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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929473/synthesis-of-plant-phenol-derived-polymeric-dyes-for-direct-or-mordant-based-hair-dyeing
#1
Kyung Min Im, Jong-Rok Jeon
Effective hair dyeing through in situ incubation of keratin hair with the products of fungal laccase-catalyzed polymerization of plant phenols has been previously demonstrated. However, the dyeing process takes a long time to complete compared to commercial hair-dyeing products. To overcome this bottleneck, pre-synthesized polymeric products of the oxidative reaction of Trametes versicolor laccase on catechin and catechol, either with or without mordant agents (e.g., FeSO4), were here employed to achieve permanent keratin hair dyeing in various colors and shades...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919166/phytochemical-profiles-and-antioxidant-activity-of-27-cultivars-of-tea
#2
Liang Zeng, Liyong Luo, Hongjun Li, Ruihai Liu
Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915048/protective-effects-of-green-tea-and-its-main-constituents-against-natural-and-chemical-toxins-a-comprehensive-review
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Rameshrad, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Toxins are natural or chemical poisonous substances with severe side effects on health. Humans are generally exposed by widespread toxic contaminations via air, soil, water, food, fruits and vegetables. Determining a critical antidote agent with extensive effects on different toxins is an ultimate goal for all toxicologists. Traditional medicine is currently perceived as a safe and natural approach against toxins. In this regard, we focused on the protective effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and its main components such as catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin and epigallocatechin gallate as a principal source of antioxidants against both natural and chemical toxins...
November 30, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913892/early-harvest-effects-on-hydrophilic-phenolic-components-of-extra-virgin-olive-oils-cvs-ayval%C3%A4-k-memecik-and-topaka%C3%A5-%C3%A4
#4
Fatma Yıldırım, Adnan Nurhan Yıldırım, Gülcan Özkan, Bekir Şan, Mehmet Polat, Hatice Aşık, Yaşar Karakurt, Sezai Ercişli
The study was conducted to determine the effects of cultivar, harvest period, and their interaction on the hydrophilic phenolic components extra virgin olive oils of the cultivars 'Ayvalık,' 'Memecik,' and 'Topakaşı.' Olives were collected at three different harvesting periods: (1) early harvest period-1 (Beginning of spotting), (2) early harvest period-2 (End of spotting), and (3) optimum harvest period. Oils were extracted using the Abencor system. HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatograph) technique was used to quantify the phenolic compounds including tyrosol (p-HPEA), hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), luteolin, rutin, quercetin, catechin, sinapinic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911811/the-structure-of-the-catechin-binding-site-of-human-sulfotransferase-1a1
#5
Ian Cook, Ting Wang, Mark Girvin, Thomas S Leyh
We are just beginning to understand the allosteric regulation of the human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULTs) family-13 disease-relevant enzymes that regulate the activities of hundreds, if not thousands, of signaling small molecules. SULT1A1, the predominant isoform in adult liver, harbors two noninteracting allosteric sites, each of which binds a different molecular family: the catechins (naturally occurring flavonols) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Here, we present the structure of an SULT allosteric binding site-the catechin-binding site of SULT1A1 bound to epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910216/capillary-electrophoresis-as-tool-for-diastereomeric-separation-in-a-trichilia-catigua-fraction
#6
Ana Luiza Sereia, Renata Longhini, Gisely Cristiny Lopes, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
INTRODUCTION: The tree Trichilia catigua, popularly known as "catuaba", shows several biological activities and has emerged as a potential source of new drugs. Considering that more than 10 species are known under the same popular name, regulatory agencies require more rigorous quality control of this medicinal plant. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a methodology using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet (UV) detection for analysing polyphenols in the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua...
December 2, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908549/noni-leaf-and-black-tea-enhance-bone-regeneration-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#7
Nor Aijratul Asikin Mohd Shalan, Noordin M Mustapha, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Black tea and Nonileaf are among the dietary compounds that can benefit patients with bone resorption disorders. Their bone regeneration effects and their mechanisms were studied in estrogen-deficient rats. METHODS: Noni leaves (three doses) and black tea water extracts were fed to ovariectomized rats for 4 mo, and their effects (analyzed via mechanical measurements, micro-computed tomography scan, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction mRNA) were compared with Remifemin (a commercial phytoestrogen product from black cohosh)...
January 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907185/antioxidant-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-as-well-as-the-phenolic-content-of-the-extract-from-hancornia-speciosa-gomes
#8
Uilson P Santos, Jaqueline F Campos, Heron Fernandes V Torquato, Edgar Julian Paredes-Gamero, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Leticia M Estevinho, Kely de Picoli Souza, Edson Lucas Dos Santos
Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898046/pro-and-antioxidant-activity-of-three-selected-flavan-type-flavonoids-catechin-eriodictyol-and-taxifolin
#9
Vladimir Chobot, Franz Hadacek, Gert Bachmann, Wolfram Weckwerth, Lenka Kubicova
The flavanol (±)-catechin shows an OH group but no 4-keto group on ring C (C3), and no conjugation between ring A and B. The related flavanone (+)-eriodictyol has a keto group on C4 but no 3-OH group on ring C. (+)-Taxifolin, another flavanone, has an OH on C3 and a keto group on C4 of the C ring. Deoxyribose degradation assay systems, with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid either added or omitted, were performed in variants in which Fe(III) was added in a complex with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898032/the-antiproliferative-effect-of-chakasaponins-i-and-ii-floratheasaponin-a-and-epigallocatechin-3-o-gallate-isolated-from-camellia-sinensis-on-human-digestive-tract-carcinoma-cell-lines
#10
Niichiro Kitagawa, Toshio Morikawa, Chiaki Motai, Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Shuhei Okugawa, Ayaka Nishida, Masayuki Yoshikawa, Osamu Muraoka
Acylated oleanane-type triterpene saponins, namely chakasaponins I (1) and II (2), floratheasaponin A (3), and their analogs, together with catechins-including (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (4), flavonoids, and caffeine-have been isolated as characteristic functional constituents from the extracts of "tea flower", the flower buds of Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), which have common components with that of the leaf part. These isolates exhibited antiproliferative activities against human digestive tract carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-4, MKN-45, and Caco-2 cells...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896431/functional-natural-allelic-variants-of-flavonoid-3-5-hydroxylase-gene-governing-catechin-traits-in-tea-plant-and-its-relatives
#11
Ji-Qiang Jin, Jian-Qiang Ma, Ming-Zhe Yao, Chun-Lei Ma, Liang Chen
Functional allelic variants of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene provides new information of F3'5'H function of tea plant and its relatives. This insight may serve as the foundation upon which to advance molecular breeding in the tea plant. Catechins are the active components of tea that determine its quality and health attributes. This study established the first integrated genomic strategy for deciphering the genetic basis of catechin traits of tea plant. With the RNA-sequencing analysis of bulked segregants representing the tails of a F1 population segregated for total catechin content, we identified a flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene...
November 28, 2016: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889855/epigallocatechin-gallate-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-generation-and-oxidative-stress-involvement-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-n2a-app695-cells
#12
Zhao-Xu Zhang, Yan-Bing Li, Rui-Ping Zhao
The accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide plaques is a major pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is a cleaved fragment of APP via BACE1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme in APP processing and Aβ generation. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is considered to be a potential target for AD treatment, because of its potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on Aβ production by negatively regulating BACE1. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a highly active catechin found in green tea, is known to enhance metabolic activity and cognitive ability in the mice model of AD...
November 26, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883924/physiological-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-egcg-on-energy-expenditure-for-prospective-fat-oxidation-in-humans-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Mahendra P Kapoor, Masaaki Sugita, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Tsutomu Okubo
Green tea catechins (GTCs) are known to improve fat oxidation (FOX) during fasted, rested and exercise conditions wherein epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is thought to be the most pharmacologically active and has been studied extensively. From the available data of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on EGCG, we carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis to elucidate whether EGCG consumption indeed increase energy expenditure (EE) and promote FOX. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, JICST, JSTPLUS, and JMEDPLUS and others) and eight RCTs were included...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882075/in-silico-evaluation-of-the-potential-antiarrhythmic-effect-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-cardiac-channelopathies
#14
Maroua Boukhabza, Jaouad El Hilaly, Nourdine Attiya, Ahmed El-Haidani, Younes Filali-Zegzouti, Driss Mazouzi, Mohamed-Yassine Amarouch
Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of ions according to the direction of their electrochemical gradients. Mutations in more than 30 genes encoding ion channels have been associated with an increasingly wide range of inherited cardiac arrhythmias. In this line, ion channels become one of the most important molecular targets for several classes of drugs, including antiarrhythmics. Nevertheless, antiarrhythmic drugs are usually accompanied by some serious side effects. Thus, developing new approaches could offer added values to prevent and treat the episodes of arrhythmia...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881069/anti-influenza-virus-effects-of-catechins-a-molecular-and-clinical-review
#15
Kazuke Ide, Yohei Kawasaki, Koji Kawakami, Hiroshi Yamada
Influenza infection and associated epidemics represent a serious public health problem. Several preventive and curative measures exist against its spread including vaccination and therapeutic agents such as neuraminidase inhibitors (e.g., oseltamivir, zanamivir, as well as peramivir and laninamivir, which are licensed in several countries) and adamantanes (e.g., amantadine and rimantadine). However, neuraminidase inhibitor- and adamantane-resistant viruses have been detected, whereas vaccines exhibit strain-specific effects and are limited in supply...
November 22, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881059/natural-products-with-antiplatelet-action
#16
Gabriela Elisa Hirsch, Paulo Ricardo Nazário Viecili, Amanda Spring de Almeida, Sabrina Nascimento, Fernando Garcez Porto, Juliana Otero, Aline Schmidt, Brenda da Silva, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Jonatas Zeni Klafke
BACKGROUND: Complex hemostatic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. Among them, dysregulation of platelet activity is linked to the progression of atherosclerosis and mainly involves platelet aggregation and a decrease in blood flow in the vascular endothelium. The major platelet activation pathways mediated by agonists involve the arachidonic acid pathway, adenosine diphosphate pathway, serotonin pathway, nitric oxide pathway, and action of free radicals on molecules involved in platelet aggregation...
November 23, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877156/a-chitosan-coating-containing-essential-oil-from-origanum-vulgare-l-to-control-postharvest-mold-infections-and-keep-the-quality-of-cherry-tomato-fruit
#17
Tainá A Barreto, Sonalle C A Andrade, Janeeyre F Maciel, Narciza M O Arcanjo, Marta S Madruga, Bruno Meireles, Ângela M T Cordeiro, Evandro L Souza, Marciane Magnani
The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869786/a-role-for-leucoanthocyanidin-reductase-in-the-extension-of-proanthocyanidins
#18
Chenggang Liu, Xiaoqiang Wang, Vladimir Shulaev, Richard A Dixon
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the second most abundant plant polyphenolic compounds after lignin. PAs affect taste, mouth feel and astringency of many fruits, wines and beverages(1,2), have been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer and Alzheimer's disease(3-5), can improve nutrition and prevent bloat in ruminant animals(6) and enhance soil nitrogen retention(7). PAs are oligomers and polymers of flavan-3-ols, primarily (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but the mechanism by which the monomers polymerize and become insoluble is currently unknown...
November 21, 2016: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869750/biophysical-approach-to-mechanisms-of-cancer-prevention-and-treatment-with-green-tea-catechins
#19
REVIEW
Masami Suganuma, Atsushi Takahashi, Tatsuro Watanabe, Keisuke Iida, Takahisa Matsuzaki, Hiroshi Y Yoshikawa, Hirota Fujiki
Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher...
November 18, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863907/evidence-of-epigenetic-tags-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Vincenzo Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria De Pascale, Alberto Zullo, Andrea Soricelli, Teresa Infante, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Claudio Napoli
In cardiac fibrosis, following an injury or a stress, non-functional fibrotic tissue substitutes normal myocardium, thus leading to progressive heart failure. Activated fibroblasts are principal determinants of cardiac fibrosis by producing excessive fibrotic extracellular matrix and causing hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs have been involved in these mechanisms. Therefore, there is a strong interest in reverting such epigenetic transformations in order to arrest myocardial fibrotic degeneration...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
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