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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350223/what-is-career-success-for-academic-hospitalists-a-qualitative-analysis-of-early-career-faculty-perspectives
#1
Ethan Cumbler, Essey Yirdaw, Patrick Kneeland, Read Pierce, Patrick Rendon, Carrie Herzke, Christine D Jones
BACKGROUND: Understanding the concept of career success is critical for hospital medicine groups seeking to create sustainably rewarding faculty positions. Conceptual models of career success describe both extrinsic (compensation and advancement) and intrinsic (career satisfaction and job satisfaction) domains. How hospitalists define career success for themselves is not well understood. In this study, we qualitatively explore perspectives on how early-career clinician-educators define career success...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317484/chemogenetic-excitation-of-accumbens-projecting-infralimbic-cortical-neurons-blocks-toluene-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#3
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our lab has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pyramidal neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs. prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs. deep; 5/6), target (core vs...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313745/factors-associated-with-tobacco-use-among-iranian-adolescents-an-application-of-protection-motivation-theory
#4
Leila Sabzmakan, Mahmood Ghasemi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Tahereh Kamalikhah, Mosharafeh Chaleshgar Kordasiabi
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a significant predisposing factor to many diseases. Protection motivation theory is a well-suited theory, since fear can motivate individuals to change their unhealthy behaviors. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the associations between the constructs of this theory with intention and tobacco use behavior. METHOD: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Noshahr, Iran. The participants were 440 high school boys selected using a stratified random sampling in 2016...
January 9, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291424/enhanced-incentive-motivation-in-obesity-prone-rats-is-mediated-by-nac-core-cp-ampars
#5
Rifka C Derman, Carrie R Ferrario
Studies in humans suggest that stronger incentive motivational responses to Pavlovian food cues may drive over-consumption leading to and maintaining obesity, particularly in susceptible individuals. However, whether this enhanced incentive motivation emerges as a consequence of obesity or rather precedes obesity is unknown. Moreover, while human imaging studies have provided important information about differences in striatal responsiveness between susceptible and non-susceptible individuals, the neural mechanisms mediating these behavioral differences are unknown...
December 29, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284750/cyclic-amp-dependent-plasticity-underlies-rapid-changes-in-odor-coding-associated-with-reward-learning
#6
Thierry Louis, Aaron Stahl, Tamara Boto, Seth M Tomchik
Learning and memory rely on dopamine and downstream cAMP-dependent plasticity across diverse organisms. Despite the central role of cAMP signaling, it is not known how cAMP-dependent plasticity drives coherent changes in neuronal physiology that encode the memory trace, or engram. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is critically involved in olfactory classical conditioning, and cAMP signaling molecules are necessary and sufficient for normal memory in intrinsic MB neurons. To evaluate the role of cAMP-dependent plasticity in learning, we examined how cAMP manipulations and olfactory classical conditioning modulate olfactory responses in the MB with in vivo imaging...
December 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280306/sex-commonalities-and-differences-in-obesity-related-alterations-in-intrinsic-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#7
Arpana Gupta, Emeran A Mayer, Jennifer S Labus, Ravi R Bhatt, Tiffany Ju, Aubrey Love, Amanat Bal, Kirsten Tillisch, Bruce Naliboff, Claudia P Sanmiguel, Lisa A Kilpatrick
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize obesity-related sex differences in the intrinsic activity and connectivity of the brain's reward networks. METHODS: Eighty-six women (n = 43) and men (n = 43) completed a 10-minute resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Sex differences and commonalities in BMI-related frequency power distribution and reward seed-based connectivity were investigated by using partial least squares analysis. RESULTS: For whole-brain activity in both men and women, increased BMI was associated with increased slow-5 activity in the left globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279212/two-pedals-drive-the-bi-cycle-of-violence-reactive-and-appetitive-aggression
#8
REVIEW
Thomas Elbert, Maggie Schauer, James K Moran
The Good: when you fight to counter threat, your aggression is a reactive defense, and often morally justifiable. The Bad: when you loot and rob, hurt and kill, to obtain social status or material goods, that is an extrinsic reward. This is instrumental aggression. And The Ugly: The intrinsic enjoyment of violence. This 'appetitive aggression' describes a lust for violence, underlying first-person shooter gamers, hunting, and extreme acts of violence, such as murder and massacres. Although violence often results from a combination of these forms of aggression, the differentiation is necessary to understand their interplay, as they drive two interconnected cycles of violence: the reactive cycle, fueled by the motivation to overcome negative feelings, and the hedonically driven appetitive cycle...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247878/cognitive-capacity-limitations-and-need-for-cognition-differentially-predict-reward-induced-cognitive-effort-expenditure
#9
Dasha A Sandra, A Ross Otto
While psychological, economic, and neuroscientific accounts of behavior broadly maintain that people minimize expenditure of cognitive effort, empirical work reveals how reward incentives can mobilize increased cognitive effort expenditure. Recent theories posit that the decision to expend effort is governed, in part, by a cost-benefit tradeoff whereby the potential benefits of mental effort can offset the perceived costs of effort exertion. Taking an individual differences approach, the present study examined whether one's executive function capacity, as measured by Stroop interference, predicts the extent to which reward incentives reduce switch costs in a task-switching paradigm, which indexes additional expenditure of cognitive effort...
December 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247750/attentional-responses-to-stimuli-associated-with-a-reward-can-occur-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-of-their-predictive-values
#10
Mateo Leganes Fonteneau, Ryan Scott, Theodora Duka
Classical conditioning theories of addiction suggest that stimuli associated with rewards acquire incentive salience, inducing emotional and attentional conditioned responses. It is not clear whether those responses occur without contingency awareness (CA), i.e. are based on explicit or implicit learning processes. Examining implicit aspects of stimulus-reward associations can improve our understanding of addictive behaviours, supporting treatment and prevention strategies. However, the acquisition of conditioned responses without CA has yet to be rigorously demonstrated, as the existing literature shows a lack of methodological agreement regarding the measurement of implicit and explicit processes...
December 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242555/intrinsic-interactive-reinforcement-learning-using-error-related-potentials-for-real-world-human-robot-interaction
#11
Su Kyoung Kim, Elsa Andrea Kirchner, Arne Stefes, Frank Kirchner
Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195840/membrane-estrogen-receptor-signaling-impacts-the-reward-circuitry-of-the-female-brain-to-influence-motivated-behaviors
#12
Katherine R Tonn Eisinger, Erin B Larson, Marissa I Boulware, Mark J Thomas, Paul G Mermelstein
Within the adult female, estrogen signaling is well-described as an integral component of the physiologically significant hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In rodents, the timing of ovulation is intrinsically entwined with the display of sexual receptivity. For decades, the importance of estradiol activating intracellular estrogen receptors within the hypothalamus and midbrain/spinal cord lordosis circuits has been appreciated. These signaling pathways primarily account for the ability of the female to reproduce...
November 28, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#13
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177509/repetitive-behaviors-in-autism-are-linked-to-imbalance-of-corticostriatal-connectivity-a-functional-connectivity-mri-study
#14
Angela E Abbott, Annika Linke, Aarti Nair, Afrooz Jahedi, Laura A Alba, Christopher L Keown, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
The neural underpinnings of repetitive behaviors (RBs) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), ranging from cognitive to motor characteristics, remain unknown. We assessed RB symptomatology in 50 ASD and 52 typically developing (TD) children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years), examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of corticostriatal circuitry, which is important for reward-based learning and integration of emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, and considered impaired in ASDs. Connectivity analyses were performed for three functionally distinct striatal seeds (limbic, frontoparietal, motor)...
November 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173141/too-tasty-to-be-ignored
#15
Sebastian Dummel, Ronald Hübner
Recent research has shown that even non-salient stimuli (colored circles) can gain attentional weight, when they have been loaded with some value through previous reward learning. The present study examined such value-based attentional weighting with intrinsically rewarding food stimuli. Different snacks were assumed to have different values for people due to individual food preferences. Participants indicated their preferences toward various snacks and then performed a flanker task with these snacks: they had to categorize a target snack as either sweet or salty; irrelevant flanker snacks were either compatible or incompatible with the target category...
September 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153443/subjective-sleep-disturbances-are-associated-with-intrinsic-motivation-toward-sleep-related-thinking
#16
Keisuke Takano, Filip Raes
Biased information processing has been highlighted as a possible vulnerability factor for sleep problems. A theory states that perceived sleeplessness triggers a strong approach motivation (or craving) for sleep, and then activates persistent preoccupation with sleep. However, there is no clear evidence that perceived sleeplessness is associated with such a motivation toward sleep-related information. Thus, we examined the untested idea that people with subjective sleep disturbances would prefer sleep-related topics, using a modified version of the pay-per-view task...
November 13, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133418/normalized-value-coding-explains-dynamic-adaptation-in-the-human-valuation-process
#17
Mel W Khaw, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
The notion of subjective value is central to choice theories in ecology, economics, and psychology, serving as an integrated decision variable by which options are compared. Subjective value is often assumed to be an absolute quantity, determined in a static manner by the properties of an individual option. Recent neurobiological studies, however, have shown that neural value coding dynamically adapts to the statistics of the recent reward environment, introducing an intrinsic temporal context dependence into the neural representation of value...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121332/frontostriatal-and-dopamine-markers-of-individual-differences-in-reinforcement-learning-a-multi-modal-investigation
#18
Roselinde H Kaiser, Michael T Treadway, Dustin W Wooten, Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Miranda Beltzer, Pia Pechtel, Alexis Whitton, Andrew L Cohen, Nathaniel M Alpert, Georges El Fakhri, Marc D Normandin, Diego A Pizzagalli
Prior studies have shown that dopamine (DA) functioning in frontostriatal circuits supports reinforcement learning (RL), as phasic DA activity in ventral striatum signals unexpected reward and may drive coordinated activity of striatal and orbitofrontal regions that support updating of action plans. However, the nature of DA functioning in RL is complex, in particular regarding the role of DA clearance in RL behavior. Here, in a multi-modal neuroimaging study with healthy adults, we took an individual differences approach to the examination of RL behavior and DA clearance mechanisms in frontostriatal learning networks...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070920/the-intrinsic-value-of-choice-the-propensity-to-under-delegate-in-the-face-of-potential-gains-and-losses
#19
Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez, Cass R Sunstein, Tali Sharot
Human beings are often faced with a pervasive problem: whether to make their own decision or to delegate the decision task to someone else. Here, we test whether people are inclined to forgo monetary rewards in order to retain agency when faced with choices that could lead to losses and gains. In a simple choice task, we show that participants choose to pay in order to control their own payoff more than they should if they were to maximize monetary rewards and minimize monetary losses. This tendency cannot be explained by participants' overconfidence in their own ability, as their perceived ability was elicited and accounted for...
2017: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060899/unified-health-gamification-can-significantly-improve-well-being-in-corporate-environments
#20
Arash Shahrestani, Pieter Van Gorp, Pascale Le Blanc, Fabrizio Greidanus, Kristel de Groot, Jelle Leermakers
There is a multitude of mHealth applications that aim to solve societal health problems by stimulating specific types of physical activities via gamification. However, physical health activities cover just one of the three World Health Organization (WHO) dimensions of health. This paper introduces the novel notion of Unified Health Gamification (UHG), which covers besides physical health also social and cognitive health and well-being. Instead of rewarding activities in the three WHO dimensions using different mHealth competitions, UHG combines the scores for such activities on unified leaderboards and lets people interact in social circles beyond personal interests...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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