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Intrinsic motivation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087303/activity-levels-and-exercise-motivation-in-copd-patients-and-their-resident-loved-ones
#1
Rafael Mesquita, Nienke Nakken, Daisy J A Janssen, Esther H A van den Bogaart, Jeannet M L Delbressine, Johannes M N Essers, Kenneth Meijer, Monique van Vliet, Geeuwke J de Vries, Jean W M Muris, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: Resident loved ones of patients with COPD can play an important role in helping patients to engage in physical activity. We aimed to compare activity levels and exercise motivation between COPD patients and their resident loved ones; to compare the same outcome measures in patients after stratification for the physical activity level of the loved ones; and to predict the likelihood of being physically active in patients with a physically active resident loved one. METHODS: 125 patient-loved one dyads were cross-sectionally and simultaneously assessed...
January 10, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076352/high-intensity-interval-training-elicits-higher-enjoyment-than-moderate-intensity-continuous-exercise
#2
Jacob S Thum, Gregory Parsons, Taylor Whittle, Todd A Astorino
: Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074110/an-exploratory-study-on-the-impact-of-daily-activities-on-the-pleasure-and-physical-activity-of-older-adults
#3
Miriam Cabrita, Richel Lousberg, Monique Tabak, Hermie J Hermens, Miriam M R Vollenbroek-Hutten
BACKGROUND: Pleasure is one determinant of intrinsic motivation and yet a dimension often forgotten when promoting physical activity among the older population. In this study we investigate the relation between daily activities and physical activity, experience of pleasure, and the interaction between pleasure and physical activity in the daily lives of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants carried a hip-worn accelerometer during 30 consecutive days resulting in a total of 320 days of data collection...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067921/-preventive-dentistry-2-the-force-of-habit-and-the-change-to-healthy-oral-behaviour
#4
E Zwart, C O V M Gresnigt-Bekker
In a dental practice there are several situations where a change in behaviour of a patient is desirable or even necessary. It's not easy, however, to change someone's habits that they've had for many years, because these habits often give people a comfortable feeling. Change can lead to a decrease in self-confidence, which is why people are not always inclined to change. In order to realise a change in behaviour, there has to be an intrinsic motivation. An oral healthcare professional can increase the intrinsic motivation by using -Motivational Interviewing (MI)...
January 2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060434/participatory-bioethics-research-and-its-social-impact-the-case-of-coercion-reduction-in-psychiatry
#5
Tineke A Abma, Yolande Voskes, Guy Widdershoven
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage...
February 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054810/the-dynamic-effect-of-incentives-on-postreward-task-engagement
#6
Indranil Goswami, Oleg Urminsky
Although incentives can be a powerful motivator of behavior when they are available, an influential body of research has suggested that rewards can persistently reduce engagement after they end. This research has resulted in widespread skepticism among practitioners and academics alike about using incentives to motivate behavior change. However, recent field studies looking at the longer term effects of temporary incentives have not found such detrimental behavior. We design an experimental framework to study dynamic behavior under temporary rewards, and find that although there is a robust decrease in engagement immediately after the incentive ends, engagement returns to a postreward baseline that is equal to or exceeds the initial baseline...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052091/sense-of-accomplishment-is-modulated-by-a-proper-level-of-instruction-and-represented-in-the-brain-reward-system
#7
Tomoya Nakai, Hironori Nakatani, Chihiro Hosoda, Yulri Nonaka, Kazuo Okanoya
Problem-solving can be facilitated with instructions or hints, which provide information about given problems. The proper amount of instruction that should be provided for learners is controversial. Research shows that tasks with intermediate difficulty induce the largest sense of accomplishment (SA), leading to an intrinsic motivation for learning. To investigate the effect of instructions, we prepared three instruction levels (No hint, Indirect hint, and Direct hint) for the same insight-problem types. We hypothesized that indirect instructions impose intermediate difficulty for each individual, thereby inducing the greatest SA per person...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048715/tu-d-207a-03-quantitative-assessment-of-ct-systems-with-iterative-image-reconstruction-algorithms
#8
K Li
: In recent several years, motivated by the need to reduce radiation doses in CT exams, all of the major CT manufacturers have commercialized different iterative image reconstruction techniques and these innovative techniques were used in clinical routines with increasing popularity. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of these new techniques, the well accepted quantitative image quality assessment metrics such as spatial resolution and contrast to noise ratio are not sufficient to provide the needed quantitative metrics for assessing image quality and for guiding the CT scan protocol optimization...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047997/tu-d-207a-00-quantitative-assessment-of-ct-systems-with-iterative-image-reconstruction-algorithms
#9
Guang-Hong Chen, Michael McNitt-Gray
: In recent several years, motivated by the need to reduce radiation doses in CT exams, all of the major CT manufacturers have commercialized different iterative image reconstruction techniques and these innovative techniques were used in clinical routines with increasing popularity. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of these new techniques, the well accepted quantitative image quality assessment metrics such as spatial resolution and contrast to noise ratio are not sufficient to provide the needed quantitative metrics for assessing image quality and for guiding the CT scan protocol optimization...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047586/su-g-201-10-experimental-determination-of-modified-tg-43-dosimetry-parameters-for-the-xoft-axxent%C3%A2-electronic-brachytherapy-source
#10
S Simiele, B Palmer, L DeWerd
PURPOSE: The establishment of an air kerma rate standard at NIST for the Xoft Axxent(®) electronic brachytherapy source (Axxent(®) source) motivated the establishment of a modified TG-43 dosimetry formalism. This work measures the modified dosimetry parameters for the Axxent(®) source in the absence of a treatment applicator for implementation in Xoft's treatment planning system. METHODS: The dose-rate conversion coefficient (DRCC), radial dose function (RDF) values, and polar anisotropy (PA) were measured using TLD-100 microcubes with NIST-calibrated sources...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047332/tu-d-207a-01-quantitative-assessment-of-ct-systems-with-iterative-image-reconstruction-algorithms
#11
S Leng
: In recent several years, motivated by the need to reduce radiation doses in CT exams, all of the major CT manufacturers have commercialized different iterative image reconstruction techniques and these innovative techniques were used in clinical routines with increasing popularity. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of these new techniques, the well accepted quantitative image quality assessment metrics such as spatial resolution and contrast to noise ratio are not sufficient to provide the needed quantitative metrics for assessing image quality and for guiding the CT scan protocol optimization...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046664/tu-d-207a-02-quantitative-assessment-of-ct-systems-with-iterative-image-reconstruction-algorithms
#12
E Samei
: In recent several years, motivated by the need to reduce radiation doses in CT exams, all of the major CT manufacturers have commercialized different iterative image reconstruction techniques and these innovative techniques were used in clinical routines with increasing popularity. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of these new techniques, the well accepted quantitative image quality assessment metrics such as spatial resolution and contrast to noise ratio are not sufficient to provide the needed quantitative metrics for assessing image quality and for guiding the CT scan protocol optimization...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039505/factors-supporting-cardiomyopathy-screening-among-at-risk-adult-survivors-of-pediatric-malignancies
#13
Cheryl L Cox, Liang Zhu, Rohit P Ojha, Brenda D Steen, Susan Ogg, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson
PURPOSE: Anthracyclines and chest irradiation place adult survivors of childhood cancer at risk of cardiomyopathy; many survivors do not obtain the recommended screening. Based on our recent clinical trial, the addition of telephone counseling to a printed survivorship care plan more than doubled survivors' risk-based screening. Here, we sought to measure the impact of specific factors targeted in the intervention for their impact on survivors' screening participation. METHODS: Study population-survivors participating in a randomized longitudinal intervention trial...
December 30, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036170/absorption-dominated-electromagnetic-wave-suppressor-derived-from-ferrite-doped-cross-linked-graphene-framework-and-conducting-carbon
#14
Sourav Biswas, Injamamul Arief, Sujit Sankar Panja, Suryasarathi Bose
To minimize electromagnetic (EM) pollution, two key parameters, namely, intrinsic wave impedance matching and intense absorption of incoming EM radiation, must satisfy the utmost requirements. To target these requirements, soft conducting composites consisting of binary blends of polycarbonate (PC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were designed with doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and a three-dimensional cross-linked graphene oxide (GO) framework doped with ferrite nanoparticles. The doping of α-MnO2 onto the MWCNTs ensured intrinsic wave impedance matching in addition to providing conducting pathways, and the ferrite-doped cross-linked GO facilitated the enhanced attenuation of the incoming EM radiation...
January 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031771/a-comparison-of-physical-education-students-motivation-using-polish-and-turkish-versions-of-the-academic-motivation-scale
#15
Agnieszka Ardeńska, Rajmund Tomik, Serkan Berber, Burak Düz, Barış Çivak, Uğur Çalişkan, Joanna Ogrodnik
Motivation is an important phenomenon in the realm of education, particularly in the university fields connected with physical education and sport, where it is necessary to accommodate and balance intellectual abilities and physical fitness. The present study tested motivation levels among university students in the fields connected with physical education and sport in Poland and Turkey. It was based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985), namely intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation which impact human behaviour...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009204/gaussian-intrinsic-entanglement
#16
Ladislav Mišta, Richard Tatham
We introduce a cryptographically motivated quantifier of entanglement in bipartite Gaussian systems called Gaussian intrinsic entanglement (GIE). The GIE is defined as the optimized mutual information of a Gaussian distribution of outcomes of measurements on parts of a system, conditioned on the outcomes of a measurement on a purifying subsystem. We show that GIE vanishes only on separable states and exhibits monotonicity under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. In the two-mode case, we compute GIE for all pure states as well as for several important classes of symmetric and asymmetric mixed states...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005132/biomechanical-phenotyping-of-the-murine-aorta-what-is-the-best-control
#17
Chiara Bellini, Alexander/W Caulk, Guangxin Li, George Tellides, Jay Humphrey
The availability of diverse mouse models is revealing increasingly greater information on arterial mechanics, including homeostatic adaptations and pathologic maladaptations to genetic, pharmacological, and surgical manipulations. Fundamental to understanding such biomechanical changes, however, is reliable information on appropriate control vessels. In this paper, we contrast 15 different geometrical and mechanical metrics of biaxial ascending aortic mechanics across 7 different types of possible control mice...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001436/teaching-resident-self-assessment-through-triangulation-of-faculty-and-patient-feedback
#18
Drew M Keister, Susan E Hansen, Julie Dostal
PROBLEM: To accurately determine one's ability in any clinical competency, an individual must be able to self-assess performance and identify personal limitations. Existing research demonstrates that physicians of all levels are unreliable self-assessors. This poses a concern in medical practice, which requires continuous updates to clinical competencies and awareness of personal limitations. Few published studies examine graduate medical education curricula designed to develop self-assessment skills...
December 21, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997928/development-and-validation-of-the-motivations-for-selection-of-medical-study-msms-questionnaire-in-india
#19
Sonu Goel, Federica Angeli, Neetu Singla, Dirk Ruwaard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding medical students' motivation to select medical studies is particularly salient to inform practice and policymaking in countries-such as India-where shortage of medical personnel poses crucial and chronical challenges to healthcare systems. This study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the motivation of medical students to select medical studies. METHODS: A Motivation for Selection of Medical Study (MSMS) questionnaire was developed using extensive literature review followed by Delphi technique...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996894/motivation-expectations-and-usability-of-a-driven-gait-orthosis-in-stroke-patients-and-their-therapists
#20
Eva Swinnen, Nina Lefeber, Ward Willaert, Fallon De Neef, Lyn Bruyndonckx, Annemie Spooren, Marc Michielsen, Tine Ramon, Eric Kerckhofs
BACKGROUND: In the development of efficacious driven gait orthoses (DGO), it is an added value to consider patients' and therapists' perspectives concerning robot-assisted gait training (RAGT). A better understanding of these issues may improve the process of care and outcome. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine stroke patients' motivation and expectations of RAGT, and therapists' expectations and perspectives on the usability of RAGT. Additionally, the differences in expectations between stroke patients and their therapists were analyzed...
December 20, 2016: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
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