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Intrinsic reward

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224481/not-all-choices-are-created-equal-task-relevant-choices-enhance-motor-learning-compared-to-task-irrelevant-choices
#1
Michael J Carter, Diane M Ste-Marie
Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs...
February 21, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219982/enhanced-sensitivity-to-hyperpolarizing-inhibition-in-mesoaccumbal-relative-to-nigrostriatal-dopamine-neuron-subpopulations
#2
Rahilla A Tarfa, Rebekah C Evans, Zayd M Khaliq
Midbrain dopamine neurons recorded in vivo pause their firing in response to reward omission and aversive stimuli. While the initiation of pauses typically involves synaptic or modulatory input, intrinsic membrane properties may also enhance or limit hyperpolarization raising the question of how intrinsic conductances shape pauses in dopamine neurons. Using retrograde labeling and electrophysiological techniques combined with computational modeling, we examined the intrinsic conductances that shape pauses evoked by current injections and synaptic stimulation in subpopulations of dopamine neurons grouped according to their axonal projections to the nucleus accumbens or dorsal striatum in mice...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218590/professional-reward-in-the-academic-fieldwork-coordinator-role
#3
Patricia Stutz-Tanenbaum, David Greene, Debra J Hanson, Jeanette Koski
The purpose of this national survey was to explore perceptions of professional reward among occupational therapist (OT) and occupational therapy assistant (OTA) academic fieldwork coordinators (AFWCs). Agreement was found in ranking the value of six role factors: (1) fieldwork data management, (2) fieldwork site management, (3) fieldwork teaching and consultation, (4) departmental and institutional compliance, (5) scholarship and accreditation, and (6) laying groundwork for students in fieldwork. Both levels of AFWC indicated teaching and consultation had the highest value and data management the least...
March 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#4
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198416/a-one-week-5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task-to-measure-impulsivity-and-attention-in-adult-and-adolescent-mice
#5
Esther Remmelink, Uyen Chau, August B Smit, Matthijs Verhage, Maarten Loos
Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194094/food-seeking-in-a-risky-environment-a-method-for-evaluating-risk-and-reward-value-in-food-seeking-and-consumption-in-mice
#6
Sarah H Lockie, Clare V McAuley, Sasha Rawlinson, Natalie Guiney, Zane B Andrews
Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193868/dopamine-in-the-medial-amygdala-network-mediates-human-bonding
#7
Shir Atzil, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Tali Rudy, Stephanie Salcedo, Ruth Feldman, Jacob M Hooker, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174543/rank-among-peers-during-game-competition-affects-the-tendency-to-make-risky-choices-in-adolescent-males
#8
Jerome C Foo, Kohei Nagase, Sawako Naramura-Ohno, Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi, Yoshiharu Yamamoto, Kenji Morita
It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents' risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168540/association-of-intrinsic-motivating-factors-and-markers-of-physician-well-being-a-national-physician-survey
#9
Hyo Jung Tak, Farr A Curlin, John D Yoon
BACKGROUND: Although intrinsic motivating factors play important roles in physician well-being and productivity, most studies have focused on extrinsic motivating factors such as salary and work environment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of intrinsic motivators with physicians' career satisfaction, life satisfaction, and clinical commitment, while accounting for established extrinsic motivators as well. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative survey of 2000 US physicians, fielded October to December 2011...
February 6, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166770/a-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-research-activity-of-allied-health-teams-is-there-a-link-with-self-reported-success-motivators-and-barriers-to-undertaking-research
#10
Rachel J Wenke, Sharon Mickan, Leanne Bisset
BACKGROUND: Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e...
February 6, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147243/song-associated-reward-correlates-with-endocannabinoid-related-gene-expression-in-male-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#11
Allison H Hahn, Devin P Merullo, Jeremy A Spool, Caroline S Angyal, Sharon A Stevenson, Lauren V Riters
Vocal communication is required for successful social interactions in numerous species. During the breeding season, songbirds produce songs that are reinforced by behavioral consequences (e.g., copulation). However, some songbirds also produce songs not obviously directed at other individuals. The consequences maintaining or reinforcing these songs are less obvious and the neural mechanisms associated with undirected communication are not well-understood. Previous studies indicate that undirected singing is intrinsically rewarding and mediated by opioid or dopaminergic systems; however, endocannabinoids are also involved in regulating reward and singing behavior...
January 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126496/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-beta-alters-anxiety-depression-and-addiction-related-behaviors-and-neuronal-activity-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell
#12
Elizabeth J Crofton, Miroslav N Nenov, Yafang Zhang, Federico Scala, Sean A Page, David L McCue, Dingge Li, Jonathan D Hommel, Fernanda Laezza, Thomas A Green
Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and addiction are often comorbid brain pathologies thought to share common mechanistic biology. As part of the cortico-limbic circuit, the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a fundamental role in integrating information in the circuit, such that modulation of NAcSh circuitry alters anxiety, depression, and addiction-related behaviors. Intracellular kinase cascades in the NAcSh have proven important mediators of behavior. To investigate glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta signaling in the NAcSh in vivo we knocked down GSK3beta expression with a novel adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2) and assessed changes in anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration in GSK3beta knockdown rats...
January 23, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093474/behavioral-status-influences-the-dependence-of-odorant-induced-change-in-firing-on-pre-stimulus-firing-rate
#13
Anan Li, Ethan M Guthman, Wilder T Doucette, Diego Restrepo
: The firing rate of the mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb is known to undergo significant trial-to-trial variability and is affected by anesthesia. Here we ask whether odorant-elicited changes in firing rate depend on the rate before application of the stimulus in the awake and anesthetized mouse. We find that pre-stimulus firing rate varies widely on a trial-to-trial basis and that the stimulus-induced change in firing rate decreases with increasing pre-stimulus firing rate...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#14
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054810/the-dynamic-effect-of-incentives-on-postreward-task-engagement
#15
Indranil Goswami, Oleg Urminsky
Although incentives can be a powerful motivator of behavior when they are available, an influential body of research has suggested that rewards can persistently reduce engagement after they end. This research has resulted in widespread skepticism among practitioners and academics alike about using incentives to motivate behavior change. However, recent field studies looking at the longer term effects of temporary incentives have not found such detrimental behavior. We design an experimental framework to study dynamic behavior under temporary rewards, and find that although there is a robust decrease in engagement immediately after the incentive ends, engagement returns to a postreward baseline that is equal to or exceeds the initial baseline...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052091/sense-of-accomplishment-is-modulated-by-a-proper-level-of-instruction-and-represented-in-the-brain-reward-system
#16
Tomoya Nakai, Hironori Nakatani, Chihiro Hosoda, Yulri Nonaka, Kazuo Okanoya
Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035457/ant-lepidopteran-associations-along-african-forest-edges
#17
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Azémar, Michel Libert, Arthur Compin, Bruno Hérault, Jérôme Orivel, Thierry Bouyer, Bruno Corbara
Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989778/modulation-of-ventral-striatal-activity-by-cognitive-effort
#18
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Ryan K Jessup, Elizabeth Tricomi
Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938664/distinct-memory-engrams-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-of-rats-control-opposing-environmental-actions-on-a-learned-behavior
#19
Nobuyoshi Suto, Amanda Laque, Genna L De Ness, Grant E Wagner, Debbie Watry, Tony Kerr, Eisuke Koya, Mark R Mayford, Bruce T Hope, Friedbert Weiss
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues...
December 10, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926452/control-feedback-as-the-motivational-force-behind-habitual-behavior
#20
O Nafcha, E T Higgins, B Eitam
Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
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