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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645915/cebranopadol-blocks-the-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-conditioned-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#1
Giordano de Guglielmo, Alessandra Matzeu, Jenni Kononoff, Julia Mattioni, Remi Martin-Fardon, Olivier George
Cebranopadol is a novel agonist of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptors with analgesic properties that is being evaluated in clinical Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials for the treatment of chronic and acute pain. Recent evidence indicates that the combination of opioid and NOP receptor agonism may be a new treatment strategy for cocaine addiction. We sought to extend these findings by examining the effects of cebranopadol on cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) and cocaine conditioned reinstatement in rats with extended access to cocaine...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639132/identifying-the-neural-substrates-of-intrinsic-motivation-during-task-performance
#2
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589963/exposure-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-physiology
#3
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Inhalants, including toluene, target the addiction neurocircuitry and are often one of the first drugs of abuse tried by adolescents. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in regulating goal-directed/reward-motivated behaviors and different mPFC sub-regions have been proposed to promote (prelimbic, PRL) or inhibit (infralimbic, IL) these behaviors. While this dichotomy has been studied in the context of other drugs of abuse, it is not known whether toluene exposure differentially affects neurons within PRL and IL regions...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542919/context-dependent-colonization-dynamics-regional-reward-contagion-drives-local-compression-in-aquatic-beetles
#4
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
1.Habitat selection by colonizing organisms is an important factor in determining species abundance and community dynamics at multiple spatial scales. Many organisms select habitat patches based on intrinsic patch quality, but patches exist in complex landscapes linked by dispersal and colonization, forming metapopulations and metacommunities. Perceived patch quality can be influenced by neighboring patches through spatial contagion, wherein perceived quality of one patch can extend beyond its borders and either increase or decrease the colonization of neighboring patches and localities...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537967/nortriptyline-enhances-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-neuropathic-rats-role-of-the-central-noradrenergic-system
#5
Wenli Mi, Shuxing Wang, Zerong You, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Hyangin Kim, Lucy Chen, Jianren Mao
BACKGROUND: Combination drug therapy is commonly used to treat chronic pain conditions such as neuropathic pain, and antidepressant is often used together with opioid analgesics. While rewarding is an intrinsic property of opioid analgesics, it is unknown whether the use of an antidepressant would influence opioid reward, which may contribute to opioid addiction. In this study, we examined whether nortriptyline (a tricyclic antidepressant and a first-line medication for neuropathic pain) would enhance the morphine rewarding property in both naive and chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI) rats...
May 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527789/neural-processes-underlying-cultural-differences-in-cognitive-persistence
#6
Eva H Telzer, Yang Qu, Lynda C Lin
Self-improvement motivation, which occurs when individuals seek to improve upon their competence by gaining new knowledge and improving upon their skills, is critical for cognitive, social, and educational adjustment. While many studies have delineated the neural mechanisms supporting extrinsic motivation induced by monetary rewards, less work has examined the neural processes that support intrinsically motivated behaviors, such as self-improvement motivation. Because cultural groups traditionally vary in terms of their self-improvement motivation, we examined cultural differences in the behavioral and neural processes underlying motivated behaviors during cognitive persistence in the absence of extrinsic rewards...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418642/structure-and-dynamics-of-individual-diastereomeric-complexes-on-platinum-surface-studies-related-to-heterogeneous-enantioselective-catalysis
#7
Yi Dong, Guillaume Goubert, Michael N Groves, Jean-Christian Lemay, Bjørk Hammer, Peter H McBreen
The modification of heterogeneous catalysts through the chemisorption of chiral molecules is a method to create catalytic sites for enantioselective surface reactions. The chiral molecule is called a chiral modifier by analogy to the terms chiral auxiliary or chiral ligand used in homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. While there has been progress in understanding how chirality transfer occurs, the intrinsic difficulties in determining enantioselective reaction mechanisms are compounded by the multisite nature of heterogeneous catalysts and by the challenges facing stereospecific surface analysis...
April 18, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418398/intranasal-oxytocin-enhances-intrinsic-corticostriatal-functional-connectivity-in-women
#8
R A I Bethlehem, M V Lombardo, M-C Lai, B Auyeung, S K Crockford, J Deakin, S Soubramanian, A Sule, P Kundu, V Voon, S Baron-Cohen
Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate the impact of oxytocin on resting-state connectivity between subcortical and cortical networks in women. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 26 typically developing women 40 min following intranasal oxytocin administration using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411158/intrinsic-membrane-properties-and-cholinergic-modulation-of-mouse-basal-forebrain-glutamatergic-neurons-in-vitro
#9
Chun Yang, James T McKenna, Ritchie E Brown
The basal forebrain (BF) controls sleep-wake cycles, attention and reward processing. Compared to cholinergic and GABAergic neurons, BF glutamatergic neurons are less well understood, due to difficulties in identification. Here, we use vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2)-tdTomato mice, expressing a red fluorescent protein (tdTomato) in the major group of BF glutamatergic neurons (vGluT2+) to characterize their intrinsic electrical properties and cholinergic modulation. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recordings were made from vGluT2+ neurons in coronal BF slices...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406677/no-impact-of-affective-person-knowledge-on-visual-awareness-evidence-from-binocular-rivalry-and-continuous-flash-suppression
#10
Timo Stein, Caitlyn Grubb, Maria Bertrand, Seh Min Suh, Sara C Verosky
Stimuli with intrinsic emotional value, like emotional faces, and stimuli associated with reward and punishment are often prioritized in visual awareness relative to neutral stimuli. Recently, Anderson, Siegel, Bliss-Moreau, and Barrett (2011) demonstrated that simply associating a face with affective knowledge can also influence visual awareness. Using a binocular rivalry task (BR), where a face was shown to one eye and a house to the other, they found that faces paired with negative versus neutral and positive behaviors dominated visual awareness...
April 13, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402506/social-identity-shapes-social-valuation-evidence-from-prosocial-behavior-and-vicarious-reward
#11
Leor M Hackel, Jamil Zaki, Jay J Van Bavel
People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396007/neural-evidence-for-the-intrinsic-value-of-action-as-motivation-for-behavior
#12
Naoki Miura, Hiroki C Tanabe, Akihiro T Sasaki, Tokiko Harada, Norihiro Sadato
The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external rewards. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback...
June 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#13
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370566/high-mobility-2d-palladium-diselenide-field-effect-transistors-with-tunable-ambipolar-characteristics
#14
Wai Leong Chow, Peng Yu, Fucai Liu, Jinhua Hong, Xingli Wang, Qingsheng Zeng, Chuang-Han Hsu, Chao Zhu, Jiadong Zhou, Xiaowei Wang, Juan Xia, Jiaxu Yan, Yu Chen, Di Wu, Ting Yu, Zexiang Shen, Hsin Lin, Chuanhong Jin, Beng Kang Tay, Zheng Liu
Due to the intriguing optical and electronic properties, 2D materials have attracted a lot of interest for the electronic and optoelectronic applications. Identifying new promising 2D materials will be rewarding toward the development of next generation 2D electronics. Here, palladium diselenide (PdSe2 ), a noble-transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC), is introduced as a promising high mobility 2D material into the fast growing 2D community. Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on ultrathin PdSe2 show intrinsic ambipolar characteristic...
June 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362482/synthesis-characterization-and-device-application-of-antimony-substituted-violet-phosphorus-a-layered-material
#15
Franziska Baumer, Yuqiang Ma, Chenfei Shen, Anyi Zhang, Liang Chen, Yihang Liu, Daniela Pfister, Tom Nilges, Chongwu Zhou
Two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes have emerged as a class of materials that may impact electronic technologies in the near future. A challenging but rewarding work is to experimentally identify 2D materials and explore their properties. Here, we report the synthesis of a layered material, P20.56(1)Sb0.44(1), with a systematic study on characterizations and device applications. This material demonstrates a direct band gap of around 1.67 eV. Using a laser-cutting method, the thin flakes of this material can be separated into multiple segments...
April 25, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#16
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316567/distinct-functional-connectivities-predict-clinical-response-with-emotion-regulation-therapy
#17
REVIEW
David M Fresco, Amy K Roy, Samantha Adelsberg, Saren Seeley, Emmanuel García-Lesy, Conor Liston, Douglas S Mennin
Despite the success of available medical and psychosocial treatments, a sizable subgroup of individuals with commonly co-occurring disorders, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), fail to make sufficient treatment gains thereby prolonging their deficits in life functioning and satisfaction. Clinically, these patients often display temperamental features reflecting heightened sensitivity to underlying motivational systems related to threat/safety and reward/loss (e.g., somatic anxiety) as well as inordinate negative self-referential processing (e...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303403/hypocretin-orexin-and-plastic-adaptations-associated-with-drug-abuse
#18
Corey Baimel, Stephanie L Borgland
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are a critical part of the neural circuits that underlie reward learning and motivation. Dopamine neurons send dense projections throughout the brain and recent observations suggest that both the intrinsic properties and the functional output of dopamine neurons are dependent on projection target and are subject to neuromodulatory influences. Lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (also termed orexin) neurons project to the VTA and contain both hypocretin and dynorphin peptides in the same dense core vesicles suggesting they may be co-released...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275714/computational-architecture-of-the-parieto-frontal-network-underlying-cognitive-motor-control-in-monkeys
#19
Roberto Caminiti, Elena Borra, Federica Visco-Comandini, Alexandra Battaglia-Mayer, Bruno B Averbeck, Giuseppe Luppino
The statistical structure of intrinsic parietal and parieto-frontal connectivity in monkeys was studied through hierarchical cluster analysis. Based on their inputs, parietal and frontal areas were grouped into different clusters, including a variable number of areas that in most instances occupied contiguous architectonic fields. Connectivity tended to be stronger locally: that is, within areas of the same cluster. Distant frontal and parietal areas were targeted through connections that in most instances were reciprocal and often of different strength...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270746/effects-of-repeated-ethanol-exposures-on-nmda-receptor-expression-and-locomotor-sensitization-in-mice-expressing-ethanol-resistant-nmda-receptors
#20
Carolina R den Hartog, Meghin Gilstrap, Bethany Eaton, Daniel H Lench, Patrick J Mulholland, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
Evidence from a large number of preclinical studies suggests that chronic exposure to drugs of abuse, such as psychostimulants or ethanol induces changes in glutamatergic transmission in key brain areas associated with reward and control of behavior. These changes include alterations in the expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) that are important for regulating neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors are inhibited by ethanol and reductions in NMDA-mediated signaling are thought to trigger homestatic responses that limit ethanol's effects on glutamatergic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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