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Intrinsic reward

Roos Haer, Katharin Hermenau, Thomas Elbert, James K Moran, Tobias Hecker
It has been postulated that the violent behavior that characterizes armed conflict is reinforced by the possibility of receiving rewards. The present study examined the potential influence of two types of rewards in an ongoing setting of conflict: extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Former combatants active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (N = 198) were interviewed and questioned about the way they were recruited, the offenses they committed during combat, their level of perceived intrinsic rewards (i...
October 17, 2016: Aggressive Behavior
Allison Levy, Iser G DeLeon, Catherine K Martinez, Nathalie Fernandez, Nicholas A Gage, Sigurdur Óli Sigurdsson, Michelle A Frank-Crawford
The overjustification hypothesis suggests that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. Extrinsic rewards are common in strengthening behavior in persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities; we examined overjustification effects in this context. A literature search yielded 65 data sets permitting comparison of responding during an initial no-reinforcement phase to a subsequent no-reinforcement phase, separated by a reinforcement phase. We used effect sizes to compare response levels in these two no-reinforcement phases...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Jason C Lee, Lei Philip Wang, Joe Z Tsien
It is not uncommon for humans or animals to experience traumatic events in their lifetimes. However, the majority of individuals are resilient to long-term detrimental changes turning into anxiety and depression, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What underlying neural mechanism accounts for individual variability in stress resilience? Hyperactivity in fear circuits, such as the amygdalar system, is well-known to be the major pathophysiological basis for PTSD, much like a "stuck accelerator." Interestingly, increasing evidence demonstrates that dopamine (DA) - traditionally known for its role in motivation, reward prediction, and addiction - is also crucial in regulating fear learning and anxiety...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
F Xavier Castellanos, Yuta Aoki
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) without an explicit task, i.e., resting state fMRI, of individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing rapidly. Early studies were unaware of the vulnerability of this method to even minor degrees of head motion, a major concern in the field. Recent efforts are implementing various strategies to address this source of artifact along with a growing set of analytical tools. Availability of the ADHD-200 Consortium dataset, a large-scale multi-site repository, is facilitating increasingly sophisticated approaches...
May 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Meghan Elizabeth Huber, Nikita Kuznetsov, Dagmar Sternad
It is well documented that variability in motor performance decreases with practice. Yet, the neural and computational mechanisms that underlie this decline, particularly during long-term practice, are only little understood. Decreasing variability is frequently examined in terms of error corrections from one trial to the next. However, the ubiquitous noise from all levels of the sensorimotor system is also a significant contributor to overt variability. While neuromotor noise is typically assumed and modeled as immune to practice, the current study challenged this notion...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Pablo Ripollés, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Helena Alicart, Claus Tempelmann, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Toemme Noesselt
Humans constantly learn in the absence of explicit rewards. However, the neurobiological mechanisms supporting this type of internally-guided learning (without explicit feedback) are still unclear. Here, participants who completed a task in which no external reward/feedback was provided, exhibited enhanced fMRI-signals within the dopaminergic midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum (the SN/VTA-Hippocampal loop) when successfully grasping the meaning of new-words. Importantly, new-words that were better remembered showed increased activation and enhanced functional connectivity between the midbrain, hippocampus, and ventral striatum...
2016: ELife
Giulia Giunti, Giovanni Benelli, Guido Flamini, J P Michaud, Angelo Canale
Parasitic wasps can learn cues that alter their behavioral responses and increase their fitness, such as those that improve host location efficiency. Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of 14 economically important tephritid species, including the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). In this research, we investigated the nature of olfactory cues mediating this tritrophic interaction. First, we identified the chemical stimuli emanating from uninfested and B...
September 11, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Chao Liu, Basel Abu-Jamous, Elvira Brattico, Asoke K Nandi
In the past decades, neuroimaging of humans has gained a position of status within neuroscience, and data-driven approaches and functional connectivity analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data are increasingly favored to depict the complex architecture of human brains. However, the reliability of these findings is jeopardized by too many analysis methods and sometimes too few samples used, which leads to discord among researchers. We propose a tunable consensus clustering paradigm that aims at overcoming the clustering methods selection problem as well as reliability issues in neuroimaging by means of first applying several analysis methods (three in this study) on multiple datasets and then integrating the clustering results...
May 26, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
L Felice Reddy, Katiah Llerena, Robert S Kern
Unemployment is a primary functional deficit for the majority of adults with schizophrenia. Research indicates that over two-thirds of adults living in the community with schizophrenia are unemployed. Despite effective programs to assist with job identification and placement, the ability to attain and maintain employment remains a pressing concern. A contributing factor that may be relevant but has received little attention in the work rehabilitation literature is motivation. People with schizophrenia show marked deficits in both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation but these deficits have not been directly examined in relation to work outcomes...
October 2016: Schizophrenia Research
M A Muckaden, Sachi Sanjay Pandya
BACKGROUND: Volunteers are an integral part of the palliative care services in the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. These volunteers are an important resource for the department. Thus, it is necessary for the department to determine what motivates these volunteers to continue to work in the setting, acknowledge them and direct efforts toward retaining them and giving them opportunities to serve to the best of their desire and abilities. AIMS: The current study aimed at understanding the motivation of volunteers to work in palliative care, to identify the challenges they face and also the effect of their work on their self and relationships...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
Yamit Beny, Tali Kimchi
Female-emitted pheromonal inputs possess an intrinsic rewarding value for conspecific males, promoting approach and investigation of the potential mating partner. In mice these inputs are detected mainly by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). We investigated the role of VNO-mediated inputs in experience-dependent plasticity of reproductive responses. We applied a sex-specific conditioned olfactory aversion (COA) paradigm on adult, wild-type (WT) male mice and on male mice impaired in VNO-mediated signal transduction (TrpC2(-/-) )...
August 18, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Peter F Cook, Ashley Prichard, Mark Spivak, Gregory S Berns
Dogs are hypersocial with humans, and their integration into human social ecology makes dogs a unique model for studying cross-species social bonding. However, the proximal neural mechanisms driving dog-human social interaction are unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 awake dogs to probe the neural basis for their preferences for social interaction and food reward. In a first experiment, we used the ventral caudate as a measure of intrinsic reward value and compared activation to conditioned stimuli that predicted food, praise or nothing...
August 12, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Glyn Elwyn, Dominick L Frosch, Sarah Kobrin
BACKGROUND: The ethical argument that shared decision-making is "the right" thing to do, however laudable, is unlikely to change how healthcare is organized, just as evidence alone will be an insufficient factor: practice change is governed by factors such as cost, profit margin, quality, and efficiency. It is helpful, therefore, when evaluating new approaches such as shared decision-making to conceptualize potential consequences in a way that is broad, long-term, and as relevant as possible to multiple stakeholders...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
Maria Leonora G Comello, Diane B Francis, Laura Heisner Marshall, Deanna R Puglia
OBJECTIVE: Playing recreational videogames is a common activity, yet little is known about its role in the lives of people who are coping with serious illness. These individuals may experience depression and isolation and may turn to games to help alleviate negative experiences and support well-being. We explored these possibilities in the context of cancer survivors. The study aimed to discover motivations underlying game play and the extent to which motivations are associated with psychological health and well-being...
August 2016: Games for Health
Åsa Svensson, Maria Magnusson, Christel Larsson
BACKGROUND: The use of new technology has the potential to increase participation rates in dietary studies and improve the validity of collected dietary data. However, to evaluate the usability of developed dietary methods, qualitative studies of participants' experiences and perceptions are needed. OBJECTIVE: To explore adolescents' experiences using a newly developed mobile phone dietary assessment app, with a focus on factors that could affect their recording of dietary intake...
2016: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Moji Aghajani, Olivier F Colins, Eduard T Klapwijk, Ilya M Veer, Henrik Andershed, Arne Popma, Nic J van der Wee, Robert R J M Vermeiren
Psychopathy is a serious psychiatric phenomenon characterized by a pathological constellation of affective (e.g., callous, unemotional), interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, egocentric), and behavioral (e.g., impulsive, irresponsible) personality traits. Though amygdala subregional defects are suggested in psychopathy, the functionality and connectivity of different amygdala subnuclei is typically disregarded in neurocircuit-level analyses of psychopathic personality. Hence, little is known of how amygdala subregional networks may contribute to psychopathy and its underlying trait assemblies in severely antisocial people...
November 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Jim Lumsden, Andy Skinner, Andy T Woods, Natalia S Lawrence, Marcus Munafò
Computerised cognitive assessments are a vital tool in the behavioural sciences, but participants often view them as effortful and unengaging. One potential solution is to add gamelike elements to these tasks in order to make them more intrinsically enjoyable, and some researchers have posited that a more engaging task might produce higher quality data. This assumption, however, remains largely untested. We investigated the effects of gamelike features and test location on the data and enjoyment ratings from a simple cognitive task...
2016: PeerJ
Robert Kaba Alhassan, Edward Nketiah-Amponsah, Nicole Spieker, Daniel Kojo Arhinful, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
BACKGROUND: Health worker density per 1000 population in Ghana is one of the lowest in the world estimated to be 2.3, below the global average of 9.3. Low health worker motivation induced by poor working conditions partly explain this challenge. Albeit the wage bill for public sector health workers is about 90% of domestic government expenditure on health in countries such as Ghana, staff motivation and performance output remain a challenge, suggesting the need to complement financial incentives with non-financial incentives through a community-based approach...
2016: PloS One
Elyssa B Margolis, Howard L Fields
Increased activity of lateral habenula (LHb) neurons is correlated with aversive states including pain, opioid abstinence, rodent models of depression, and failure to receive a predicted reward. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOR) are among the most powerful rewarding and pain relieving drugs. Injection of the MOR agonist morphine directly into the habenula produces analgesia, raising the possibility that MOR acts locally within the LHb. Consequently, we examined the synaptic actions of MOR agonists in the LHb using whole cell patch clamp recording...
2016: PloS One
Halil Nadiri, Cem Tanova
OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the extent to which the service recovery performance of frontline employees in private health care institutions is influenced by employee perceptions of manager attitudes toward service quality, workplace support, and manager fairness and organizational commitment. We also examined the relationship of service recovery performance to employee job satisfaction and turnover intentions. METHODS: Partial least square path modeling of data from 178 frontline employees in private health care institutions in North Cyprus was utilized...
July 2016: Quality Management in Health Care
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