-year randomized controlled CASCADE (CArdiovaSCulAr Diabetes & Ethanol) trial, patients following a Mediterranean diet were randomly assigned to drink 150 ml of mineral water, white wine or red wine with dinner for 2 years. Visceral adiposity and abdominal fat distribution were measured in a subgroup of sixty-five participants, using abdominal MRI...
October 3, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Ana Planavila Porta
High-dose alcohol misuse induces multiple noxious cardiac effects, including myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, decreased ventricular contraction and ventricle enlargement. These effects produce diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and an increased death rate. There are multiple, dose-dependent, synchronic and synergistic mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac damage. Ethanol alters membrane permeability and composition, interferes with receptors and intracellular transients, induces oxidative, metabolic and energy damage, decreases protein synthesis, excitation-contraction coupling and increases cell apoptosis...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chantel L Martin, Anna Maria Siega-Riz, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Whitney R Robinson, Julie L Daniels, Eliana M Perrin, Alison M Stuebe
BACKGROUND: Child obesity is a major problem in the United States. Identifying early-life risk factors is necessary for prevention. Maternal diet during pregnancy is a primary source of fetal energy and might influence risk of child obesity. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively investigated the influence of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy on child growth in the first 3 y of life in 389 mother-child pairs from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study. METHODS: Dietary patterns were derived with the use of latent class analysis (LCA) based on maternal diet, collected with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire at 26-29 wk gestation...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Hamid Rashidi Nodeh, Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim, Muhammad Afzal Kamboh, Mohd Marsin Sanagi
A new graphene-based tetraethoxysilane-methyltrimethoxysilane sol-gel hybrid magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS) was synthesised, characterized and successfully applied in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for simultaneous analysis of polar and non-polar organophosphorus pesticides from several water samples. The Fe3O4@G-TEOS-MTMOS nanocomposite was characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Krystallia Mantziki, Carry M Renders, Achilleas Vassilopoulos, Gabriella Radulian, Jean-Michel Borys, Hugues du Plessis, Maria João Gregório, Pedro Graça, Stefaan de Henauw, Svetoslav Handjiev, Tommy L S Visscher, Jacob C Seidell
BACKGROUND: Increasing social inequalities in health across Europe are widening the gap between low and high socio-economic groups, notably in the prevalence of obesity. Public health interventions may result in differential effects across population groups. Therefore, the EPHE (EPODE for the Promotion of Health Equity) project analysed the added value of community-based programmes, based on the EPODE (Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants-Together Let's Prevent Obesity) model, to reduce socio-economic inequalities in energy balance-related behaviours of children and their family-environmental related determinants in seven European communities...
September 29, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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