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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093474/behavioral-status-influences-the-dependence-of-odorant-induced-change-in-firing-on-pre-stimulus-firing-rate
#1
Anan Li, Ethan M Guthman, Wilder T Doucette, Diego Restrepo
: The firing rate of the mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb is known to undergo significant trial-to-trial variability and is affected by anesthesia. Here we ask whether odorant-elicited changes in firing rate depend on the rate before application of the stimulus in the awake and anesthetized mouse. We find that pre-stimulus firing rate varies widely on a trial-to-trial basis and that the stimulus-induced change in firing rate decreases with increasing pre-stimulus firing rate...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087060/personality-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-behavioural-and-cognitive-correlates
#2
REVIEW
Gabriella Santangelo, Fausta Piscopo, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
Affective disorders and personality changes have long been considered pre-motor aspects of Parkinson's disease (PD). Many authors have used the term "premorbid personality" to define distinctive features of PD patients' personality characterized by reduced exploration of new environmental stimuli or potential reward sources ("novelty seeking") and avoidance behaviour ("harm avoidance") present before motor features. The functional correlates underlying the personality changes described in PD, implicate dysfunction of meso-cortico-limbic and striatal circuits...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054810/the-dynamic-effect-of-incentives-on-postreward-task-engagement
#3
Indranil Goswami, Oleg Urminsky
Although incentives can be a powerful motivator of behavior when they are available, an influential body of research has suggested that rewards can persistently reduce engagement after they end. This research has resulted in widespread skepticism among practitioners and academics alike about using incentives to motivate behavior change. However, recent field studies looking at the longer term effects of temporary incentives have not found such detrimental behavior. We design an experimental framework to study dynamic behavior under temporary rewards, and find that although there is a robust decrease in engagement immediately after the incentive ends, engagement returns to a postreward baseline that is equal to or exceeds the initial baseline...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052091/sense-of-accomplishment-is-modulated-by-a-proper-level-of-instruction-and-represented-in-the-brain-reward-system
#4
Tomoya Nakai, Hironori Nakatani, Chihiro Hosoda, Yulri Nonaka, Kazuo Okanoya
Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035457/ant-lepidopteran-associations-along-african-forest-edges
#5
Alain Dejean, Frédéric Azémar, Michel Libert, Arthur Compin, Bruno Hérault, Jérôme Orivel, Thierry Bouyer, Bruno Corbara
Working along forest edges, we aimed to determine how some caterpillars can co-exist with territorially dominant arboreal ants (TDAAs) in tropical Africa. We recorded caterpillars from 22 lepidopteran species living in the presence of five TDAA species. Among the defoliator and/or nectarivorous caterpillars that live on tree foliage, the Pyralidae and Nymphalidae use their silk to protect themselves from ant attacks. The Notodontidae and lycaenid Polyommatinae and Theclinae live in direct contact with ants; the Theclinae even reward ants with abundant secretions from their Newcomer gland...
February 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989778/modulation-of-ventral-striatal-activity-by-cognitive-effort
#6
Ekaterina Dobryakova, Ryan K Jessup, Elizabeth Tricomi
Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant...
December 15, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938664/distinct-memory-engrams-in-the-infralimbic-cortex-of-rats-control-opposing-environmental-actions-on-a-learned-behavior
#7
Nobuyoshi Suto, Amanda Laque, Genna L De Ness, Grant E Wagner, Debbie Watry, Tony Kerr, Eisuke Koya, Mark R Mayford, Bruce T Hope, Friedbert Weiss
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the role of infralimbic cortex (IL) in the environmental control of appetitive behavior. Inhibition of IL, irrespective of its intrinsic neural activity, attenuates not only the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward availability to promote reward seeking, but also the ability of environmental cues predictive of reward omission to suppress this behavior. Here we report that such bidirectional behavioral modulation in rats is mediated by functionally distinct units of neurons (neural ensembles) that are concurrently localized within the same IL brain area but selectively reactive to different environmental cues...
December 10, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926452/control-feedback-as-the-motivational-force-behind-habitual-behavior
#8
O Nafcha, E T Higgins, B Eitam
Motivated behavior is considered to be a product of integration of a behavior's subjective benefits and costs. As such, it is unclear what motivates "habitual behavior" which occurs, by definition, after the outcome's value has diminished. One possible answer is that habitual behavior continues to be selected due to its "intrinsic" worth. Such an explanation, however, highlights the need to specify the motivational system for which the behavior has intrinsic worth. Another key question is how does an activity attain such intrinsically rewarding properties...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926442/intrinsic-motivation-curiosity-and-learning-theory-and-applications-in-educational-technologies
#9
P-Y Oudeyer, J Gottlieb, M Lopes
This chapter studies the bidirectional causal interactions between curiosity and learning and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, studying how the brain can be intrinsically rewarded by novelty, complexity, or other measures of information...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926441/a-benefit-cost-framework-of-motivation-for-a-specific-activity
#10
B Studer, S Knecht
How can an individual be motivated to perform a target exercise or activity? This question arises in training, therapeutic, and education settings alike, yet despite-or even because of-the large range of extant motivation theories, finding a clear answer to this question can be challenging. Here we propose an application-friendly framework of motivation for a specific activity or exercise that incorporates core concepts from several well-regarded psychological and economic theories of motivation. The key assumption of this framework is that motivation for performing a given activity is determined by the expected benefits and the expected costs of (performance of) the activity...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926435/brain-correlates-of-the-intrinsic-subjective-cost-of-effort-in-sedentary-volunteers
#11
J Bernacer, I Martinez-Valbuena, M Martinez, N Pujol, E Luis, D Ramirez-Castillo, M A Pastor
One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917145/illegitimate-tasks-as-an-impediment-to-job-satisfaction-and-intrinsic-motivation-moderated-mediation-effects-of-gender-and-effort-reward-imbalance
#12
Rachel Omansky, Erin M Eatough, Marcus J Fila
The current work examines a contemporary workplace stressor that has only recently been introduced into the literature: illegitimate tasks. Illegitimate tasks are work tasks that violate identity role norms about what can reasonably be expected from an employee in a given position. Although illegitimate tasks have been linked to employee well-being in past work, we know little about the potential explanatory mechanisms linking illegitimate tasks to work-relevant negative psychological states. Using a sample of 213 US-based employees of mixed occupations and a cross-sectional design, the present study examines job satisfaction and intrinsic motivation as outcomes of illegitimate tasks...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903793/the-serotonin-5-ht2c-receptor-and-the-non-addictive-nature-of-classic-hallucinogens
#13
REVIEW
Clinton E Canal, Kevin S Murnane
Classic hallucinogens share pharmacology as serotonin 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Unique among most other Schedule 1 drugs, they are generally non-addictive and can be effective tools in the treatment of addiction. Mechanisms underlying these attributes are largely unknown. However, many preclinical studies show that 5-HT2C agonists counteract the addictive effects of drugs from several classes, suggesting this pharmacological property of classic hallucinogens may be significant. Drawing from a comprehensive analysis of preclinical behavior, neuroanatomy, and neurochemistry studies, this review builds rationale for this hypothesis, and also proposes a testable, neurobiological framework...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896312/the-memory-trace-supporting-lose-shift-responding-decays-rapidly-after-reward-omission-and-is-distinct-from-other-learning-mechanisms-in-rats
#14
Aaron J Gruber, Rajat Thapa
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here that the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in rats rapidly decays during the intertrial interval and persists throughout training and testing on a binary choice task, despite being a suboptimal strategy. Lose-shift responding is not positively correlated with the prevalence and temporal dependence of win-stay responding, and it is inconsistent with predictions of reinforcement learning on the task...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867436/putamen-activation-represents-an-intrinsic-positive-prediction-error-signal-for-visual-search-in-repeated-configurations
#15
Susanne Sommer, Stefan Pollmann
We investigated fMRI responses to visual search targets appearing at locations that were predicted by the search context. Based on previous work in visual category learning we expected an intrinsic reward prediction error signal in the putamen whenever the target appeared at a location that was predicted with some degree of uncertainty. Comparing target appearance at locations predicted with 50% probability to either locations predicted with 100% probability or unpredicted locations, increased activation was observed in left posterior putamen and adjacent left posterior insula...
2016: Open Neuroimaging Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865452/cyp2a6-genetic-variation-alters-striatal-cingulate-circuits-network-hubs-and-executive-processing-in-smokers
#16
Sufang Li, Yihong Yang, Ewa Hoffmann, Rachel F Tyndale, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. METHODS: Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852199/paying-hospitals-for-quality-can-we-buy-better-care
#17
Jane P Hall, Kees C van Gool
Economic theory predicts that changing financial rewards will change behaviour. This is valid in terms of service use; higher costs reduce health care use. It should follow that paying more for quality should improve quality; however, the research evidence thus far is equivocal, particularly in terms of better health outcomes. One reason is that "financial incentives" encompass a range of payment types and sizes of reward. The design of financial incentives should take into account the desired change and the context of existing payment structures, as well as other strategies for improving quality; further, financial incentives should be fair in rewarding effort...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847490/neural-correlates-of-learning-from-induced-insight-a-case-for-reward-based-episodic-encoding
#18
Jasmin M Kizilirmak, Hannes Thuerich, Kristian Folta-Schoofs, Björn H Schott, Alan Richardson-Klavehn
Experiencing insight when solving problems can improve memory formation for both the problem and its solution. The underlying neural processes involved in this kind of learning are, however, thus far insufficiently understood. Here, we conceptualized insight as the sudden understanding of a novel relationship between known stimuli that fits into existing knowledge and is accompanied by a positive emotional response. Hence, insight is thought to comprise associative novelty, schema congruency, and intrinsic reward, all of which are separately known to enhance memory performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847324/developmental-specification-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#19
REVIEW
Kathryn C Allaway, Robert Machold
Striatal cholinergic interneurons and basal forebrain cholinergic projection neurons, which together comprise the forebrain cholinergic system, regulate attention, memory, reward pathways, and motor activity through the neuromodulation of multiple brain circuits. The importance of these neurons in the etiology of neurocognitive disorders has been well documented, but our understanding of their specification during embryogenesis is still incomplete. All forebrain cholinergic projection neurons and interneurons appear to share a common developmental origin in the embryonic ventral telencephalon, a region that also gives rise to GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons...
January 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846733/ethnicity-work-related-stress-and-subjective-reports-of-health-by-migrant-workers-a-multi-dimensional-model
#20
Roberto Capasso, Maria Clelia Zurlo, Andrew P Smith
OBJECTIVES: This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity...
November 16, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
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