Read by QxMD icon Read

Intrinsic reward

Timo Saumweber, Astrid Rohwedder, Michael Schleyer, Katharina Eichler, Yi-Chun Chen, Yoshinori Aso, Albert Cardona, Claire Eschbach, Oliver Kobler, Anne Voigt, Archana Durairaja, Nino Mancini, Marta Zlatic, James W Truman, Andreas S Thum, Bertram Gerber
The brain adaptively integrates present sensory input, past experience, and options for future action. The insect mushroom body exemplifies how a central brain structure brings about such integration. Here we use a combination of systematic single-cell labeling, connectomics, transgenic silencing, and activation experiments to study the mushroom body at single-cell resolution, focusing on the behavioral architecture of its input and output neurons (MBINs and MBONs), and of the mushroom body intrinsic APL neuron...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Arjun Sethi, Valerie Voon, Hugo D Critchley, Mara Cercignani, Neil A Harrison
Computational models of reinforcement learning have helped dissect discrete components of reward-related function and characterize neurocognitive deficits in psychiatric illnesses. Stimulus novelty biases decision-making, even when unrelated to choice outcome, acting as if possessing intrinsic reward value to guide decisions toward uncertain options. Heightened novelty seeking is characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, yet how this influences reward-related decision-making is computationally encoded, or is altered by stimulant medication, is currently uncertain...
March 13, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Hancheng Li, Chan Li, Yuting Zhou, Chaohua Luo, Jingying Ou, Jing Li, Zhixian Mo
Drug abuse is a public health and social problem. A number of studies have reported that drug addiction is associated with microRNAs (miRNAs). By comparing the expression of miRNAs in the serum exosomes of methamphetamine-dependent and ketamine-dependent rats, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the miRNA-mediated associations between the two groups. Published results on conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats conditioned by methamphetamine and ketamine were replicated. The expression of miRNAs in serum exosomes were determined by gene-chip sequencing...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Zachary Curry, Jenny Wilkerson, Deniz Bagdas, Sarah Kyte, Nipa Patel, Giulia Donvito, Mohammed A Mustafa, Justin Poklis, Micah Niphakis, Ku-Lung Hsu, Benjamin F Cravatt, David A Gewirtz, M Imad Damaj, Aron H Lichtman
Although paclitaxel effectively treats various cancers, its debilitating peripheral neuropathic pain side effects often persist long after treatment has ended. Therefore, a compelling need exists for the identification of novel pharmacologic strategies to mitigate this condition. As inhibitors of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzyme of the endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonyolglycerol, produce antinociceptive effects in numerous rodent models of pain, we investigated whether inhibitors of this enzyme (i...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Ryan D Shepard, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki, Haifa Kassis, Fereshteh S Nugent
Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
Pedro J Garrote, Gemma Calvo, Magdalena Żywiec, Miguel Delibes, Alberto Suárez-Esteban, José M Fedriani
Fruit-frugivore interactions are critical for the dynamics and evolution of many plant communities. The strength of the interactions between a given plant species and different frugivore guilds (e.g., seed dispersers, seed predators) often vary in space due to changes in plant extrinsic factors (e.g., frugivore abundances) and plant traits (e.g., fruit size and reward). By reciprocally translocating Pyrus bourgaeana ripe fruits representative of five Mediterranean localities during 2 consecutive years, we experimentally quantified guild-specific variations among populations in frugivory strength, while accounted for plant-intrinsic and- extrinsic factors...
March 2, 2018: Oecologia
Daisuke Yamazaki, Makoto Hiroi, Takashi Abe, Kazumichi Shimizu, Maki Minami-Ohtsubo, Yuko Maeyama, Junjiro Horiuchi, Tetsuya Tabata
During olfactory associative learning in Drosophila, odors activate specific subsets of intrinsic mushroom body (MB) neurons. Coincident exposure to either rewards or punishments is thought to activate extrinsic dopaminergic neurons, which modulate synaptic connections between odor-encoding MB neurons and MB output neurons to alter behaviors. However, here we identify two classes of intrinsic MB γ neurons based on cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent expression, γCRE-p and γCRE-n, which encode aversive and appetitive valences...
February 27, 2018: Cell Reports
Michael F Fialkow, Carrie M Snead, Jay Schulkin
Introduction: As the US health-care system has evolved over the past decade, access to obstetric care in rural communities has declined, and there has been a challenge in retaining obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) providers to train the next generation of physicians. The current pilot study sought to identify the factors that influence faculty who train medical students within the field of OB-GYN with the hope of influencing recruitment and retention of providers for the future. Methods: Clinical OB-GYN faculty within the University of Washington School of Medicine regional medical education program were surveyed about practice patterns and beliefs regarding medical student training as part of a pilot study on provider recruitment and retention...
January 2018: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
Tammy Barbé, Laura P Kimble
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in how certified nurse educators and noncertified nurse educators valued nurse educator certification. BACKGROUND: No studies have investigated the differences in perceptions of certified and noncertified nurse educators. Understanding these differences may influence how the nursing profession recognizes and promotes excellence within the academic nursing specialty. METHOD: Perceived Value of Certification Tool-Nurse Educator and demographic survey were administered via a web-based survey to a national sample of nursing faculty...
March 2018: Nursing Education Perspectives
Byung-Hoon Kim, Yu-Bin Shin, Sunghyon Kyeong, Seon-Koo Lee, Jae-Jin Kim
Motivational deficits in patients with schizophrenia adversely affect various domains of daily living. This symptom in everyday life situations manifests in a complex behavioral pattern whose root cannot be simplified to an impaired reward-motivation scheme. This study aimed to identify impairment of the salience network that underlies motivational deficits seen in patients with schizophrenia in real-life situations. During the functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, 20 patients with schizophrenia and 20 normal controls performed a task mimicking real-life situations, in which an avatar proposed participation in a daily activity with either an intrinsic or extrinsic reward...
January 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Decision-making about rewards, which requires us to choose between different time points, generally refers to intertemporal choice. Converging evidence suggests that some of the brain networks recruited in the delay discounting task have been well characterized for intertemporal choice. However, little is known about how the connectivity patterns of these large-scale brain networks are associated with delay discounting. Here, we use a resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) and a graph theoretical analysis to address this question...
January 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
Maxcy P Nolan, Keith S Delaplane
Parasite dispersal theory draws heavily upon epidemiological SIR models in which host status (susceptible (S), infected (I), or recovered (R)) is used to study parasite dispersal evolution. In contrast to these extrinsically host-centric drivers, in this study we focus on an intrinsic driver, the parasite's reproductive value (predicted future offspring) as a regulator of the extent to which the individual will engage in risky dispersal behaviour. As a model system we use the honeybee Apis mellifera and its ectoparasite, the mite Varroa destructor...
October 2017: Animal Behaviour
Ethan Cumbler, Essey Yirdaw, Patrick Kneeland, Read Pierce, Patrick Rendon, Carrie Herzke, Christine D Jones
BACKGROUND: Understanding the concept of career success is critical for hospital medicine groups seeking to create sustainably rewarding faculty positions. Conceptual models of career success describe both extrinsic (compensation and advancement) and intrinsic (career satisfaction and job satisfaction) domains. How hospitalists define career success for themselves is not well understood. In this study, we qualitatively explore perspectives on how early-career clinician-educators define career success...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Leila Sabzmakan, Mahmood Ghasemi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Tahereh Kamalikhah, Mosharafeh Chaleshgar Kordasiabi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Studies in humans suggest that stronger incentive motivational responses to Pavlovian food cues may drive over-consumption leading to and maintaining obesity, particularly in susceptible individuals. However, whether this enhanced incentive motivation emerges as a consequence of obesity or rather precedes obesity is unknown. Moreover, while human imaging studies have provided important information about differences in striatal responsiveness between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, the neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral differences are unknown...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi R Bhatt, Tiffany Ju, Aubrey Love, Amanat Bal, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Claudia P Sanmiguel, Lisa A Kilpatrick
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. METHODS: Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. RESULTS: For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
Thomas Elbert, Maggie Schauer, James K Moran
The Good: when you fight to counter threat, your aggression is a reactive defense, and often morally justifiable. The Bad: when you loot and rob, hurt and kill, to obtain social status or material goods, that is an extrinsic reward. This is instrumental aggression. And The Ugly: The intrinsic enjoyment of violence. This 'appetitive aggression' describes a lust for violence, underlying first-person shooter gamers, hunting, and extreme acts of violence, such as murder and massacres. Although violence often results from a combination of these forms of aggression, the differentiation is necessary to understand their interplay, as they drive two interconnected cycles of violence: the reactive cycle, fueled by the motivation to overcome negative feelings, and the hedonically driven appetitive cycle...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"