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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212288/the-search-for-dietary-supplements-to-elevate-or-activate-circulating-paraoxonases
#1
REVIEW
José M Lou-Bonafonte, Clara Gabás-Rivera, María A Navarro, Jesús Osada
Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211691/lipophilized-grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-derivatives-as-novel-antioxidants
#2
Mingshun Chen, Shujuan Yu
Grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) is a natural food antioxidant. Natural proanthocyanidins (PC) in grape seed are usually polyhydroxy derivatives which exhibit hydrophilic character. GSP was modified structurally to improve its lipophilicity, expand its application in lipophilic media, and enhance its cellular absorption in vivo. Esterification of the water-soluble GSP was prepared by immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM with lauric acid, and their enhanced lipophilicity was confirmed by the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208738/oral-administration-of-the-japanese-traditional-medicine-keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin-decreases-reactive-oxygen-metabolites-in-rat-plasma-identification-of-chemical-constituents-contributing-to-antioxidant-activity
#3
Yosuke Matsubara, Takashi Matsumoto, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Junichi Koseki, Atsushi Kaneko, Takuji Yamaguchi, Yumiko Kurihara, Hiroyuki Kobayashi
Insufficient detoxification and/or overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce cellular and tissue damage, and generated reactive oxygen metabolites become exacerbating factors of dermatitis. Keishibukuryogan-ka-yokuinin (KBGY) is a traditional Japanese medicine prescribed to treat dermatitis such as acne vulgaris. Our aim was to verify the antioxidant properties of KBGY, and identify its active constituents by blood pharmacokinetic techniques. Chemical constituents were quantified in extracts of KBGY, crude components, and the plasma of rats treated with a single oral administration of KBGY...
February 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208627/phytochemical-analysis-of-agrimonia-pilosa-ledeb-its-antioxidant-activity-and-aldose-reductase-inhibitory-potential
#4
Set Byeol Kim, Seung Hwan Hwang, Hong-Won Suh, Soon Sung Lim
The aim of this study was to determine aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of compounds from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP). We isolated agrimoniin (AM), four flavonoid glucosides and two flavonoid glucuronides from the n-butanol fraction of AP 50% methanol extract. In addition to isolated compounds, the AR-inhibitory activity and the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of catechin, 5-flavonoids, and 4-flavonoid glucosides (known components of AP) against rat lens AR (RLAR) and DPPH assay were measured...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207992/inhibitory-activities-of-n-butanol-fraction-from-butea-monosperma-lam-taub-bark-against-free-radicals-genotoxins-and-cancer-cells
#5
Varinder Kaur, Manish Kumar, Paramjeet Kaur, Sandeep Kaur, Satwinderjeet Kaur
The present study was undertaken to investigate antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity of n-butanol fraction (Bmbu) from bark of medicinal plant Butea monosperma. Antioxidant potency of Bmbu was examined by various in vitro assays. It was also investigated for antigenotoxic activity using E. coli. PQ37 employing SOS chromotest. Further, cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing activity of Bmbu was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Bmbu showed potent free radical scavenging ability in ABTS assay (IC50 56...
February 16, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202328/discovery-of-hyaluronidase-inhibitors-from-natural-products-and-their-mechanistic-characterization-under-dmso-perturbed-assay-conditions
#6
Keisuke Tomohara, Tomohiro Ito, Saika Onikata, Atsushi Kato, Isao Adachi
The present study discovered four novel hyaluronan-degrading enzyme (hyaluronidase) inhibitors including chikusetsusaponins and catechins through the activity-guided separation of Panax japonicus and Prunus salicina, respectively. Although the discovery resulted in identification of usual frequent hitters, subsequent mechanistic characterizations under our DMSO-perturbed assay conditions and related protocols revealed that chikusetusaponin IV would serve as an aggregating and non-specific binding inhibitor, while (-)-epicatechin would interact specifically with enzyme at the catalytic site or more likely at a kind of catechin-binding site with a relatively week inhibitory activity...
January 31, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194790/roasting-conditions-for-preserving-cocoa-flavan-3-ol-monomers-and-oligomers-interesting-behaviour-of-criollo-clones
#7
Cédric De Taeye, Marie Bodart, Gilles Caullet, Sonia Collin
BACKGROUND: Cocoa bean roasting is important for creating the typical chocolate aroma through Maillard reactions, but it is also a key step deleterious to the polyphenol content and profile. RESULTS: Compared to usual roasting at 150 °C, keeping the beans for 30 min at 120 °C or for 1 hour at 90 °C proved much better for preventing strong degradation of native P1, P2, and P3 flavan-3-ols in cocoa (shown for the Forastero, Trinitatio, and Criollo cultivars)...
February 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191529/the-green-tea-polyphenol-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-and-its-beneficial-roles-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#8
REVIEW
Hui Bao, Ai Peng
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition that affects around 10% of the population, has become a significant public health concern. Current therapeutic strategies to slow down the progression of CKD remain limited. Thus, it is urgent to develop new strategies to manage the patients with CKD. Work within the past decade has improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to CKD. In particular, oxidative stress as well as inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in CKD progression. ()-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin of green tea extract, is known as a powerful antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenger...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188424/fine-tuning-of-the-flavonoid-and-monolignol-pathways-during-apple-early-fruit-development
#9
Paolo Baldi, Mirko Moser, Matteo Brilli, Urska Vrhovsek, Massimo Pindo, Azeddine Si-Ammour
A coordinated regulation of different branches of the flavonoid pathway was highlighted that may contribute to elucidate the role of this important class of compounds during the early stages of apple fruit development. Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) is an economically important fruit appreciated for its organoleptic characteristics and its benefits for human health. The first stages after fruit set represent a very important and still poorly characterized developmental process. To enable the profiling of genes involved in apple early fruit development, we combined the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) protocol to next-generation sequencing...
February 11, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183644/facile-preparation-of-poly-methylene-blue-modified-carbon-paste-electrode-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-catechin
#10
G Manasa, Ronald J Mascarenhas, Ashis K Satpati, Ozma J D'Souza, A Dhason
Free radicals are formed as byproducts of metabolism, and are highly unstable due to the presence of unpaired electrons. They readily react with other important cellular components such as DNA causing them damage. Antioxidants such as (+)-catechin (CAT), neutralize free radicals in the blood stream. Hence there is a need for detection and quantification of catechin concentration in various food sources and beverages. Electro-oxidative properties of catechin were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182843/inhibitory-effects-of-red-wine-on-lipid-oxidation-in-fish-oil-emulsion-and-angiogenesis-in-zebrafish-embryo
#11
Haiyan Sun, Yulin Zhang, Yixiao Shen, Yongchao Zhu, Hua Wang, Zhimin Xu
The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181408/epigallocatechin-gallate-induces-an-up-regulation-of-ldl-receptor-accompanied-by-a-reduction-of-pcsk9-via-the-annexin-a2-independent-pathway-in-hepg2-cells
#12
Kohei Kitamura, Yudai Okada, Kenji Okada, Yuya Kawaguchi, Satoshi Nagaoka
SCOPE: In animal studies, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the dominant catechin in green tea, has been shown to improve cholesterol metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms of EGCG underlying these functions have not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to clarify the molecular mechanisms of the effect of EGCG on cholesterol metabolism mainly in HepG2 cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: We found that EGCG induced a reduction of the extracellular proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) level accompanied by an up-regulation of the LDL receptor (LDLR) in HepG2 cells...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178749/improving-on-nature-the-role-of-nanomedicine-in-the-development-of-clinical-natural-drugs
#13
Anna Rita Bilia, Vieri Piazzini, Clizia Guccione, Laura Risaliti, Martina Asprea, Giada Capecchi, Maria Camilla Bergonzi
Natural products have been used as a major source of drugs for millennia, and about half of the pharmaceuticals in use today are derived from natural products. However, their efficacy can be limited because of their low hydrophilicity and intrinsic dissolution rate(s), or physical/chemical instability. In addition, they can present scarce absorption, poor pharmacokinetics and bioavailability, scarce biodistribution, first-pass metabolism, trivial penetration and accumulation in the organs of the body, or low targeting efficacy...
February 8, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171723/reaction-kinetics-of-monomeric-anthocyanin-conversion-to-polymeric-pigment-and-significance-to-color-in-interspecific-hybrid-wines
#14
Claire E Burtch, Anna Katharine Mansfield, David C Manns
The color stability of red wines produced from interspecific hybrid grapes, which is partially dependent on anthocyanin diglucosides, is not well understood. In this study, the rate of decrease of monomeric anthocyanins as they polymerized to polymeric pigments due to the presence of excess catechin and acetaldehyde was measured in model wine using HPLC. Colorimetry was used to measure L*, a*, and b* values, hue angle, and change in color (∆E). Concentrations of individual diglucosides decreased more slowly than monoglucosides...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168009/antioxidants-of-phyllanthus-emblica-l-bark-extract-provide-hepatoprotection-against-ethanol-induced-hepatic-damage-a-comparison-with-silymarin
#15
Renuka Chaphalkar, Kishori G Apte, Yogesh Talekar, Shreesh Kumar Ojha, Mukesh Nandave
Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) has been used in Ayurveda as a potent rasayan for treatment of hepatic disorders. Most of the pharmacological studies, however, are largely focused on PE fruit, while the rest of the parts of PE, particularly, bark, remain underinvestigated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Phyllanthus emblica bark (PEE) in ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model in rats. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content and in vitro antioxidant activities were determined by using H2O2 scavenging and ABTS decolorization assays...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165396/proanthocyanidin-characterization-and-bioactivity-of-extracts-from-different-parts-of-uncaria-tomentosa-l-cat-s-claw
#16
Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos, Rosa Lebrón-Aguilar, Jesús E Quintanilla-López, Carolina Cueva, David Hevia, Silvia Quesada, Gabriela Azofeifa, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas, María Monagas, Begoña Bartolomé
Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa, its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS)...
February 4, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159725/topical-treatments-of-saussurea-costus-root-and-thuja-orientalis-l-synergistically-alleviate-atopic-dermatitis-like-skin-lesions-by-inhibiting-protease-activated-receptor-2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-hacat-cells-and-nc-nga-mice
#17
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Suna Kang, Na Rang Moon, Da Sol Kim, Na Ra Lee, Kang Sung Kim, Sunmin Park
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The root of Saussurea costus (Aucklandia lappa Decne, Aucklandiae Radix, SC) and Thuja orientalis L. (TOL) have been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agents in Korea. However, they have not been studied for the efficacy of atopic dermatitis (AD) treatment, a chronic inflammatory skin disease. We investigated the efficacy of topical applications with 1,3-butyleneglycol extracts of SC and TOL to alleviate the symptoms of AD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HaCaT cells and the dorsal skin of Nc/Nga mice had a local exposure of house mite extracts and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), respectively...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158946/flavanol-quantification-of-grapes-via-multiple-reaction-monitoring-mass-spectrometry-application-to-the-differentiation-among-clones-of-vitis-vinifera-l-cv-rufete-grapes
#18
Ignacio García-Estévez, Cristina Alcalde-Eon, M Teresa Escribano-Bailon
The determination of the detailed flavanol composition in food matrices is not a simple task because of the structural similarities of monomers and, consequently, oligomers and polymers. The aim of this study was the development and validation of an HPLC-MS/MS-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method that would allow the accurate and precise quantification of catechins, gallocatechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. The high correlation coefficients of the calibration curves (>0.993), the recoveries not statistically different from 100%, the good intra- and inter-day precision (lower than 5%) and the LOD and LOQ values, low enough to quantify flavanols in grapes, are good results from the method validation procedure...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154327/characterization-of-phenolic-constituents-from-ephedra-herb-extract
#19
Yoshiaki Amakura
 Ephedra Herb (Japanese name: mao) is defined as the terrestrial stem of Ephedra species. It is one of the most important crude drugs in Kampo prescriptions such as maoto, kakkonto, and shoseiryuto. The traditional biological properties of Ephedra Herb are mainly attributable to ephedrine alkaloids. Recently, our research group has found that Ephedra Herb extract also shows alkaloid-independent pharmacological action; therefore, we focused on polyphenols, other active ingredients of Ephedra Herb extract. Reports on the constituents of the extract other than ephedrine alkaloids are limited, although condensed tannins of procyanidin A-type have been found in some Ephedra species...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152668/evaluation-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-betula-pendula-leaves-extract-and-its-effects-on-model-foods
#20
Nurul Aini Mohd Azman, Monika Skowyra, Kwestan Muhammad, María Gabriela Gallego, Maria Pilar Almajano
CONTEXT: Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. OBJECTIVE: The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
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