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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929228/mental-health-among-norwegian-priests-associations-with-effort-reward-imbalance-and-overcommitment
#1
Bjørn Lau
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian priests and to examine their associations with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment. METHODS: Eight hundred four priests in the Norwegian Church completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (ERI-Q), and the Intrinsic Effort Scale, measuring overcommitment. RESULTS: A significant proportion of the priests (23...
September 19, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919222/understanding-active-sampling-strategies-empirical-approaches-and-implications-for-attention-and-decision-research
#2
REVIEW
Jacqueline Gottlieb
In natural behavior we actively gather information using attention and active sensing behaviors (such as shifts of gaze) to sample relevant cues. However, while attention and decision making are naturally coordinated, in the laboratory they have been dissociated. Attention is studied independently of the actions it serves. Conversely, decision theories make the simplifying assumption that the relevant information is given, and do not attempt to describe how the decision maker may learn and implement active sampling policies...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900210/alterations-of-brain-functional-architecture-associated-with-psychopathic-traits-in-male-adolescents-with-conduct-disorder
#3
Weidan Pu, Qiang Luo, Yali Jiang, Yidian Gao, Qingsen Ming, Shuqiao Yao
Psychopathic traits of conduct disorder (CD) have a core callous-unemotional (CU) component and an impulsive-antisocial component. Previous task-driven fMRI studies have suggested that psychopathic traits are associated with dysfunction of several brain areas involved in different cognitive functions (e.g., empathy, reward, and response inhibition etc.), but the relationship between psychopathic traits and intrinsic brain functional architecture has not yet been explored in CD. Using a holistic brain-wide functional connectivity analysis, this study delineated the alterations in brain functional networks in patients with conduct disorder...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899231/neuron-type-specific-utility-in-a-brain-machine-interface-a-pilot-study
#4
Martha G Garcia-Garcia, Austin J Bergquist, Hector Vargas-Perez, Mary K Nagai, Jose Zariffa, Cesar Marquez-Chin, Milos R Popovic
Context Firing rates of single cortical neurons can be volitionally modulated through biofeedback (i.e. operant conditioning), and this information can be transformed to control external devices (i.e. brain-machine interfaces; BMIs). However, not all neurons respond to operant conditioning in BMI implementation. Establishing criteria that predict neuron utility will assist translation of BMI research to clinical applications. Findings Single cortical neurons (n=7) were recorded extracellularly from primary motor cortex of a Long-Evans rat...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887626/probability-differently-modulating-the-effects-of-reward-and-punishment-on-visuomotor-adaptation
#5
Yanlong Song, Ann L Smiley-Oyen
Recent human motor learning studies revealed that punishment seemingly accelerated motor learning but reward enhanced consolidation of motor memory. It is not evident how intrinsic properties of reward and punishment modulate the potentially dissociable effects of reward and punishment on motor learning and motor memory. It is also not clear what causes the dissociation of the effects of reward and punishment. By manipulating probability of distribution, a critical property of reward and punishment, the present study demonstrated that probability had distinct modulation on the effects of reward and punishment in adapting to a sudden visual rotation and consolidation of the adaptation memory...
September 8, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858773/sibling-influences-on-prosocial-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Claire Hughes, Gabrielle McHarg, Naomi White
Sibling relationships are characterized by familiarity and emotional intensity. Alongside frequent shared play, sibling interactions feature complementary interactions (e.g. teaching, caregiving) reflecting age-related asymmetries in socio-cognitive skills. These aspects may underpin sibling influences on prosocial behavior: theoretical accounts of social influences on prosocial behavior highlight emotion sharing, goal alignment, the intrinsically rewarding nature of social interaction, and scaffolding of social norms...
August 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851345/ethical-acceptability-of-offering-financial-incentives-for-taking-antipsychotic-depot-medication-patients-and-clinicians-perspectives-after-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Ernst L Noordraven, Maartje H N Schermer, Peter Blanken, Cornelis L Mulder, André I Wierdsma
BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial 'Money for Medication'(M4M) was conducted in which patients were offered financial incentives for taking antipsychotic depot medication. This study assessed the attitudes and ethical considerations of patients and clinicians who participated in this trial. METHODS: Three mental healthcare institutions in secondary psychiatric care in the Netherlands participated in this study. Patients (n = 169), 18-65 years, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or another psychotic disorder who had been prescribed antipsychotic depot medication, were randomly assigned to receive 12 months of either treatment as usual plus a financial reward for each depot of medication received (intervention group) or treatment as usual alone (control group)...
August 29, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801694/work-overcommitment-is-it-a-trait-or-a-state
#8
Jean-Baptist du Prel, Roma Runeson-Broberg, Peter Westerholm, Lars Alfredsson, Göran Fahlén, Anders Knutsson, Maria Nordin, Richard Peter
PURPOSE: Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) is a well-tested work-related stress model with three components, the two extrinsic components "efforts" and "rewards" and the one intrinsic component "overcommitment". While an imbalance between "efforts" and "rewards" leads to strain reactions, "work-related overcommitment" (OC) has been described as a personal characteristic with a set of attitudes, behaviours, and emotions reflecting excessive striving combined with a strong desire for approval...
August 11, 2017: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780133/altered-glua1-gria1-function-and-accumbal-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-clock%C3%AE-19-model-of-bipolar-mania
#9
Puja K Parekh, Darius Becker-Krail, Poornima Sundaravelu, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Haruo Okado, Gen Sobue, Yanhua Huang, Colleen A McClung
BACKGROUND: Disruptions in circadian rhythms are associated with an increased risk for bipolar disorder. Moreover, studies show that the circadian protein CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) is involved in regulating monoaminergic systems and mood-related behavior. However, the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. METHODS: Using ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in ClockΔ19 mutant and wild-type mice we characterized alterations in excitatory synaptic transmission, strength, and intrinsic excitability of nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons...
June 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744939/neural-substrates-of-context-and-person-dependent-altruistic-punishment
#10
Lili Wang, Xiaping Lu, Ruolei Gu, Ruida Zhu, Rui Xu, Lucas S Broster, Chunliang Feng
Human altruistic behaviors are heterogeneous across both contexts and people, whereas the neural signatures underlying the heterogeneity remain to be elucidated. To address this issue, we examined the neural signatures underlying the context- and person-dependent altruistic punishment, conjoining event-related fMRI with both task-based and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Acting as an impartial third party, participants decided how to punish norm violators either alone or in the presence of putative others...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733591/predictive-and-tempo-flexible-synchronization-to-a-visual-metronome-in-monkeys
#11
Ryuji Takeya, Masashi Kameda, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory beat is a fundamental component of human music. To date, only certain vocal learning species show this behaviour spontaneously. Prior research training macaques (vocal non-learners) to tap to an auditory or visual metronome found their movements to be largely reactive, not predictive. Does this reflect the lack of capacity for predictive synchronization in monkeys, or lack of motivation to exhibit this behaviour? To discriminate these possibilities, we trained monkeys to make synchronized eye movements to a visual metronome...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704217/automatic-affective-evaluations-of-physical-activity
#12
David E Conroy, Tanya R Berry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683266/disrupted-prefrontal-regulation-of-striatal-subjective-value-signals-in-psychopathy
#13
Jay G Hosking, Erik K Kastman, Hayley M Dorfman, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman, Joshua W Buckholtz
Psychopathy is a personality disorder with strong links to criminal behavior. While research on psychopathy has focused largely on socio-affective dysfunction, recent data suggest that aberrant decision making may also play an important role. Yet, the circuit-level mechanisms underlying maladaptive decision making in psychopathy remain unclear. Here, we used a multi-modality functional imaging approach to identify these mechanisms in a population of adult male incarcerated offenders. Psychopathy was associated with stronger subjective value-related activity within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) during inter-temporal choice and with weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between NAcc and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)...
July 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665949/possible-mechanisms-of-pollination-failure-in-hybrid-carrot-seed-and-implications-for-industry-in-a-changing-climate
#14
Melissa Ann Broussard, Flore Mas, Brad Howlett, David Pattemore, Jason M Tylianakis
Approximately one-third of our food globally comes from insect-pollinated crops. The dependence on pollinators has been linked to yield instability, which could potentially become worse in a changing climate. Insect-pollinated crops produced via hybrid breeding (20% of fruit and vegetable production globally) are especially at risk as they are even more reliant on pollinators than open-pollinated plants. We already observe a wide range of fruit and seed yields between different cultivars of the same crop species, and it is unknown how existing variation will be affected in a changing climate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662466/informationally-administered-reward-enhances-intrinsic-motivation-in-schizophrenia
#15
Hyeon-Seung Lee, Seon-Kyeong Jang, Ga-Young Lee, Seon-Cheol Park, Alice Medalia, Kee-Hong Choi
Even when individuals with schizophrenia have an intact ability to enjoy rewarding moments, the means to assist them to translate rewarding experiences into goal-directed behaviors is unclear. The present study sought to determine whether informationally administered rewards enhance intrinsic motivation to foster goal-directed behaviors in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HCs). Eighty-four participants (SZ=43, HCs=41) were randomly assigned to conditions involving either a performance-contingent reward with an informationally administered reward or a task-contingent reward with no feedback...
June 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648110/response-inhibition-deficits-and-altered-motor-network-connectivity-in-the-chronic-phase-of-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Jaclyn A Stephens, Cynthia E Salorio, Jerald P Gomes, Mary Beth Nebel, Stewart H Mostofsky, Stacy J Suskauer
Poor response inhibition is a hallmark of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). We assessed motor response inhibition by measuring commission error rates on Simple (minimized cognitive demands) and Motivation (monetary reward) Go/No-Go tasks, comparing 17 children with chronic TBI (>1 year post-injury) and 14 matched, uninjured peers. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined between-group differences in whole-brain intrinsic connectivity of the motor network as derived from the averaged time course of bilateral primary motor cortex seeds, to identify regions of interest (ROIs) for brain-behavior correlations...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645915/cebranopadol-blocks-the-escalation-of-cocaine-intake-and-conditioned-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#17
Giordano de Guglielmo, Alessandra Matzeu, Jenni Kononoff, Julia Mattioni, Rémi Martin-Fardon, Olivier George
Cebranopadol is a novel agonist of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) and opioid receptors with analgesic properties that is being evaluated in clinical Phase 2 and Phase 3 trials for the treatment of chronic and acute pain. Recent evidence indicates that the combination of opioid and NOP receptor agonism may be a new treatment strategy for cocaine addiction. We sought to extend these findings by examining the effects of cebranopadol on cocaine self-administration (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) and cocaine conditioned reinstatement in rats with extended access to cocaine...
September 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639132/identifying-the-neural-substrates-of-intrinsic-motivation-during-task-performance
#18
Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve
Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams)...
June 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589963/exposure-to-the-abused-inhalant-toluene-alters-medial-prefrontal-cortex-physiology
#19
Wesley N Wayman, John J Woodward
Inhalants, including toluene, target the addiction neurocircuitry and are often one of the first drugs of abuse tried by adolescents. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in regulating goal-directed/reward-motivated behaviors and different mPFC sub-regions have been proposed to promote (prelimbic, PRL) or inhibit (infralimbic, IL) these behaviors. While this dichotomy has been studied in the context of other drugs of abuse, it is not known whether toluene exposure differentially affects neurons within PRL and IL regions...
June 7, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542919/context-dependent-colonization-dynamics-regional-reward-contagion-drives-local-compression-in-aquatic-beetles
#20
Matthew R Pintar, William J Resetarits
Habitat selection by colonizing organisms is an important factor in determining species abundance and community dynamics at multiple spatial scales. Many organisms select habitat patches based on intrinsic patch quality, but patches exist in complex landscapes linked by dispersal and colonization, forming metapopulations and metacommunities. Perceived patch quality can be influenced by neighbouring patches through spatial contagion, wherein perceived quality of one patch can extend beyond its borders and either increase or decrease the colonization of neighbouring patches and localities...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
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