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Intrinsic motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434023/developing-a-statistically-powerful-measure-for-quartet-tree-inference-using-phylogenetic-identities-and-markov-invariants
#1
Jeremy G Sumner, Amelia Taylor, Barbara R Holland, Peter D Jarvis
Recently there has been renewed interest in phylogenetic inference methods based on phylogenetic invariants, alongside the related Markov invariants. Broadly speaking, both these approaches give rise to polynomial functions of sequence site patterns that, in expectation value, either vanish for particular evolutionary trees (in the case of phylogenetic invariants) or have well understood transformation properties (in the case of Markov invariants). While both approaches have been valued for their intrinsic mathematical interest, it is not clear how they relate to each other, and to what extent they can be used as practical tools for inference of phylogenetic trees...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428161/toward-game-based-digital-mental-health-interventions-player-habits-and-preferences
#2
Regan Lee Mandryk, Max Valentin Birk
BACKGROUND: Designers of digital interventions for mental health often leverage interactions from games because the intrinsic motivation that results from game-based interventions may increase participation and translate into improved treatment efficacy. However, there are outstanding questions about the suitability (eg, are desktop or mobile interventions more appropriate?) and intervention potential (eg, do people with depression activate enough to play?) of games for mental health...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418398/intranasal-oxytocin-enhances-intrinsic-corticostriatal-functional-connectivity-in-women
#3
R A I Bethlehem, M V Lombardo, M-C Lai, B Auyeung, S K Crockford, J Deakin, S Soubramanian, A Sule, P Kundu, V Voon, S Baron-Cohen
Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate the impact of oxytocin on resting-state connectivity between subcortical and cortical networks in women. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on 26 typically developing women 40 min following intranasal oxytocin administration using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402506/social-identity-shapes-social-valuation-evidence-from-prosocial-behavior-and-vicarious-reward
#4
Leor M Hackel, Jamil Zaki, Jay J Van Bavel
People frequently engage in more prosocial behavior toward members of their own groups, as compared to other groups. Such group-based prosociality may reflect either strategic considerations concerning one's own future outcomes or intrinsic value placed on the outcomes of in-group members. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, we examined vicarious reward responses to witnessing the monetary gains of in-group and out-group members, as well as prosocial behavior towards both types of individuals...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400712/inverted-u-shaped-curvilinear-relationship-between-challenge-and-one-s-intrinsic-motivation-evidence-from-event-related-potentials
#5
Qingguo Ma, Guanxiong Pei, Liang Meng
The balance between task demand and one's competence is critical for the maintenance of intrinsic motivation. According to Flow theory and Self-determination theory, optimal challenge gives rise to the maximum intrinsic motivation, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship between perceived challenge and one's intrinsic motivation is suggested. In order to provide direct experimental evidences for predictions of these theories, in this study, we employed the two-player StopWatch game that we previously designed, which made references to the game format of a badminton tournament...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396007/neural-evidence-for-the-intrinsic-value-of-action-as-motivation-for-behavior
#6
Naoki Miura, Hiroki C Tanabe, Akihiro Sasaki, Tokiko Harada, Norihiro Sadato
The intrinsic value of an action refers to the inherent sense that experiencing a behavior is enjoyable even if it has no explicit outcome. Previous research has suggested that a common valuation mechanism within the reward network may be responsible for processing the intrinsic value of achieving both the outcome and external rewards. However, how the intrinsic value of action is neurally represented remains unknown. We hypothesized that the intrinsic value of action is determined by an action-outcome contingency indicating the behavior is controllable and that the outcome of the action can be evaluated by this feedback...
April 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395535/the-experience-of-attempting-to-return-to-work-following-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review-of-the-qualitative-literature
#7
Gillean Hilton, Carolyn Unsworth, Gregory Murphy
PURPOSE: This review sought to answer the question "What are the barriers and facilitators influencing people's experience of return to work following spinal cord injury?" METHODS: Studies that met the selection criteria were identified, presented and critically appraised using National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. Thematic synthesis was completed with studies possessing strong methodological rigor. Synthesis and interpretation involved three stages; coding of primary data; development of descriptive themes reflective of the primary data; and establishment of analytical themes to answer the review question...
April 11, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394148/intrinsic-motivation-and-organizational-identification-among-on-demand-workers
#8
Kevin W Rockmann, Gary A Ballinger
On-demand firms provide services for clients through a network of on-demand workers ready to complete specific tasks for a set contractual price. Given such on-demand work is defined by payment on short-term contracts with no obligation for continued employment, there is little reason to believe on-demand workers experience more than extrinsic motivation and a transactional relationship with the on-demand firm. However, using self-determination theory, we argue that to the degree that on-demand work fulfills innate psychological needs individual on-demand workers will develop intrinsic motivation, which further leads to organizational identification with the on-demand firm...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394024/a-brief-motivational-interview-promotes-internal-motivation-to-donate-blood-among-young-adults-with-and-without-a-prior-donation-history
#9
Irina E Livitz, Kristen R Fox, Lina K Himawan, Christopher R France
BACKGROUND: Recruitment and retention of first-time and repeat donors is essential to maintain a stable blood supply. Recent evidence has shown that promoting internal motivation may be an effective strategy to enhance donation behavior. We tested the efficacy of an in-person motivational interview at increasing internal motivation and intention to donate. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 219 donors and nondonors (69.4% female; mean ± SD age, 19.2 ± 1...
April 10, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392765/the-emerging-neuroscience-of-intrinsic-motivation-a-new-frontier-in-self-determination-research
#10
REVIEW
Stefano I Di Domenico, Richard M Ryan
Intrinsic motivation refers to people's spontaneous tendencies to be curious and interested, to seek out challenges and to exercise and develop their skills and knowledge, even in the absence of operationally separable rewards. Over the past four decades, experimental and field research guided by self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan and Deci, 2017) has found intrinsic motivation to predict enhanced learning, performance, creativity, optimal development and psychological wellness. Only recently, however, have studies begun to examine the neurobiological substrates of intrinsic motivation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392491/intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-central-nucleus-of-the-amygdala-and-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#11
Adam X Gorka, Salvatore Torrisi, Alexander J Shackman, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), two nuclei within the central extended amygdala, function as critical relays within the distributed neural networks that coordinate sensory, emotional, and cognitive responses to threat. These structures have overlapping anatomical projections to downstream targets that initiate defensive responses. Despite these commonalities, researchers have also proposed a functional dissociation between the CeA and BNST, with the CeA promoting responses to discrete stimuli and the BNST promoting responses to diffuse threat...
April 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392112/a-descending-neuron-correlated-with-the-rapid-steering-maneuvers-of-flying-drosophila
#12
Bettina Schnell, Ivo G Ros, Michael H Dickinson
To navigate through the world, animals must stabilize their path against disturbances and change direction to avoid obstacles and to search for resources [1, 2]. Locomotion is thus guided by sensory cues but also depends on intrinsic processes, such as motivation and physiological state. Flies, for example, turn with the direction of large-field rotatory motion, an optomotor reflex that is thought to help them fly straight [3-5]. Occasionally, however, they execute fast turns, called body saccades, either spontaneously or in response to patterns of visual motion such as expansion [6-8]...
March 30, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391798/story-immersion-may-be-effective-in-promoting-diet-and-physical-activity-in-chinese-children
#13
Jing Jing Wang, Tom Baranowski, Patrick W C Lau, Richard Buday, Yang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of playing a health video game embedded with story immersion, Escape from Diab (Diab), on children's diet and physical activity (PA) and to explore whether children immersed in Diab had greater positive outcomes. DESIGN: Two groups, nonrandomized; 3 outcome assessments: at baseline, immediately after the game (post 1), and 8-10 weeks after the game (post 2). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 179 Chinese children aged 8-12 years...
April 2017: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382012/longitudinal-effects-of-student-perceived-classroom-support-on-motivation-a-latent-change-model
#14
Rebecca Lazarides, Diana Raufelder
This two-wave longitudinal study examined how developmental changes in students' mastery goal orientation, academic effort, and intrinsic motivation were predicted by student-perceived support of motivational support (support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in secondary classrooms. The study extends previous knowledge that showed that support for motivational support in class is related to students' intrinsic motivation as it focused on the developmental changes of a set of different motivational variables and the relations of these changes to student-perceived motivational support in class...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370457/photochemistry-of-1-and-2-naphthols-and-their-water-clusters-the-role-of-1%C3%AF-%C3%AF-la-mediated-hydrogen-transfer-to-carbon-atoms
#15
Nađa Došlić, Jurica Novak, Antonio Prlj, Nikola Basarić, Clémence Corminboeuf
The computational analysis of isomer- and conformer- dependent photochemistry of 1- and 2-naphthols and their microsolvated water clusters is motivated by their very different excited state reactivity. We present evidence that 1- and 2-naphthol follow distinct excited state deactivation pathways. The deactivation of 2-naphthols, 2-naphthol water clusters as well as of the anti conformer of 1-naphthol is mediated by the optically dark 1πσ* state. The dynamics on the 1πσ* surface leads to the homolytic cleavage of the OH bond...
March 30, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368843/on-the-security-of-a-class-of-diffusion-mechanisms-for-image-encryption
#16
Leo Yu Zhang, Yuansheng Liu, Fabio Pareschi, Yushu Zhang, Kwok-Wo Wong, Riccardo Rovatti, Gianluca Setti
The need for fast and strong image cryptosystems motivates researchers to develop new techniques to apply traditional cryptographic primitives in order to exploit the intrinsic features of digital images. One of the most popular and mature technique is the use of complex dynamic phenomena, including chaotic orbits and quantum walks, to generate the required key stream. In this paper, under the assumption of plaintext attacks we investigate the security of a classic diffusion mechanism (and of its variants) used as the core cryptographic primitive in some image cryptosystems based on the aforementioned complex dynamic phenomena...
March 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367676/are-individual-differences-in-sleep-and-circadian-timing-amplified-by-use-of-artificial-light-sources
#17
Krithika Swaminathan, Elizabeth B Klerman, Andrew J K Phillips
Within the human population, there is large interindividual variability in the timing of sleep and circadian rhythms. This variability has been attributed to individual differences in sleep physiology, circadian physiology, and/or light exposure. Recent experimental evidence suggests that the latter is necessary to evoke large interindividual differences in sleep and circadian timing. We used a validated model of human sleep and circadian physiology to test the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in sleep and circadian timing are amplified by self-selected use of artificial light sources...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361661/personality-motivation-and-math-achievement-among-turkish-students
#18
Elif Akben-Selcuk
Using the Turkish portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment dataset ( N = 4,848; 51% boys, 49% girls; age, M = 15.81 years, SD = 0.28), this study investigated factors associated with mathematics achievement among Turkish students. Three different models were estimated using the method of balanced repeated replication with Fay's method and taking into account the presence of five plausible values of the dependent variable. Results showed that male students and older students had better mathematics proficiency...
April 2017: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337165/motivation-measures-in-sport-a-critical-review-and-bibliometric-analysis
#19
Rachel B Clancy, Matthew P Herring, Mark J Campbell
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337158/how-not-to-do-a-mindset-intervention-learning-from-a-mindset-intervention-among-students-with-good-grades
#20
Gábor Orosz, Szilvia Péter-Szarka, Beáta Bőthe, István Tóth-Király, Rony Berger
The present study examined the effectiveness of a Growth Mindset intervention based on Dweck et al.'s (1995) theory in the Hungarian educational context. A cluster randomized controlled trial classroom experiment was carried out within the framework of a train-the-trainer intervention among 55 Hungarian 10th grade students with high Grade Point Average (GPA). The results suggest that students' IQ and personality mindset beliefs were more incremental in the intervention group than in the control group 3 weeks after the intervention...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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