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Intrinsic motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908185/a-comparison-of-linear-interpolation-models-for-iterative-ct-reconstruction
#1
Katharina Hahn, Harald Schöndube, Karl Stierstorfer, Joachim Hornegger, Frédéric Noo
PURPOSE: Recent reports indicate that model-based iterative reconstruction methods may improve image quality in computed tomography (CT). One difficulty with these methods is the number of options available to implement them, including the selection of the forward projection model and the penalty term. Currently, the literature is fairly scarce in terms of guidance regarding this selection step, whereas these options impact image quality. Here, the authors investigate the merits of three forward projection models that rely on linear interpolation: the distance-driven method, Joseph's method, and the bilinear method...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906668/an-analysis-of-factors-affecting-mature-age-students-academic-success-in-undergraduate-nursing-programs-a-critical-literature-review
#2
Lisa J Hayden, Sarah Y Jeong, Carol A Norton
The population of mature age students entering university nursing programs has steadily increased in both Australia and worldwide. The objective of the literature review was to explore how mature age students perform academically and to analyse the factors associated with their academic performance in nursing programs. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: CINAHL, ProQuest, Medline, Cochrane, Mosby's Index, Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), and Scopus. Twenty-six (26) research papers published between 2000 and 2014 have met the selection criteria of this review...
January 1, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899828/pharmacy-educator-motives-to-pursue-pedagogical-knowledge
#3
Patricia Baia, Aimee F Strang
Objective. To investigate motives of pharmacy educators who pursue pedagogical knowledge through professional development programs and to develop a model of motivation to inform future development. Methods. A mixed-methods approach was used to study both qualitative and quantitative data. Written narratives, postmodule quizzes, and survey data were collected during a 5-year period (2010-2014) from pharmacy educators who participated in an online professional development program titled Helping Educators Learn Pedagogy (HELP)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899732/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-science-a-dialectic-of-scientific-fame
#4
Gregory J Feist
In this article, I argue that scientific fame and impact exists on a continuum from the mundane to the transformative/revolutionary. Ideally, one achieves fame and impact in science by synthesizing two extreme career prototypes: intrinsic and extrinsic research. The former is guided by interest, curiosity, passion, gut, and intuition for important untapped topics. The latter is guided by money, grants, and/or what is being published in top-tier journals. Assessment of fame and impact in science ultimately rests on productivity (publication) and some variation of its impact (citations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898304/motivational-processes-from-expectancy-value-theory-are-associated-with-variability-in-the-error-positivity-in-young-children
#5
Matthew H Kim, Loren M Marulis, Jennie K Grammer, Frederick J Morrison, William J Gehring
Motivational beliefs and values influence how children approach challenging activities. The current study explored motivational processes from an expectancy-value theory framework by studying children's mistakes and their responses to them by focusing on two event-related potential (ERP) components: the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). Motivation was assessed using a child-friendly challenge puzzle task and a brief interview measure prior to ERP testing. Data from 50 4- to 6-year-old children revealed that greater perceived competence beliefs were related to a larger Pe, whereas stronger intrinsic task value beliefs were associated with a smaller Pe...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889680/development-and-measurement-properties-of-the-chinese-breastfeeding-self-regulation-questionnaire
#6
Christine Y K Lau, Daniel Y T Fong, Alice Y Y Choi, Judy W Y Ng, Chu Sing, Marie Tarrant
BACKGROUND: although new mothers are aware of the benefits of breastfeeding, many of them stop breastfeeding early in the postpartum period. Maternal psychosocial factors have been shown to contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT) maternal self-determination is an indispensable factor in studying motivation to breastfeed. There are no validated instruments to assess maternal breastfeeding motivation and self-determination. OBJECTIVE: our aim was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Breastfeeding Self -Regulation Questionnaire (BSRQ) for Chinese pregnant women in Hong Kong...
November 5, 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888232/parents-perspectives-on-whole-genome-sequencing-for-their-children-qualified-enthusiasm
#7
J A Anderson, M S Meyn, C Shuman, R Zlotnik Shaul, L E Mantella, M J Szego, S Bowdin, N Monfared, R Z Hayeems
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the consequences of returning whole genome sequencing (WGS) results in paediatrics and facilitate its evidence-based clinical implementation, we studied parents' experiences with WGS and their preferences for the return of adult-onset secondary variants (SVs)-medically actionable genomic variants unrelated to their child's current medical condition that predict adult-onset disease. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews with parents whose children were undergoing WGS as part of the SickKids Genome Clinic, a research project that studies the impact of clinical WGS on patients, families, and the healthcare system...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870748/the-determinants-of-physical-activity-in-rural-women-aged-20-to-44-years-in-georgia
#8
Dziyana Nazaruk, Stuart H Tedders, Moya L Alfonso, Robert L Vogel
Physical activity rates in rural women are very low. The purpose of this study was to explore the determinants of physical activity in rural women aged 20 to 44 years. A survey was used to collect data on a cluster sample of 184 participants. This study was guided by Self-Determination Theory. Survey data suggest that the highest type of motivation was identified regulation, and husband's support had the strongest effect on physical activity. Findings suggest that a history of sports participation can lead to the formation of intrinsic motivation...
January 2017: Family & Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870424/sex-dependent-differences-in-voluntary-physical-activity
#9
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
Numbers of overweight and obese individuals are increasing in the United States and globally, and, correspondingly, the associated health care costs are rising dramatically. More than one-third of children are currently considered obese with a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, and it is likely that their metabolic conditions will worsen with age. Physical inactivity has also risen to be the leading cause of many chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Children are more physically inactive now than they were in past decades, which may be due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868117/heteroleptic-mononuclear-compounds-of-ruthenium-ii-synthesis-structural-analyses-in-vitro-antitumor-activity-and-in-vivo-toxicity-on-zebrafish-embryos
#10
O A Lenis-Rojas, A R Fernandes, C Roma-Rodrigues, P V Baptista, F Marques, D Pérez-Fernández, J Guerra-Varela, L Sánchez, D Vázquez-García, M López Torres, A Fernández, J J Fernández
The limitations of platinum complexes in cancer treatment have motivated the extensive investigation into other metal complexes such as ruthenium. We herein present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of ruthenium compounds 1a-5a with the general formula [Ru(bipy)2L][CF3SO3]2 (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L = bidentate ligand: N,N; N,P; P,P; P,As) which have been characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, (1)H and (31)P-{(1)H} NMR, FTIR and conductivity measurements. The molecular structures of four Ru(ii) complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction...
November 21, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866416/how-active-are-patients-in-setting-goals-during-rehabilitation-after-stroke-a-qualitative-study-of-clinician-perceptions
#11
John G M Parsons, Sarah E Plant, Julia Slark, Sarah F Tyson
PURPOSE: We investigated stroke rehabilitation clinician's perceptions of the patient as an active partner in setting goals within stroke rehabilitation and factors that influence patient engagement. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews, subject to general inductive analysis with 20 Clinicians' working in three UK based stroke rehabilitation teams (one in-patient ward and two community based rehabilitation teams). RESULTS: There were three key themes that impacted on the patients active involvement in setting goals for rehabilitation after stroke: Patient barriers to goal setting (knowledge of the patient and family, who is the patient and the stroke's impact); How we work as a team (the role of the patient in setting goals, the effect of clinician attributes on goal setting); and How systems impact goal setting (goal-setting practice, home versus hospital, and professional/funder expectations of clinicians')...
November 20, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865924/effects-of-a-coordinated-farmland-bird-conservation-project-on-farmers-intentions-to-implement-nature-conservation-practices-evidence-from-the-swedish-volunteer-farmer-alliance
#12
Jonas Josefsson, Anne Marike Lokhorst, Tomas Pärt, Åke Berg, Sönke Eggers
To increase the efficacy of agri-environmental schemes (AES), as well as farmers' environmental engagement, practitioners are increasingly turning to collective forms of agri-environmental management. As yet, empirical evidence from such approaches is relatively scarce. Here, we examined a farmland bird conservation project coordinated by BirdLife Sweden, the Swedish Volunteer & Farmer Alliance (SVFA). The key features of the SVFA were farmland bird inventories from volunteering birdwatchers and on-farm visits to individual farmers from conservation advisors for guidance on AES as well as unsubsidised practices...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858999/motivation-strategy-and-english-as-a-foreign-language-vocabulary-learning-a-structural-equation%C3%A2-modelling-study
#13
Yining Zhang, Chin-Hsi Lin, Dongbo Zhang, Yunjeong Choi
BACKGROUND: In spite of considerable advancements in our understanding of the different factors involved in achieving vocabulary-learning success, the overall pattern and interrelationships of critical factors involved in L2 vocabulary learning - particularly, the mechanisms through which learners regulate their motivation and learning strategies - remain unclear. AIMS: This study examined L2 vocabulary learning, focusing on the joint influence of different motivational factors and learning strategies on the vocabulary breadth of adolescent learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in China...
November 14, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852199/paying-hospitals-for-quality-can-we-buy-better-care
#14
Jane P Hall, Kees C van Gool
Economic theory predicts that changing financial rewards will change behaviour. This is valid in terms of service use; higher costs reduce health care use. It should follow that paying more for quality should improve quality; however, the research evidence thus far is equivocal, particularly in terms of better health outcomes. One reason is that "financial incentives" encompass a range of payment types and sizes of reward. The design of financial incentives should take into account the desired change and the context of existing payment structures, as well as other strategies for improving quality; further, financial incentives should be fair in rewarding effort...
November 21, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846242/understanding-health-workers-job-preferences-to-improve-rural-retention-in-timor-leste-findings-from-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#15
Marc-Francois Smitz, Sophie Witter, Christophe Lemiere, Patrick Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Tomas Lievens, Rashid U Zaman, Kay Engelhardt, Xiaohui Hou
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. METHODS: The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845256/prospective-motion-correction-in-functional-mri
#16
Maxim Zaitsev, Burak Akin, Pierre LeVan, Benjamin R Knowles
Due to the intrinsic low sensitivity of BOLD-fMRI long scanning is required. Subject motion during fMRI scans reduces statistical significance of the activation maps and increases the prevalence of false activations. Motion correction is therefore an essential tool for a successful fMRI data analysis. Retrospective motion correction techniques are now commonplace and are incorporated into a wide range of fMRI analysis toolboxes. These techniques are advantageous due to robustness, sequence independence and have minimal impact on the fMRI study setup...
November 11, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836238/systematic-review-of-voluntary-participation-in-simulation-based-laparoscopic-skills-training-motivators-and-barriers-for-surgical-trainee-attendance
#17
Hannah Gostlow, Nicholas Marlow, Wendy Babidge, Guy Maddern
OBJECTIVE: To examine and report on evidence relating to surgical trainees' voluntary participation in simulation-based laparoscopic skills training. Specifically, the underlying motivators, enablers, and barriers faced by surgical trainees with regard to attending training sessions on a regular basis. DESIGN: A systematic search of the literature (PubMed; CINAHL; EMBASE; Cochrane Collaboration) was conducted between May and July 2015. Studies were included on whether they reported on surgical trainee attendance at voluntary, simulation-based laparoscopic skills training sessions, in addition to qualitative data regarding participant's perceived barriers and motivators influencing their decision to attend such training...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#18
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using fMRI scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 seconds and was replicated in 4 separate tasks...
November 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833807/the-ecology-of-stress-linking-life-history-traits-with-physiological-control-mechanisms-in-free-living-guanacos
#19
Ramiro J A Ovejero Aguilar, Graciela A Jahn, Mauricio Soto-Gamboa, Andrés J Novaro, Pablo Carmanchahi
BACKGROUND: Providing the context for the evolution of life-history traits, habitat features constrain successful ecological and physiological strategies. In vertebrates, a key response to life's challenges is the activation of the Stress (HPA) and Gonadal (HPG) axes. Much of the interest in stress ecology is motivated by the desire to understand the physiological mechanisms in which the environment affects fitness. As reported in the literature, several intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect variability in hormone levels...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832726/why-do-surgeons-teach-a-qualitative-analysis-of-motivation-in-excellent-surgical-educators
#20
Curtis R Budden, Ksenia Svechnikova, Jonathan White
INTRODUCTION: Given that teaching is so vital to the maintenance of the medical profession, it is surprising that few authors have examined the factors which motivate physicians and surgeons to engage in this activity. AIM: It was the aim of this study to examine the factors which motivate excellent surgical educators to teach. METHODOLOGY: Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze transcribed semi-structured interviews. The top 20 ranked surgical educators at the University of Alberta were invited to participate...
November 10, 2016: Medical Teacher
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