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Extrinsic motivation

Dilmi Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Ian Gellatly, Greta Cummings, Linda Ogilvie
AIMS: To present a discussion and model depicting most effecting work life experience contextual factors that influence commitment and turnover intentions for nurses in Sri Lanka. BACKGROUND: Increasing demand for nurses has made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations and highlights the need to capture contextual work-life experiences that influence nurses' turnover decisions. DESIGN: Discussion paper...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Kaitlin Woolley, Ayelet Fishbach
Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Andrew Sadler, Ling Shi, Susanne Bethge, Axel Mühlbacher
Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Nicole Rockich-Winston, Brian C Train, Michael J Rudolph, Chris Gillette
INTRODUCTION: Faculty motivations to use active learning have been limited to surveys evaluating faculty perceptions within active learning studies. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the relationship between faculty intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and demographic variables and the extent of active learning use in the classroom. METHODS: An online survey was administered to individual faculty members at 137 colleges and schools of pharmacy across the United States...
March 2018: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Danny Kinsella, Margaret Fry, Alison Zecchin
Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey...
May 1, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Chitra Pandey, Hema Diwan
Sustainable agri-development is composed of soil fertility maintenance, nutrient use efficiency and resource use efficiency. In this regard, the present study aims to address the complex dynamics of farm-soil and the water nexus for integrated natural resource management by understanding the fertilizer use decision of farmers. In addition to the monitoring of soil quality parameters, that is, the total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations, factor analysis was used to explore the drivers of high fertilizer use in the most agriculturally intensive region of India...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jennifer R Roberts, Molly Maxfield
As awareness of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders and diagnosis rates rise, concern about developing such conditions may also increase, referred to here as dementia worry (DW). Few studies have examined DW and potential protective factors. Religiosity provides diverse psychological benefits and may be associated with lower DW; however, intrinsic/extrinsic motivations were expected to differentially relate to DW. Among 83 older adults (M = 69.48 years), both greater intrinsic and extrinsic-social religious motivation were associated with lower DW...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Carien W Alingh, Jeroen D H van Wijngaarden, Robbert Huijsman, Jaap Paauwe
BACKGROUND: Hospitals are confronted with increasing safety demands from a diverse set of stakeholders, including governmental organisations, professional associations, health insurance companies, patient associations and the media. However, little is known about the effects of these institutional and competitive pressures on hospital safety management. Previous research has shown that organisations generally shape their safety management approach along the lines of control- or commitment-based management...
May 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Michael Poulsen, Anne A Poulsen
Radiation oncology trainees in Australia and New Zealand have relatively high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation which are core components of burnout. The stresses of a demanding clinical load, studying for exams as well as family commitments are all contributing factors. Self-Deter mination Theory (SDT) provides a framework for optimising motivation which may be intrinsic or extrinsic. The three core components of SDT are competence, relatedness and autonomy. These factors should be addressed at a college level, Institutional and a personal level if the best outcomes are to be achieved...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
Sonja Jördis Ebel, Josep Call
Many primate species have a strong disposition to approach and manipulate objects in captivity. However, few studies have investigated what primates learn during free exploration of objects in the absence of rewards, and how previous problem-solving performance influences subsequent exploration. We confronted members of each of the four nonhuman great ape species (N = 25) with the collapsible platform task that required subjects to drop a stone inside a tube to collapse a platform and release a reward. Subjects received four successive sessions with an empty apparatus (exploration driven by intrinsic motivation) followed by four with a baited apparatus (problem-solving driven by extrinsic motivation) or vice versa...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Andrea Kusec, Diana Velikonja, Carol DeMatteo, Jocelyn E Harris
BACKGROUND: In acquired brain injury (ABI) populations, low motivation to engage in rehabilitation is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. Motivation in ABI is thought to be influenced by internal and external factors. This is consistent with Self-determination Theory, which posits that motivation is intrinsic and extrinsic. This paper discusses the benefit of using Self-determination Theory to guide measurement of motivation in ABI. METHODS: Using a narrative review of the Self-determination Theory literature and clinical rehabilitation research, this paper discusses the unique role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation has in healthcare settings and the importance of understanding both when providing rehabilitation in ABI...
April 25, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Kennon M Sheldon, Nicolas Sommet, Mike Corcoran, Andrew J Elliot
We created a life-goal assessment drawing from self-determination theory and achievement goal literature, examining its predictive power regarding immoral behavior and subjective well-being. Our source items assessed direction and energization of motivation, via the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic aims and between intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for acting, respectively. Fused source items assessed four goal complexes representing a combination of direction and energization. Across three studies ( Ns = 109, 121, and 398), the extrinsic aim/extrinsic reason complex was consistently associated with immoral and/or unethical behavior beyond four source and three other goal complex variables...
April 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rahul Pandey, Sonu Goel, Vipin Koushal
The present study assessed the motivation level of nurses working in 3 highly decorated tertiary-level government hospitals of India and also underpins the factors attributing to motivation levels. A sequential mixed-method design was used in this study wherein 400 nurses working in 5 units of nursing care in the hospitals were enrolled based upon proportionate random stratified sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire with Likert scale was developed based upon scale used by Mbindyo et al. The attributes of motivation were then categorized into external and internal attributes...
April 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
David Cittern, Tobias Nolte, Karl Friston, Abbas Edalat
This paper addresses the formation of infant attachment types within the context of active inference: a holistic account of action, perception and learning in the brain. We show how the organised forms of attachment (secure, avoidant and ambivalent) might arise in (Bayesian) infants. Specifically, we show that these distinct forms of attachment emerge from a minimisation of free energy-over interoceptive states relating to internal stress levels-when seeking proximity to caregivers who have a varying impact on these interoceptive states...
2018: PloS One
Tarun Reddy Katapally, Jasmin Bhawra, Scott T Leatherdale, Leah Ferguson, Justin Longo, Daniel Rainham, Richard Larouche, Nathaniel Osgood
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, costing approximately US $67.5 billion per year to health care systems. To curb the physical inactivity pandemic, it is time to move beyond traditional approaches and engage citizens by repurposing sedentary behavior (SB)-enabling ubiquitous tools (eg, smartphones). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the Saskatchewan, let's move and map our activity (SMART) Study was to develop a mobile and citizen science methodological platform for active living surveillance, knowledge translation, and policy interventions...
March 27, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Brittany N Semenchuk, Shaelyn M Strachan, Michelle Fortier
Self-compassion facilitates health behavior self-regulation; few studies have examined self-compassion and exercise. This online, cross-sectional study investigated self-compassion's relationship with exercise self-regulation of an exercise setback. Adults (N = 105) who had experienced an exercise setback within the last 6 months completed baseline measures, recalled an exercise setback, and completed questionnaires assessing self-regulation in this context. Self-compassion associated with self-determined motivations and exercise goal reengagement, and negatively related to extrinsic motivations, state rumination, and negative affect...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Nicholas Golda, Stephen Beeson, Nita Kohli, Brandon Merrill
Assessing the patient experience has been a component of national health care policy for years in various forms, and it is now incorporated into many areas affecting physician practice. This review will focus on the origin and importance of this measure and address its critiques. The evolution of the measure as it progressed from patient satisfaction to patient experience and the rationale behind this shift will be detailed, the thought process behind the measure as an indicator of a culture of patient-centeredness and quality rather than as strictly a score will be reviewed, and the various motivators for physicians to improve patient experience will be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic and discussed...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Katy Sutcliffe, G J Melendez-Torres, Helen E D Burchett, Michelle Richardson, Rebecca Rees, James Thomas
BACKGROUND: Extensive research effort shows that weight management programmes (WMPs) targeting both diet and exercise are broadly effective. However, the critical features of WMPs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To develop a deeper understanding of WMPs critical features, we undertook a systematic review of qualitative evidence. We sought to understand from a service-user perspective how programmes are experienced, and may be effective, on the ground. SEARCH STRATEGY: We identified qualitative studies from existing reviews and updated the searches of one review...
March 14, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Darin R Brown, James F Cavanagh
Increasing evidence suggests that the reward positivity conforms to an axiomatic reward prediction error - that is, it closely follows the rule-like encoding of surprising reinforcers. However, a major limitation in these EEG studies is the over-reliance on a single class of secondary rewards like points or money, constraining dimensionality and limiting generalizability. In the current suite of studies we address this limitation by leveraging different classes of rewards outcomes, specifically emotionally pleasant pictures...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Inga Hege, Anita Dietl, Jan Kiesewetter, Jörg Schelling, Isabel Kiesewetter
BACKGROUND: Virtual patients (VPs) are narrative-based educational activities to train clinical reasoning in a safe environment. Our aim was to explore the influence of the design of the narrative and level of difficulty on the clinical reasoning process, diagnostic accuracy and time-on-task. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, we analyzed the clinical reasoning process of 46 medical students with six VPs in three different variations: (1) patients showing a friendly behavior, (2) patients showing a disruptive behavior and (3) a version without a patient story...
February 28, 2018: Medical Teacher
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