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Intrinsic reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#1
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771568/it-s-about-time-earlier-rewards-increase-intrinsic-motivation
#2
Kaitlin Woolley, Ayelet Fishbach
Can immediate (vs. delayed) rewards increase intrinsic motivation? Prior research compared the presence versus absence of rewards. By contrast, this research compared immediate versus delayed rewards, predicting that more immediate rewards increase intrinsic motivation by creating a perceptual fusion between the activity and its goal (i.e., the reward). In support of the hypothesis, framing a reward from watching a news program as more immediate (vs. delayed) increased intrinsic motivation to watch the program (Study 1), and receiving more immediate bonus (vs...
June 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758221/inhibition-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-activity-by-the-kv7-opener-retigabine-and-the-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-diclofenac
#3
Rodrigo Manuel Paz, Cecilia Tubert, Agostina Stahl, Analía López Díaz, Roberto Etchenique, Mario Gustavo Murer, Lorena Rela
Striatal cholinergic interneurons provide modulation to striatal circuits involved in voluntary motor control and goal-directed behaviors through their autonomous tonic discharge and their firing "pause" responses to novel and rewarding environmental events. Striatal cholinergic interneuron hyperactivity was linked to the motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease and the adverse effects of chronic antiparkinsonian therapy like l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Here we addressed whether Kv7 channels, which provide negative feedback to excitation in other neuron types, are involved in the control of striatal cholinergic interneuron tonic activity and response to excitatory inputs...
May 11, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723554/decreased-resting-state-bold-regional-homogeneity-and-the-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-within-dorsal-striatum-is-associated-with-greater-impulsivity-in-food-related-decision-making-and-bmi-change-at-6-month-follow-up
#4
Xiao Gao, Qianlin Liang, Guorong Wu, Ying She, Nan Sui, Hong Chen
Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes)...
April 30, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720962/sex-differences-in-medium-spiny-neuron-excitability-and-glutamatergic-synaptic-input-heterogeneity-across-striatal-regions-and-evidence-for-estradiol-dependent-sexual-differentiation
#5
REVIEW
Jinyan Cao, Jaime A Willett, David M Dorris, John Meitzen
Steroid sex hormones and biological sex influence how the brain regulates motivated behavior, reward, and sensorimotor function in both normal and pathological contexts. Investigations into the underlying neural mechanisms have targeted the striatal brain regions, including the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), and shell. These brain regions are of particular interest to neuroendocrinologists given that they express membrane-associated but not nuclear estrogen receptors, and also the well-established role of the sex steroid hormone 17β-estradiol (estradiol) in modulating striatal dopamine systems...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714526/brain-intrinsic-network-connectivity-in-individuals-with-frequent-tanning-behavior
#6
Ariel Ketcherside, Francesca M Filbey, Pamela M Aubert, John P Seibyl, Julianne L Price, Bryon Adinoff
BACKGROUND: Emergent studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between brain functioning and the skin. This neurocutaneous connection may be responsible for the reward response to tanning and, thus, may contribute to excessive tanning behavior. To date, however, this association has not yet been examined. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether intrinsic brain functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to indoor tanning behavior. METHODS: Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) was obtained in twenty adults (16 females) with a history of indoor tanning...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708360/the-interplay-of-prior-experience-and-motivation-in-great-ape-problem-solving-gorilla-gorilla-pan-paniscus-pan-troglodytes-and-pongo-abelii
#7
Sonja Jördis Ebel, Josep Call
Many primate species have a strong disposition to approach and manipulate objects in captivity. However, few studies have investigated what primates learn during free exploration of objects in the absence of rewards, and how previous problem-solving performance influences subsequent exploration. We confronted members of each of the four nonhuman great ape species (N = 25) with the collapsible platform task that required subjects to drop a stone inside a tube to collapse a platform and release a reward. Subjects received four successive sessions with an empty apparatus (exploration driven by intrinsic motivation) followed by four with a baited apparatus (problem-solving driven by extrinsic motivation) or vice versa...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689260/effects-of-monoamines-on-the-intrinsic-excitability-of-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-in-alcohol-dependent-and-non-dependent-female-mice
#8
Sudarat Nimitvilai, Marcelo F Lopez, John J Woodward
Changes in brain reward and control systems of frontal cortical areas including the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD). The OFC is extensively innervated by monoamines, and drugs that target monoamine receptors have been used to treat a number of neuropsychiatric diseases, including AUDs. Recent findings from this laboratory demonstrate that D2, α2-adrenergic and 5HT1A receptors all decrease the intrinsic excitability of lateral OFC (lOFC) neurons in naïve male mice and that this effect is lost in mice exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor...
April 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674268/frequency-dependent-functional-connectivity-of-the-nucleus-accumbens-during-continuous-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Zengjian Wang, Jiliang Fang, Jun Liu, Peijing Rong, Kristen Jorgenson, Joel Park, Courtney Lang, Yang Hong, Bing Zhu, Jian Kong
Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) may be a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). In this exploratory study, fMRI scans were acquired during continuous real or sham tVNS from 41 MDD patients. Then, all patients received real or sham tVNS treatment for four weeks. We investigated the functional connectivity (FC) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different frequency bands during real and sham tVNS and explored their associations with depressive symptom changes after one month of treatment...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662983/the-recognition-of-glycans-by-protein-receptors-insights-from-nmr-spectroscopy
#10
Ana Ardá, Jesús Jiménez-Barbero
Carbohydrates (glycans, saccharides, sugars) are everywhere. In fact, glycan-protein interactions are involved in many essential processes of life and disease. The understanding of the key structural details at the atomic and molecular level is of paramount importance to effectively design molecules for therapeutic purposes. Different approximations may be employed to decipher these molecular recognition processes with high resolution. Advances in cryo-electron microscopy are providing exquisite details on different biological mechanisms involving sugars, while better and better protocols for structural refinement in the application of X-ray methods for protein-sugar complexes and glycoproteins are also permitting fantastic advances in the glycoscience arena...
April 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655598/individual-differences-in-the-energizing-effects-of-caffeine-on-effort-based-decision-making-tests-in-rats
#11
Noemí SanMiguel, Marta Pardo, Carla Carratalá-Ros, Laura López-Cruz, John D Salamone, Mercè Correa
Motivated behavior is characterized by activation and high work output. Nucleus accumbens (Nacb) modulates behavioral activation and effort-based decision-making. Caffeine is widely consumed because of its energizing properties. This methylxanthine is a non-selective adenosine A1 /A2A receptor antagonist. Adenosine receptors are highly concentrated in Nacb. Adenosine agonists injected into Nacb, shift preference towards low effort alternatives. The present studies characterized effort-related effects of caffeine in a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/free reinforcer choice procedure that requires high levels of work output, and generates great variability among different animals...
April 12, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626342/a-neuroscientific-perspective-on-basic-psychological-needs
#12
Johnmarshall Reeve, Woogul Lee
OBJECTIVE: Self-determination theory's (SDT) most basic propositions are, first, that all people possess an inherent set of psychological needs and, second, that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are the three critical psychological satisfactions needed to maintain and promote personal growth and well-being. In this paper, we identify the neural basis of the psychological needs and, in doing so, seek to advance the integration of SDT and neuroscience. METHOD: We examine the neural underpinnings of SDT-based motivational states and traits for autonomy, competence, and relatedness...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578818/barriers-and-strategies-to-engaging-our-community-based-preceptors
#13
Scott C Graziano, Margaret L McKenzie, Jodi F Abbott, Samantha D Buery-Joyner, LaTasha B Craig, John L Dalrymple, David A Forstein, Brittany S Hampton, Sarah M Page-Ramsey, Archana Pradhan, Abigail Wolf, Laura Hopkins
ISSUE: This article, from the "To the Point" series that is prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee, is a review of commonly cited barriers to recruiting and retaining community-based preceptors in undergraduate medical education and potential strategies to overcome them. EVIDENCE: Community-based preceptors have traditionally served as volunteer, nonsalaried faculty, with academic institutions relying on intrinsic teaching rewards to sustain this model...
March 26, 2018: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572781/noradrenergic-modulation-on-dopaminergic-neurons
#14
REVIEW
Meng-Yang Zhu
It is now well accepted that there is a close relationship between noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons in the brain, especially referring to the modulation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system on dopamine transmission. The disturbance of this modulation may contribute to neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. In this article, we briefly review evidence related to such modulation. Firstly, we illustrated the noradrenergic innervation and functional implication for the LC-NE system and nigra-striatum dopaminergic system...
March 23, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549237/functional-architecture-of-reward-learning-in-mushroom-body-extrinsic-neurons-of-larval-drosophila
#15
Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547978/a-neurocomputational-account-of-reward-and-novelty-processing-and-effects-of-psychostimulants-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#16
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545857/expression-of-micrornas-in-the-serum-exosomes-of-methamphetamine-dependent-rats-vs-ketamine-dependent-rats
#17
Hancheng Li, Chan Li, Yuting Zhou, Chaohua Luo, Jingying Ou, Jing Li, Zhixian Mo
Drug abuse is a public health and social problem. A number of studies have reported that drug addiction is associated with microRNAs (miRNAs). By comparing the expression of miRNAs in the serum exosomes of methamphetamine-dependent and ketamine-dependent rats, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the miRNA-mediated associations between the two groups. Published results on conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats conditioned by methamphetamine and ketamine were replicated. The expression of miRNAs in serum exosomes were determined by gene-chip sequencing...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540562/monoacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-reverse-paclitaxel-induced-nociceptive-behavior-and-proinflammatory-markers-in-a-mouse-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-neuropathy
#18
Zachary Curry, Jenny Wilkerson, Deniz Bagdas, Sarah Kyte, Nipa Patel, Giulia Donvito, Mohammed A Mustafa, Justin Poklis, Micah Niphakis, Ku-Lung Hsu, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Gewirtz, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Although paclitaxel effectively treats various cancers, its debilitating peripheral neuropathic pain side effects often persist long after treatment has ended. Therefore, a compelling need exists for the identification of novel pharmacologic strategies to mitigate this condition. As inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzyme of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyolglycerol, produce antinociceptive effects in numerous rodent models of pain, we investigated whether inhibitors of this enzyme (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511121/a-role-for-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-in-the-lateral-habenula-and-its-modulation-by-early-life-stress
#19
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Ryan D Shepard, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki, Haifa Kassis, Fereshteh S Nugent
Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497835/strong-among-population-variation-in-frugivory-strength-by-functional-diverse-frugivores-a-reciprocal-translocation-experiment
#20
Pedro J Garrote, Gemma Calvo, Magdalena Żywiec, Miguel Delibes, Alberto Suárez-Esteban, José M Fedriani
Fruit-frugivore interactions are critical for the dynamics and evolution of many plant communities. The strength of the interactions between a given plant species and different frugivore guilds (e.g., seed dispersers, seed predators) often vary in space due to changes in plant extrinsic factors (e.g., frugivore abundances) and plant traits (e.g., fruit size and reward). By reciprocally translocating Pyrus bourgaeana ripe fruits representative of five Mediterranean localities during 2 consecutive years, we experimentally quantified guild-specific variations among populations in frugivory strength, while accounted for plant-intrinsic and- extrinsic factors...
May 2018: Oecologia
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