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Intrinsic reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#2
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#3
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
March 17, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275714/computational-architecture-of-the-parieto-frontal-network-underlying-cognitive-motor-control-in-monkeys
#4
Roberto Caminiti, Elena Borra, Federica Visco-Comandini, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Bruno B Averbeck, Giuseppe Luppino
The statistical structure of intrinsic parietal and parieto-frontal connectivity in monkeys was studied through hierarchical cluster analysis. Based on their inputs, parietal and frontal areas were grouped into different clusters, including a variable number of areas that in most instances occupied contiguous architectonic fields. Connectivity tended to be stronger locally: that is, within areas of the same cluster. Distant frontal and parietal areas were targeted through connections that in most instances were reciprocal and often of different strength...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#5
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255676/human-orbital-and-anterior-medial-prefrontal-cortex-intrinsic-connectivity-parcellation-and-functional-organization
#6
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Alexandros Goulas, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) has been implicated in decision-making, reward and emotion processing, and psychopathology, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human and monkey anatomical studies indicate the presence of various cortical subdivisions and suggest that these are organized in two extended networks, a medial and an orbital one. Attempts have been made to replicate these neuroanatomical findings in vivo using MRI techniques for imaging connectivity. These revealed several consistencies, but also many inconsistencies between reported results...
March 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247016/satiation-level-affects-anti-predatory-decisions-in-foraging-juvenile-crayfish
#7
Abigail C Schadegg, Jens Herberholz
Moving shadows signify imminent threat to foraging juvenile crayfish, and the animals respond with one of two discrete anti-predatory behaviors: They either freeze in place or rapidly flex their tails, which quickly propels them away from the approaching danger signal. Although a freeze might be the more risky choice, it keeps the animal near the expected food reward, while a tail-flip is effective in avoiding the shadow, but puts critical distance between the animal and its next meal. We manipulated the satiation level of juvenile crayfish to determine whether their behavioral choices are affected by internal energy states...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224481/not-all-choices-are-created-equal-task-relevant-choices-enhance-motor-learning-compared-to-task-irrelevant-choices
#8
Michael J Carter, Diane M Ste-Marie
Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219982/enhanced-sensitivity-to-hyperpolarizing-inhibition-in-mesoaccumbal-relative-to-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations
#9
Rahilla A Tarfa, Rebekah C Evans, Zayd M Khaliq
Midbrain dopamine neurons recorded in vivo pause their firing in response to reward omission and aversive stimuli. While the initiation of pauses typically involves synaptic or modulatory input, intrinsic membrane properties may also enhance or limit hyperpolarization raising the question of how intrinsic conductances shape pauses in dopamine neurons. Using retrograde labeling and electrophysiological techniques combined with computational modeling, we examined the intrinsic conductances that shape pauses evoked by current injections and synaptic stimulation in subpopulations of dopamine neurons grouped according to their axonal projections to the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum in mice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218590/professional-reward-in-the-academic-fieldwork-coordinator-role
#10
Patricia Stutz-Tanenbaum, David Greene, Debra J Hanson, Jeanette Koski
The purpose of this national survey was to explore perceptions of professional reward among occupational therapist (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) academic fieldwork coordinators (AFWCs). Agreement was found in ranking the value of six role factors: (1) fieldwork data management, (2) fieldwork site management, (3) fieldwork teaching and consultation, (4) departmental and institutional compliance, (5) scholarship and accreditation, and (6) laying groundwork for students in fieldwork. Both levels of AFWC indicated teaching and consultation had the highest value and data management the least...
March 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#11
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198416/a-one-week-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-to-measure-impulsivity-and-attention-in-adult-and-adolescent-mice
#12
Esther Remmelink, Uyen Chau, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194094/food-seeking-in-a-risky-environment-a-method-for-evaluating-risk-and-reward-value-in-food-seeking-and-consumption-in-mice
#13
Sarah H Lockie, Clare V McAuley, Sasha Rawlinson, Natalie Guiney, Zane B Andrews
Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193868/dopamine-in-the-medial-amygdala-network-mediates-human-bonding
#14
Shir Atzil, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Tali Rudy, Stephanie Salcedo, Ruth Feldman, Jacob M Hooker, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174543/rank-among-peers-during-game-competition-affects-the-tendency-to-make-risky-choices-in-adolescent-males
#15
Jerome C Foo, Kohei Nagase, Sawako Naramura-Ohno, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Kenji Morita
It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents' risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168540/association-of-intrinsic-motivating-factors-and-markers-of-physician-well-being-a-national-physician-survey
#16
Hyo Jung Tak, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
BACKGROUND: Although intrinsic motivating factors play important roles in physician well-being and productivity, most studies have focused on extrinsic motivating factors such as salary and work environment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of intrinsic motivators with physicians' career satisfaction, life satisfaction, and clinical commitment, while accounting for established extrinsic motivators as well. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative survey of 2000 US physicians, fielded October to December 2011...
February 6, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166770/a-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-research-activity-of-allied-health-teams-is-there-a-link-with-self-reported-success-motivators-and-barriers-to-undertaking-research
#17
Rachel J Wenke, Sharon Mickan, Leanne Bisset
BACKGROUND: Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e...
February 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#18
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126496/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-beta-alters-anxiety-depression-and-addiction-related-behaviors-and-neuronal-activity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#19
Elizabeth J Crofton, Miroslav N Nenov, Yafang Zhang, Federico Scala, Sean A Page, David L McCue, Dingge Li, Jonathan D Hommel, Fernanda Laezza, Thomas A Green
Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and addiction are often comorbid brain pathologies thought to share common mechanistic biology. As part of the cortico-limbic circuit, the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a fundamental role in integrating information in the circuit, such that modulation of NAcSh circuitry alters anxiety, depression, and addiction-related behaviors. Intracellular kinase cascades in the NAcSh have proven important mediators of behavior. To investigate glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta signaling in the NAcSh in vivo we knocked down GSK3beta expression with a novel adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2) and assessed changes in anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration in GSK3beta knockdown rats...
January 23, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093474/behavioral-status-influences-the-dependence-of-odorant-induced-change-in-firing-on-prestimulus-firing-rate
#20
Anan Li, Ethan M Guthman, Wilder T Doucette, Diego Restrepo
The firing rate of the mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb is known to undergo significant trial-to-trial variability and is affected by anesthesia. Here we ask whether odorant-elicited changes in firing rate depend on the rate before application of the stimulus in the awake and anesthetized mouse. We find that prestimulus firing rate varies widely on a trial-to-trial basis and that the stimulus-induced change in firing rate decreases with increasing prestimulus firing rate. Interestingly, this prestimulus firing rate dependence was different when the behavioral task did not involve detecting the valence of the stimulus...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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