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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843953/considerations-for-defining-cytokine-dose-duration-and-milieu-that-are-appropriate-for-modeling-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-in-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Craig S Nunemaker
Proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). T1D is an autoimmune disease involving the adaptive immune system responding to pancreatic beta-cells as antigen-presenting cells. This attracts immune cells that surround pancreatic islets (insulitis) and secrete cytokines, such as IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, in close proximity to pancreatic beta-cells. In contrast, there is little evidence for such a focused autoimmune response in T2D...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366048/prospective-small-bowel-mucosal-assessment-immediately-after-chemoradiotherapy-of-unresectable-locally-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-using-capsule-endoscopy-a-case-series
#2
Takeshi Yamashina, Ryoji Takada, Noriya Uedo, Tomofumi Akasaka, Noboru Hanaoka, Yoji Takeuchi, Koji Higashino, Tatsuya Ioka, Ryu Ishihara, Teruki Teshima, Kinji Nishiyama, Hiroyasu Iishi
In this case series, three consecutive patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (ULAPC) underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) to evaluate duodenal and jejunal mucosa, and to examine the relationship between CE findings and dose distribution. CE after CRT showed duodenitis and proximal jejunitis in all three patients. The most inflamed region was the third part of the duodenum, and in dose distribution, this was the closest region to the center of irradiation...
July 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343548/combination-of-radiotherapy-and-vaccination-overcome-checkpoint-blockade-resistance
#3
Wenxin Zheng, Kinga B Skowron, Jukes P Namm, Byron Burnette, Christian Fernandez, Ainhoa Arina, Hua Liang, Michael T Spiotto, Mitchell C Posner, Yang-Xin Fu, Ralph R Weichselbaum
The majority of cancer patients respond poorly to either vaccine or checkpoint blockade, and even to the combination of both. They are often resistant to high doses of radiation therapy as well. We examined prognostic markers of immune cell infiltration in pancreatic cancer. Patients with low CD8+ T cell infiltration and high PD-L1 expression (CD8+ TloPD-L1hi) experienced poor outcomes. We developed a mouse tumor fragment model with a trackable model antigen (SIYRYYGL or SIY) to mimic CD8+ TloPD-L1hi cancers...
June 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27183218/platelet-derived-cxcl4-regulates-neutrophil-infiltration-and-tissue-damage-in-severe-acute%C3%A2-pancreatitis
#4
Erik Wetterholm, Johan Linders, Mohammed Merza, Sara Regner, Henrik Thorlacius
Platelets are known to play an important role in acute pancreatitis (AP) via promotion of neutrophil accumulation, although mechanisms behind platelet-dependent accumulation of neutrophils in the pancreas remain elusive. Platelets contain a wide spectrum of different pro-inflammatory compounds, such as chemokines. CXCL4 (platelet factor 4) is one of the most abundant chemokine in platelets, and we hypothesized that CXCL4 might be involved in platelet-dependent accumulation of neutrophils in the inflamed pancreas...
October 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044747/ubiquitin-d-regulates-ire1%C3%AE-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-jnk-protein-dependent-apoptosis-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#5
Flora Brozzi, Sarah Gerlo, Fabio Arturo Grieco, Matilda Juusola, Alexander Balhuizen, Sam Lievens, Conny Gysemans, Marco Bugliani, Chantal Mathieu, Piero Marchetti, Jan Tavernier, Décio L Eizirik
Pro-inflammatory cytokines contribute to pancreatic beta cell apoptosis in type 1 diabetes at least in part by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the consequent unfolded protein response (UPR). It remains to be determined what causes the transition from "physiological" to "apoptotic" UPR, but accumulating evidence indicates that signaling by the ER transmembrane protein IRE1α is critical for this transition. IRE1α activation is regulated by both intra-ER and cytosolic cues. We evaluated the role for the presently discovered cytokine-induced and IRE1α-interacting protein ubiquitin D (UBD) on the regulation of IRE1α and its downstream targets...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884345/pna-lectin-for-purifying-mouse-acinar-cells-from-the-inflamed-pancreas
#6
Xiangwei Xiao, Shane Fischbach, Joseph Fusco, Ray Zimmerman, Zewen Song, Philip Nebres, David Matthew Ricks, Krishna Prasadan, Chiyo Shiota, Sohail Z Husain, George K Gittes
Better methods for purifying human or mouse acinar cells without the need for genetic modification are needed. Such techniques would be advantageous for the specific study of certain mechanisms, such as acinar-to-beta-cell reprogramming and pancreatitis. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin has been used to label and isolate acinar cells from the pancreas. However, the purity of the UEA-I-positive cell fraction has not been fully evaluated. Here, we screened 20 widely used lectins for their binding specificity for major pancreatic cell types, and found that UEA-I and Peanut agglutinin (PNA) have a specific affinity for acinar cells in the mouse pancreas, with minimal affinity for other major pancreatic cell types including endocrine cells, duct cells and endothelial cells...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26860866/expression-of-area-specific-m2-macrophage-phenotype-by-recruited-rat-monocytes-in-duct-ligation-pancreatitis
#7
Enqiao Yu, Mataro Goto, Hisashi Ueta, Yusuke Kitazawa, Yasushi Sawanobori, Taro Kariya, Masaru Sasaki, Kenjiro Matsuno
Acute pancreatitis remains a disease of uncertain pathogenesis and no established specific therapy. Previously, we found a predominant increase and active proliferation of macrophages in the inflamed tissues of a rat duct-ligation pancreatitis model. To analyze the origin and possible role of these macrophages, we investigated their in situ cellular kinetics in a rat model of duct-ligation pancreatitis using a recently established method of multicolor immunostaining for macrophage markers and for proliferating cells with ethynyl deoxyuridine...
June 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26686205/a-rare-and-emerging-entity-sinonasal-igg4-related-sclerosing-disease
#8
Brian H Song, Daniel Baiyee, Jonathan Liang
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) related sclerosing disease (rSD) is a new disease entity, first described in 2001, that involves autoimmune pancreatitis. Considered a systemic disease with lesions described in multiple organ systems, IgG4-rSD that affects the sinonasal region is rare. Our goal was to highlight the sinonasal presentation of this unique disease and to review previously reported adult cases from 2003 to 2014. METHODS: Case report (a 72-year-old man who presented with left exophthalmos, periorbital pain, and epiphora) and review of the literature...
January 2015: Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676803/developmental-endothelial-locus-1-modulates-platelet-monocyte-interactions-and-instant-blood-mediated-inflammatory-reaction-in-islet-transplantation
#9
Ioannis Kourtzelis, Klara Kotlabova, Jong-Hyung Lim, Ioannis Mitroulis, Anaisa Ferreira, Lan-Sun Chen, Bettina Gercken, Anja Steffen, Elisabeth Kemter, Anne Klotzsche-von Ameln, Claudia Waskow, Kavita Hosur, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Barbara Ludwig, Eckhard Wolf, George Hajishengallis, Triantafyllos Chavakis
Platelet-monocyte interactions are strongly implicated in thrombo-inflammatory injury by actively contributing to intravascular inflammation, leukocyte recruitment to inflamed sites, and the amplification of the procoagulant response. Instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) represents thrombo-inflammatory injury elicited upon pancreatic islet transplantation (islet-Tx), thereby dramatically affecting transplant survival and function. Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a functionally versatile endothelial cell-derived homeostatic factor with anti-inflammatory properties, but its potential role in IBMIR has not been previously addressed...
April 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26526716/bcl3-reduces-the-sterile-inflammatory-response-in-pancreatic-and-biliary-tissues
#10
Liang Song, Sonja Wörmann, Jiaoyu Ai, Patrick Neuhöfer, Marina Lesina, Kalliope N Diakopoulos, Dietrich Ruess, Matthias Treiber, Heiko Witt, Florian Bassermann, Walter Halangk, Jörg M Steiner, Irene Esposito, Jonas Rosendahl, Roland M Schmid, Marc Riemann, Hana Algül
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Under conditions of inflammation in the absence of micro-organisms (sterile inflammation), necrotic cells release damage-associated molecular patterns that bind to Toll-like receptors on immune cells to activate a signaling pathway that involves activation of IκB kinase and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Little is known about the mechanisms that control NF-κB activity during sterile inflammation. We analyzed the contribution of B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3), a transcription factor that associates with NF-κB, in control of sterile inflammation in the pancreas and biliary system of mice...
February 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519234/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4-virus-equivocal-pathogenicity-and-implications-for-surveillance-following-natural-infection-in-breeder-ducks-in-the-united-kingdom
#11
A Núñez, S M Brookes, S M Reid, C Garcia-Rueda, D J Hicks, J M Seekings, Y I Spencer, I H Brown
Since early 2014, several outbreaks involving novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) viruses have been detected in poultry and wild bird species in Asia, Europe and North America. These viruses have been detected in apparently healthy and dead wild migratory birds, as well as in domestic chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks. In this study, we describe the pathology of an outbreak of H5N8 HPAIV in breeder ducks in the UK. A holding with approximately 6000 breeder ducks, aged approximately 60 weeks, showed a gradual reduction in egg production and increased mortality over a 7-day period...
February 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26425533/gastric-mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-associated-with-pancreatic-non-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-case-report
#12
H Okasha, M El-Kassas, M Naguib, R Ezzat, E El-Gemeie
UNLABELLED: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are extranodal lymphomas that arise from B lymphocytes located in the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles. Although, there is a substantial amount of lymphoid tissue in the gastrointestinal tract, MALT lymphomas usually arise in chronically inflamed sites that are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. The best example is gastric MALT lymphoma that is almost always associated with Helicobacter pylori. Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is an extremely rare tumor (1% incidence) and is often confused with pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
April 2014: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302488/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-induce-trypsin-activation-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-in-mice-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Mohammed Merza, Hannes Hartman, Milladur Rahman, Rundk Hwaiz, Enming Zhang, Erik Renström, Lingtao Luo, Matthias Mörgelin, Sara Regner, Henrik Thorlacius
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Neutrophils are involved in the development of acute pancreatitis (AP), but it is not clear how neutrophil-induced tissue damage is regulated. In addition to secreting antimicrobial compounds, activated neutrophils eliminate invading microorganisms by expelling nuclear DNA and histones to form extracellular web-like structures called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). However, NETs have been reported to contribute to organ dysfunction in patients with infectious diseases...
December 2015: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26297761/plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-activation-and-ifn-%C3%AE-production-are-prominent-features-of-murine-autoimmune-pancreatitis-and-human-igg4-related-autoimmune-pancreatitis
#14
Yasuyuki Arai, Kouhei Yamashita, Katsutoshi Kuriyama, Masahiro Shiokawa, Yuzo Kodama, Toshiharu Sakurai, Kiyomi Mizugishi, Kazushige Uchida, Norimitsu Kadowaki, Akifumi Takaori-Kondo, Masatoshi Kudo, Kazuichi Okazaki, Warren Strober, Tsutomu Chiba, Tomohiro Watanabe
The abnormal immune response accompanying IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is presently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) activation and IFN-α production in this disease as well as in a murine model of AIP (MRL/Mp mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid). We found that the development of AIP in treated MRL/Mp mice occurred in parallel with pancreatic accumulation of pDCs producing IFN-α, and with pDC depletion and IFN-α-blocking studies, we showed that such accumulation was necessary for AIP induction...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25942397/intratumoral-tertiary-lymphoid-organ-is-a-favourable-prognosticator-in-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#15
N Hiraoka, Y Ino, R Yamazaki-Itoh, Y Kanai, T Kosuge, K Shimada
BACKGROUND: Host immunity has critical roles in tumour surveillance. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are induced in various inflamed tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological and pathobiological characteristics of tumour microenvironment in pancreatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) with TLOs. METHODS: We examined 534 PDCs to investigate the clinicopathological impact of TLOs and their association with tumour-infiltrating immune cells, the cytokine milieu, and tissue characteristics...
May 26, 2015: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25872604/-igg4-related-disease-is-a-rare-differential-diagnosis-of-malignant-and-autoimmune-diseases
#16
Anders Storgaard, Sönke Detlefsen
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an inflammatory and fibrotic disease with the potential to produce diffuse enlargement, massforming lesions or stenoses in a wide range of organs. Elevation of serum IgG4 concentration and high levels of IgG4-positive cells in the inflamed tissue are common denominators. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis is one of the main manifestations, and its recognition preceded the definition of IgG4-RD as a novel clinical entity. The aetiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and clinical long-term outcome of IgG4-RD are not fully elucidated...
April 6, 2015: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25831975/lymphocyte-homing-and-chronic-inflammation
#17
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Sakai, Motohiro Kobayashi
Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions...
July 2015: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25829703/severe-colonic-complications-requiring-sub-total-colectomy-in-acute-necrotizing-pancreatitis-a-retrospective-study-of-8-patients
#18
Anish P Nagpal, Harshad Soni, Sanjiv Haribhakti
Colonic involvement in acute pancreatitis is associated with high mortality. Diagnosis of colonic pathology complicating acute pancreatitis is difficult. The treatment of choice is resection of the affected segment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of aggressive surgical approach when colonic complication is suspected. Retrospectively, 8 patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and colonic complications (2006-2010) were reviewed. Eight patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis requiring colonic resection were evaluated...
February 2015: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25822611/human-gastroenteropancreatic-expression-of-melatonin-and-its-receptors-mt1-and-mt2
#19
Fanny Söderquist, Per M Hellström, Janet L Cunningham
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The largest source of melatonin, according to animal studies, is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but this is not yet thoroughly characterized in humans. This study aims to map the expression of melatonin and its two receptors in human GI tract and pancreas using microarray analysis and immunohistochemistry. METHOD: Gene expression data from normal intestine and pancreas and inflamed colon tissue due to ulcerative colitis were analyzed for expression of enzymes relevant for serotonin and melatonin production and their receptors...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25650963/elevated-gene-expression-of-s100a12-is-correlated-with-the-predominant-clinical-inflammatory-factors-in-patients-with-bacterial-pneumonia
#20
Fei Hou, Likui Wang, Hong Wang, Junchao Gu, Meiling Li, Jingkai Zhang, Xiao Ling, Xiaofang Gao, Cheng Luo
Inflammation is the predominant characteristic of pneumonia. The present study aimed to to identify a faster and more reliable novel inflammatory marker for the diagnosis of pneumonia. The expression of the S100A12 gene was analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in samples obtained from 46 patients with bacterial pneumonia and other infections, compared with samples from 20 healthy individuals, using the 2‑ΔΔCt method. The expression levels of S100A12 were increased in 12 patients with bacterial pneumonia...
June 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
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