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Extrinsic motivation

Katy Sutcliffe, G J Melendez-Torres, Helen E D Burchett, Michelle Richardson, Rebecca Rees, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review...
March 14, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Increasing evidence suggests that the reward positivity conforms to an axiomatic reward prediction error - that is, it closely follows the rule-like encoding of surprising reinforcers. However, a major limitation in these EEG studies is the over-reliance on a single class of secondary rewards like points or money, constraining dimensionality and limiting generalizability. In the current suite of studies we address this limitation by leveraging different classes of rewards outcomes, specifically emotionally pleasant pictures...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Inga Hege, Anita Dietl, Jan Kiesewetter, Jörg Schelling, Isabel Kiesewetter
BACKGROUND: Virtual patients (VPs) are narrative-based educational activities to train clinical reasoning in a safe environment. Our aim was to explore the influence of the design of the narrative and level of difficulty on the clinical reasoning process, diagnostic accuracy and time-on-task. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we analyzed the clinical reasoning process of 46 medical students with six VPs in three different variations: (1) patients showing a friendly behavior, (2) patients showing a disruptive behavior and (3) a version without a patient story...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
Paul S Jansons, Lauren Robins, Terry P Haines, Lisa O'Brien
BACKGROUND: At present there is no clear evidence to support any one particular intervention for engaging adults with chronic health issues in ongoing exercise. An understanding of consumer perceptions and preferences is important, because low rates of exercise adherence are likely to limit any benefits obtained. OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare participants' perceptions about their own motivation, capacity and opportunity to adhere to an allocated exercise program during either a gym-based or a home-based exercise program with telephone follow-up...
February 19, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Tyrone J Tolbert, Shinnosuke Nakayama, Maurizio Porfiri
The advent of automated tracking software has significantly reduced the time required to record movement trajectories, thereby facilitating behavioral studies of zebrafish. However, results are substantially influenced by tracking errors, such as loss and misidentification of individuals. In this study, we present the development of an online citizen science platform, Tracking Nemo, to improve data accuracy on swimming trajectories of zebrafish groups. As an online extension of software for tracking the position of zebrafish from video recordings, Tracking Nemo offers volunteers the opportunity to contribute to science by manually correcting tracked trajectory data from their personal computers...
February 22, 2018: Zebrafish
Parivash Jahandar, Mansoureh Zagheri Tafreshi, Maryam Rassouli, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Amir Kavousi
Background: Spiritual leadership and spirituality in organizations have the capacity to develop individual and organizational outcomes. This concept, as a newly established paradigm, has many ambiguities and definitions highly affected by cultural contexts. Objective: This study aimed at determining the concept of spiritual leadership from nurses' perspective and recognizing aspects of spiritual leadership model in the Iranian nurses' sociocultural context, to achieve a common and comprehensive understanding of the concept under study...
November 2017: Electronic Physician
Karen Christina Walker, Laura Staun Valentiner, Henning Langberg
Aim: To explore motivational factors for initiating, implementing, and maintaining physical activity following a rehabilitation program for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Semi-structured, individual, qualitative interviews with five informants from the InterWalk trial were conducted at three separate occasions; at initiation of the rehabilitation program, at completion of the 12-week program, and 52 weeks after enrolment. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to Systematic Text Condensation...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Byung-Hoon Kim, Yu-Bin Shin, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seon-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia adversely affect various domains of daily living. This symptom in everyday life situations manifests in a complex behavioral pattern whose root cannot be simplified to an impaired reward-motivation scheme. This study aimed to identify impairment of the salience network that underlies motivational deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia in real-life situations. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 normal controls performed a task mimicking real-life situations, in which an avatar proposed participation in a daily activity with either an intrinsic or extrinsic reward...
January 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Joy Penman, Lee Martinez, Debra Papoulis, Kathryn Cronin
The aims of this study are three-fold: determine the factors that motivate nurses to pursue mental health nursing; identify the strategies that might attract nursing students and practising nurses to pursue mental health nursing as a professional career; and identify the difficulties of nurses in achieving their preferred clinical specialty. A descriptive qualitative study design with semi-structured interviews was used. Fifteen mental health nurses from rural and regional South Australia were interviewed. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was undertaken...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
Robert Haussmann, René Mayer-Pelinski, Maike Borchardt, Fabrice Beier, Franziska Helling, Maria Buthut, Gisa Meissner, Jan Lange, Anne Zweiniger, Markus Donix
Diagnostic assessments for dementia include the evaluation of subjective memory impairment, dementia worries, or depressive symptoms. Data on the predictive value of these factors remain unclear, and varying help-seeking behavior may contribute to this finding. We investigate whether differentiating help-seeking motivation from other psychological factors associated with cognitive impairment would enhance the prediction of diagnostic outcomes in a memory clinic. We obtained information on help-seeking motivation from 171 patients who underwent routine diagnostic assessments...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Xin Zhou, Archana Krishnan
Habitual exercising is an important precursor to both physical and psychological well-being. There is, thus, a strong interest in identifying key factors that can best motivate individuals to sustain regular exercise regimen. In addition to the importance of psychographic factors, social media use may act as external motivator by allowing users to interact and communicate about exercise. In this study, we examined the influence of health consciousness, health-oriented beliefs, intrinsic motivation, as willingness to communicate about health on social media, social media activity on exercise, and online social support on exercise maintenance and well-being on a sample of 532 American adults...
January 26, 2018: Health Communication
Vegard Johansen
OBJECTIVES: This article investigates various motives for sickness presence (SP) among students in secondary school. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 25 secondary schools in Belgium, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Latvia. PARTICIPANTS: 5002 students between 16 and 19 years of age, 49% female. RESULTS: Almost half of the students reported two or more incidents of SP. The study indicated that the practice of SP was mainly extrinsically motivated...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
Qiaoqin Wan, Zhaoyang Li, Weijiao Zhou, Shaomei Shang
AIM: To assess turnover intention among experienced nurses and explore the effects of work environment, job characteristics and work engagement on turnover intention. BACKGROUND: The nursing shortage is an urgent concern in China. A high turnover rate of experienced nurses could have serious effects on the quality of care, costs and the efficiency of hospitals. It is crucial to explore the predictors of turnover intention and develop strategies tailored to experienced nurses...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Hsin-Yi Liang, Brent Kelsen
Personality and motivation have been identified as influential variables associated with foreign language learning; however, few studies have investigated their effect on oral presentations. This study addresses the importance of both personality and motivation in students' collaborative oral presentation performance. A Big Five personality trait questionnaire measuring Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism and Openness to Experience, together with the Collaborative Inquiry-based Project Questionnaire measuring Task, Project Work, Reinforcement, Social Learning and Social Pressure motivational constructs were employed to evaluate 257 university students...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Jing Shuai, Binghui Ge, Jun Mao, Shaowei Song, Yumei Wang, Zhifeng Ren
Complex structures with versatile chemistry provide considerable chemical tunability of the transport properties. Good thermoelectric materials are generally extrinsically doped semiconductors with optimal carrier concentrations, while charged intrinsic defects (e.g., vacancies, interstitials) can also adjust the carriers, even in the compounds with no apparent deviation from a stoichiometric nominal composition. Here we report that in Zintl compounds Mg3+xSb1.5Bi0.5, the carrier concentration can be tuned from p-type to n-type by simply altering the initial Mg concentration...
January 14, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Samantha Ensz, Peter J Jankowski
This study addressed the lack of research simultaneously examining multiple dimensions of religiousness when predicting rape myth acceptance, and extended prior findings of a mediating role for right-wing authoritarianism (i.e., uncritical submission to authority and aggressive attitude toward those who do not conform to social norms) in the association between religiousness and prejudice. The sample consisted of 99 undergraduate and graduate students ( M age = 31.87 years, 66.7% female, 80.82% White, and 93% Christian affiliated) from a religiously affiliated university in the Midwest United States...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Thomas Elbert, Maggie Schauer, James K Moran
The Good: when you fight to counter threat, your aggression is a reactive defense, and often morally justifiable. The Bad: when you loot and rob, hurt and kill, to obtain social status or material goods, that is an extrinsic reward. This is instrumental aggression. And The Ugly: The intrinsic enjoyment of violence. This 'appetitive aggression' describes a lust for violence, underlying first-person shooter gamers, hunting, and extreme acts of violence, such as murder and massacres. Although violence often results from a combination of these forms of aggression, the differentiation is necessary to understand their interplay, as they drive two interconnected cycles of violence: the reactive cycle, fueled by the motivation to overcome negative feelings, and the hedonically driven appetitive cycle...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Jocelyn A Pearson, Kara Mangold, Heidi E Kosiorek, Morgan Montez, Diane M Smith, Brenda J Tyler
AIM: To describe how registered nurse work motivation, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control influence intention to promote physical activity in hospitalised adult liver transplant recipients. DESIGN: Descriptive study of clinical registered nurses caring for recipients of liver transplant at a tertiary medical centre. METHODS: Intent to Mobilise Liver Transplant Recipient Scale, Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale, and demographics were used to explore registered nurses' work motivation, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention to promote physical activity of hospitalised adult liver transplant recipients during the acute postoperative phase...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Nursing Management
Tianma Xu, Kate O'Loughlin, Lindy Clemson, Natasha A Lannin, Catherine Dean, Gerald Koh
PURPOSE: Drawing on the perspectives of stroke survivors, family members and domestic helpers, this study explores participants' experiences of self-perceived fall risk factors after stroke, common fall prevention strategies used, and challenges to community participation after a fall. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Singapore with community-dwelling stroke survivors with a previous fall (n = 9), family caregivers (n = 4), and domestic helpers (n = 4) who have cared for a stroke survivor with a previous fall...
December 25, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
Xing Ma, Yuanyuan Yang, Xue Wang, Yuli Zang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and synthesise the existing evidence on creativity in nursing. DESIGN: An integrative review. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was conducted using seven English databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, EBSCO, Wiley, and Medline) and the top three best Chinese databases (CNKI, Wanfang Data, and VIP). REVIEW METHODS: The combined keywords, creativity and nursing/nurse, were used to search for relevant journal articles that were written in English or Chinese from January 1995 to December 2016...
December 13, 2017: Nurse Education Today
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