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mitochondria in stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541509/evidence-that-phosphorylated-ubiquitin-signaling-is-involved-in-the-etiology-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Kei-Ichi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Nana Izawa, Masashi Takanashi, Shigeto Sato, Osamu Onodera, Wado Akamatsu, Hideyuki Okano, Yuzuru Imai, Nobutaka Hattori
The ubiquitin (Ub) kinase PINK1 and the E3 Ub ligase Parkin, two gene products associated with young-onset Parkinson's disease (PD), participate in mitochondrial quality control. The phosphorylation of mitochondrial polyUb by PINK1, which is activated in a mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)-dependent manner, facilitates the mitochondrial translocation and concomitant enzymatic activation of Parkin, leading to the clearance of phospho-polyUb-tagged mitochondria via mitophagy. Thus, Ub phosphorylation is a key event in PINK1-Parkin-mediated mitophagy...
May 25, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534038/analysis-of-mitochondrial-transfer-in-direct-co-cultures-of-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages-mdm-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#2
Megan V Jackson, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate MSC cell contact-dependent communication with alveolar macrophages (AM), professional phagocytes which play an important role in the lung inflammatory responses and anti-bacterial defence...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526246/impaired-mitophagy-facilitates-mitochondrial-damage-in-danon-disease
#3
Sherin I Hashem, Anne N Murphy, Ajit S Divakaruni, Matthew L Klos, Bradley C Nelson, Emily C Gault, Teisha J Rowland, Cynthia N Perry, Yusu Gu, Nancy D Dalton, William H Bradford, Eric J Devaney, Kirk L Peterson, Kenneth L Jones, Matthew R G Taylor, Ju Chen, Neil C Chi, Eric D Adler
RATIONALE: Lysosomal associated membrane protein type-2 (LAMP-2) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is critical for autophagic flux. Loss of function mutations in the LAMP-2 gene cause Danon disease, a rare X-linked disorder characterized by developmental delay, skeletal muscle weakness, and severe cardiomyopathy. We previously found that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from Danon patients exhibited significant mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptosis...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#4
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516356/morphology-ultrastructure-and-element-uptake-in-calophyllum-brasiliense-cambess-calophyllaceae-j-agardh-seedlings-under-cadmium-exposure
#5
Alezania Silva Pereira, Priscila Andressa Cortez, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Majeti Narashima Vara Prasad, Marcel Giovanni Costa França, Maura da Cunha, Raildo Mota de Jesus, Pedro Antônio Oliveira Mangabeira
Cadmium (Cd) is a metal known for its genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, much concerned for its potential environmental and human health impacts. This study evaluates the toxic effect of Cd in Calophyllum brasiliense plants. The plants were cultivated for 30 days in full nutrient solution in order to adapt, and for 15 days in nutrient solution without Cd or with 4, 8, 16, and 32 μmol Cd L(-1). Anatomical analysis of the leaf showed no significant effects of Cd on epidermal thickness in abaxial and adaxial sides, palisade, and spongy parenchyma...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504707/regulation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-erythropoiesis-by-mtorc1-mediated-protein%C3%A2-translation
#6
Xin Liu, Yuannyu Zhang, Min Ni, Hui Cao, Robert A J Signer, Dan Li, Mushan Li, Zhimin Gu, Zeping Hu, Kathryn E Dickerson, Samuel E Weinberg, Navdeep S Chandel, Ralph J DeBerardinis, Feng Zhou, Zhen Shao, Jian Xu
Advances in genomic profiling present new challenges of explaining how changes in DNA and RNA are translated into proteins linking genotype to phenotype. Here we compare the genome-scale proteomic and transcriptomic changes in human primary haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and erythroid progenitors, and uncover pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis enhanced through post-transcriptional regulation. Mitochondrial factors including TFAM and PHB2 are selectively regulated through protein translation during erythroid specification...
May 15, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502921/umbilical-cord-mscs-reverse-d-galactose-induced-hepatic-mitochondrial-dysfunction-via-activation-of-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#7
Weihong Yan, Dong Li, Tong Chen, Guiying Tian, Panpan Zhou, Xiuli Ju
Mitochondria are the central hubs for cellular bioenergetics and are crucial to cell survival. It is well accepted that compromised mitochondrial function is linked with hepatocytes injury and contribute to progression of liver diseases. Despite the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation on hepatic disorders have been extensively investigated, the effects of MSCs on mitochondrial function in liver injury models remain unknown. Here we investigated the effects of treatment with umbilical cord (UC) MSC in a rat model of D-Gal induced liver injury, characterized by organ damage, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction...
May 13, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#8
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494215/potential-ultrastructure-predicting-factors-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hcv-infected-patients
#9
Soheir S Mansy, Eman El-Ahwany, Soheir Mahmoud, Sara Hassan, Mohammed I Seleem, Amr Abdelaal, Ahmed H Helmy, Mona K Zoheiry, Ahmed S AbdelFattah, Moataz H Hassanein
Hepatitis C virus represents one of the rising causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the early diagnosis of HCC is vital for successful curative treatment, the majority of lesions are diagnosed in an irredeemable phase. This work deals with a comparative ultrastructural study of experimentally gradually induced HCC, surgically resected HCC, and potential premalignant lesions from HCV-infected patients, with the prospect to detect cellular criteria denoting premalignant transformation. Among the main detected pathological changes which are postulated to precede frank HCC: failure of normal hepatocyte regeneration with star shape clonal fragmentation, frequent elucidation of hepatic progenitor cells and Hering canals, hepatocytes of different electron density loaded with small sized rounded monotonous mitochondria, increase junctional complexes bordering bile canaliculi and in between hepatocyte membranes, abundant cellular proteinaceous material with hypertrophied or vesiculated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), sequestrated nucleus with proteinaceous granular material or hypertrophied RER, formation of lipolysosomes, large autophagosomes, and micro-vesicular fat deposition...
May 2017: Ultrastructural Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492551/haploinsufficiency-in-the-mitochondrial-protein-chchd4-reduces-brain-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#10
Yanyan Sun, Tao Li, Cuicui Xie, Yiran Xu, Kai Zhou, Juan Rodriguez, Wei Han, Xiaoyang Wang, Guido Kroemer, Nazanine Modjtahedi, Klas Blomgren, Changlian Zhu
Mitochondria contribute to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by releasing potentially toxic proteins into the cytosol. CHCHD4 is a mitochondrial intermembrane space protein that plays a major role in the import of intermembrane proteins and physically interacts with apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of CHCHD4 haploinsufficiency on mitochondrial function and brain injury after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonatal mice. CHCHD4(+/-) and wild-type littermate mouse pups were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI on postnatal day 9...
May 11, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484497/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-cell-reprogramming-as-it-is-in-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Javier Prieto, Josema Torres
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent cellular state similar to that of embryonic stem cells. Given the significant physiological differences between the somatic and pluripotent cells, cell reprogramming is associated with a profound reorganization of the somatic phenotype at all levels. The remodeling of mitochondrial morphology is one of these dramatic changes that somatic cells have to undertake during cell reprogramming. Somatic cells transform their tubular and interconnected mitochondrial network to the fragmented and isolated organelles found in pluripotent stem cells early during cell reprogramming...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481867/the-rb-il-6-axis-controls-self-renewal-and-endocrine-therapy-resistance-by-fine-tuning-mitochondrial-activity
#12
S Kitajima, A Yoshida, S Kohno, F Li, S Suzuki, N Nagatani, Y Nishimoto, N Sasaki, H Muranaka, Y Wan, T C Thai, N Okahashi, F Matsuda, H Shimizu, T Nishiuchi, Y Suzuki, K Tominaga, N Gotoh, M Suzuki, M E Ewen, D A Barbie, O Hirose, T Tanaka, C Takahashi
Retinoblastoma (RB) protein inactivation during tumor progression is often associated with acquisition of immature phenotypes and resistance to therapy. Determination of an RB inactivation signature in a context of gaining undifferentiated phenotype in a p53-null sarcoma system revealed a critical role for interleukin (IL)-6. Using a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), we discovered that poorly differentiated breast cancers are enriched for this RB inactivation signature. Accelerated IL-6 secretion following RB inactivation in an RB-intact luminal-type breast cancer cell line MCF-7 promoted a positive feed forward loop between IL-6 and STAT3 driving tumor growth and endocrine therapy resistance...
May 8, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478705/rejuvenation-of-cardiac-tissue-developed-from-reprogrammed-aged-somatic-cells
#13
Zhao Cheng, Hong-Ling Peng, Rong Zhang, Xian-Ming Fu, Guang-Sen Zhang
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived through somatic cell reprogramming have been reported to reset aged somatic cells to a more youthful state, characterized by elongated telomeres, a rearranged mitochondrial network, reduced oxidative stress and restored pluripotency. However, it is still unclear whether the reprogrammed aged somatic cells can function normally as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) during development and be rejuvenated. In the current study, we applied the aggregation technique to investigate whether iPSCs derived from aged somatic cells could develop normally and be rejuvenated...
May 6, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472853/genetic-rescue-of-mitochondrial-and-skeletal-muscle-impairment-in-an-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-model-of-coenzyme-q10-deficiency
#14
Damià Romero-Moya, Carlos Santos-Ocaña, Julio Castaño, Gloria Garrabou, José A Rodríguez-Gómez, Vanesa Ruiz-Bonilla, Clara Bueno, Patricia González-Rodríguez, Alessandra Giorgetti, Eusebio Perdiguero, Cristina Prieto, Constanza Moren-Nuñez, Daniel J Fernández-Ayala, Maria Victoria Cascajo, Iván Velasco, Josep Maria Canals, Raquel Montero, Delia Yubero, Cristina Jou, José López-Barneo, Francesc Cardellach, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves, Rafael Artuch, Plácido Navas, Pablo Menendez
Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) plays a crucial role in mitochondria as an electron carrier within the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) and is an essential antioxidant. Mutations in genes responsible for CoQ10 biosynthesis (COQ genes) cause primary CoQ10 deficiency, a rare and heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with no clear genotype-phenotype association, mainly affecting tissues with high-energy demand including brain and skeletal muscle (SkM). Here, we report a four-year-old girl diagnosed with minor mental retardation and lethal rhabdomyolysis harboring a heterozygous mutation (c...
May 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457938/parp-inhibition-protects-mitochondria-and-reduces-ros-production-via-parp-1-atf4-mkp-1-mapk-retrograde-pathway
#15
Eniko Hocsak, Viktor Szabo, Nikoletta Kalman, Csenge Antus, Anna Cseh, Katalin Sumegi, Krisztian Eros, Zoltan Hegedus, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Boglarka Racz
Oxidative stress induces DNA breaks and PARP-1 activation which initiates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell death through pathways not yet identified. Here, we show the mechanism by which PARP-1 influences these processes via PARylation of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) responsible for MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression and thereby regulates MAP kinases. PARP inhibitor, or silencing, of PARP induced MKP-1 expression by ATF4-dependent way, and inactivated JNK and p38 MAP kinases...
April 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456665/a-novel-paradigm-links-mitochondrial-dysfunction-with-muscle-stem-cell-impairment-in-sepsis
#16
REVIEW
Laurent Chatre, Franck Verdonk, Pierre Rocheteau, Clément Crochemore, Fabrice Chrétien, Miria Ricchetti
Sepsis is an acute systemic inflammatory response of the body to microbial infection and a life threatening condition associated with multiple organ failure. Survivors may display long-term disability with muscle weakness that remains poorly understood. Recent data suggest that long-term myopathy in sepsis survivors is due to failure of skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to regenerate the muscle. Satellite cells impairment in the acute phase of sepsis is linked to unusual mitochondrial dysfunctions, characterized by a dramatic reduction of the mitochondrial mass and hyperactivity of residual organelles...
April 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456566/assessment-of-acute-and-chronic-toxicity-of-doxorubicin-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes
#17
Jochem Louisse, Rob C I Wüst, Francesca Pistollato, Taina Palosaari, Manuela Barilari, Peter Macko, Susanne Bremer, Pilar Prieto
The present study assesses acute and chronic toxicity of doxorubicin in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), with the aim to obtain in vitro biomarkers that can be used as readouts to predict in vivo cardiotoxicity. Possible acute toxicity was investigated by assessing effects on the beating rate and the field potential duration (FPD) of doxorubicin-exposed cardiomyocytes by measuring electrical activity using multi-electrode array (MEA) analyses. No effects on the beating rate and FPD were found at concentrations up to 6μM, whereas at 12μM no electrical activity was recorded, indicating that the cardiomyocytes stopped beating...
April 26, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450176/expanding-perspectives-on-the-significance-of-mitophagy-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Lauren E Drake, Maya Z Springer, Logan P Poole, Casey J Kim, Kay F Macleod
Mitophagy is a selective mode of autophagy in which mitochondria are specifically targeted for degradation at the autophagolysosome. Mitophagy is activated by stresses such as hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, DNA damage, inflammation and mitochondrial membrane depolarization and plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function. Defects in mitophagy lead to mitochondrial dysfunction that can affect metabolic reprogramming in response to stress, alter cell fate determination and differentiation, which in turn affects disease incidence and etiology, including cancer...
April 24, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449155/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-with-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-or-exendin-4
#19
Mohamed Abd Elaziz Wassef, Ola M Tork, Laila A Rashed, Walaa Ibrahim, Heba Morsi, Dina Mohamed Mekawy Rabie
Therapy targeting mitochondria may provide novel ways to treat diabetes and its complications. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists and exendin-4; an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 have shown cardioprotective properties in many cardiac injury models. So, we evaluated their effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. This work included seven groups of adult male albino rats: the control group, the non-treated diabetic group, and the treated diabetic groups: one group was treated with MSCs only, the second with pioglitazone only, the third with MSCs and pioglitazone, the forth with exendin-4 only and the fifth with MSCs and exendin-4...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441355/-188-re-liposome-can-induce-mitochondrial-autophagy-and-reverse-drug-resistance-for-ovarian-cancer-from-bench-evidence-to-preliminary-clinical-proof-of-concept
#20
Chia-Ming Chang, Keng-Li Lan, Wen-Sheng Huang, Yi-Jang Lee, Te-Wei Lee, Chih-Hsien Chang, Chi-Mu Chuang
Despite standard treatment, about 70% of ovarian cancer will recur. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in the drug-resistance mechanism. Several drug resistance mechanisms have been proposed, and among these, autophagy plays a crucial role for the maintenance and tumorigenicity of CSCs. Compared to their differentiated counterparts, CSCs have been demonstrated to display a significantly higher level of autophagy flux. Moreover, mitophagy, a specific type of autophagy that selectively degrades excessive or damaged mitochondria, is shown to contribute to cancer progression and recurrence in several types of tumors...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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