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mitochondria in stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458125/pluripotent-stem-cells-for-uncovering-the-role-of-mitochondria-in-human-brain-function-and-dysfunction
#1
REVIEW
Annika Zink, Josef Priller, Alessandro Prigione
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are a known pathogenetic mechanism of a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. At the same time, mutations in genes encoding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain cause mitochondrial diseases, which commonly exhibit neurological symptoms. Mitochondria are therefore critical for the functionality of the human nervous system. The importance of mitochondria stems from their key roles in cellular metabolism, calcium handling, redox and protein homeostasis, and overall cellular homeostasis through their dynamic network...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426835/transcriptome-analysis-and-prognosis-of-aldh-isoforms-in-human-cancer
#2
Peter Mu-Hsin Chang, Che-Hong Chen, Chi-Chun Yeh, Hsueh-Ju Lu, Tze-Tze Liu, Ming-Huang Chen, Chun-Yu Liu, Alexander T H Wu, Muh-Hwa Yang, Shyh-Kuan Tai, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Chi-Ying F Huang
Overexpression of ALDH is associated with cancer stem-like features and poor cancer prognosis. High ALDH activity has been observed in cancer stem-like cells. There are a total of 19 human ALDH isoforms, all of which are associated with reducing oxidative stress and protecting cells from damage. However, it is unknown whether all ALDHs are associated with poor cancer prognosis and which ones play a significant role in cancer progression. In this study, we used RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to evaluate the differential expression of 19 ALDH isoforms in 5 common human cancers...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416846/pml-regulation-and-multifaceted-function-beyond-tumor-suppression
#3
REVIEW
Kuo-Sheng Hsu, Hung-Ying Kao
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was originally identified as a fusion partner of retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with the (15;17) chromosomal translocation, giving rise to PML-RARα and RARα-PML fusion proteins. A body of evidence indicated that PML possesses tumor suppressing activity by regulating apoptosis, cell cycle, senescence and DNA damage responses. PML is enriched in discrete nuclear substructures in mammalian cells with 0.2-1 μm diameter in size, referred to as alternately Kremer bodies, nuclear domain 10, PML oncogenic domains or PML nuclear bodies (NBs)...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416728/crucial-role-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-from-respiratory-tract-upon-pm2-5-exposure-in-causing-the-bmscs-differentiation-in-cells-and-animals
#4
Xiaoting Jin, Ruijun Su, Ruijin Li, Long Cheng, Zhuoyu Li
Fine particulate matter exposure may cause health risk, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC), a typical model for evaluating pollutant toxicity, has been closely linked to these diseases, due to its characteristics of differentiation. We therefore studied the BMSCs differentiation and its roles in inflammatory activation in the respiratory tract upon PM2.5 exposure using both in vitro and in vivo models. BMSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells (ELCs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts cells (CAFs) was enhanced in response to conditioned medium from PM2...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397400/cell-death-mechanisms-of-the-anti-cancer-drug-etoposide-on-human-cardiomyocytes-isolated-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Harshal Nemade, Umesh Chaudhari, Aviseka Acharya, Jürgen Hescheler, Jan Georg Hengstler, Symeon Papadopoulos, Agapios Sachinidis
Etoposide (ETP) and anthracyclines are applied for wide anti-cancer treatments. However, the ETP-induced cardiotoxicity remains to be a major safety issue and the underlying cardiotoxic mechanisms are not well understood. This study is aiming to unravel the cardiotoxicity profile of ETP in comparison to anthracyclines using physiologically relevant human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs). Using xCELLigence real-time cell analyser (RTCA), we found that single high dose of ETP induces irreversible increase in hPSC-CMs beating rate and decrease in beating amplitude...
February 3, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395479/insufficient-apaf-1-expression-in-early-stages-of-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-might-protect-them-from-apoptosis
#6
Somayeh Karimzadeh, Saman Hosseinkhani, Ali Fathi, Farangis Ataei, Hossein Baharvand
Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial apoptosis regulators and executioners may regulate differentiation, without being involved in cell death. However, the involved factors and their roles in differentiation and apoptosis are still not fully determined. In the present study, we compared mitochondrial pathway of cell death during early neural differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our results demonstrated that ROS generation, cytosolic cytochrome c release, caspases activation and rise in p53 protein level occurred upon either neural or apoptosis induction in hESCs...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390033/evaluation-of-changes-arising-in-the-pig-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transcriptome-following-cryopreservation-and-trichostatin-a-treatment
#7
Artur Gurgul, Joanna Romanek, Klaudia Pawlina-Tyszko, Tomasz Szmatoła, Jolanta Opiela
Cryopreservation is an important procedure in maintenance and clinical applications of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although the methods of cell freezing using various cryoprotectants are well developed and allow preserving structurally intact living cells, the freezing process can be considered as a severe cellular stress associated with ice formation, osmotic damage, cryoprotectants migration/cytotoxicity or rapid cell shrinkage. The cellular response to freezing stress is aimed at the restoring of homeostasis and repair of cell damage and is crucial for cell viability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377992/genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-which-modulate-differentiation-propensity-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Alexander Keller, Dominika Dziedzicka, Filippo Zambelli, Christina Markouli, Karen Sermon, Claudia Spits, Mieke Geens
BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are known to have a bias in their differentiation. This gives individual cell lines a propensity to preferentially differentiate towards one germ layer or cell type over others. Chromosomal aberrations, mitochondrial mutations, genetic diversity and epigenetic variance are the main drivers of this phenomenon, and can lead to a wide range of phenotypes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the different factors which influence differentiation propensity...
January 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366807/bioactivity-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-hipsc-generated-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-mt-nd4-mutated-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#9
You-Ren Wu, An-Guor Wang, Yan-Ting Chen, Aliaksandr A Yarmishyn, Waradee Buddhakosai, Tien-Chun Yang, De-Kuang Hwang, Yi-Ping Yang, Chia-Ning Shen, Hsin-Chen Lee, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Chi-Hsien Peng, Shih-Jen Chen
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the maternally inherited mitochondrial disease caused by homoplasmic mutations in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex I subunit genes. The mechanism of its incomplete penetrance is still largely unclear. In this study, we created the patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from MT-ND4 mutated LHON affected patient, asymptomatic mutation carrier and healthy control, and differentiated them into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found the defective neurite outgrowth in affected RGCs, but not in the carrier RGCs which had significant expression of SNCG gene...
January 20, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362227/down-syndrome-critical-region-1-gene-rcan1-helps-maintain-a-more-fused-mitochondrial-network
#10
Valentina M Parra, Francisco Altamirano, Carolina P Hernández-Fuentes, Dan Tong, Viktoriia Kyrychenko, David Rotter, Zully R Pedrozo, Joseph A Hill, Veronica Eisner, Sergio Lavandero, Jay W Schneider, Beverly A Rothermel
Rationale: The Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) inhibits calcineurin (CN), a Ca2+-activated protein phosphatase important in cardiac remodeling. In humans, RCAN1 is located on chromosome 21 in proximity to the "Down syndrome critical region." The hearts and brains of Rcan1 KO mice are more susceptible to damage from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), however, the underlying cause is not known. Objective: Mitochondria are key mediators of I/R damage. The goal of these studies was to determine the impact of RCAN1 on mitochondrial dynamics and function...
January 23, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357914/cell-adhesion-mediated-mitochondria-transfer-contributes-to-mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced-chemoresistance-on-t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#11
Jiancheng Wang, Xin Liu, Yuan Qiu, Yue Shi, Jianye Cai, Boyan Wang, Xiaoyue Wei, Qiong Ke, Xin Sui, Yi Wang, Yinong Huang, Hongyu Li, Tao Wang, Ren Lin, Qifa Liu, Andy Peng Xiang
BACKGROUND: Despite the high cure rate of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), drug resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant clinical problem. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect leukemic cells from chemotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to uncover the mechanism of MSC-induced chemoresistance in T-ALL cells, thus providing a promising clinical therapy target. METHODS: Cell viability was determined using the viability assay kit CCK-8...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354781/suppression-of-arrhythmia-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-ca2-uptake-in-catecholaminergic-ventricular-tachycardia-models
#12
Maria K Schweitzer, Fabiola Wilting, Simon Sedej, Lisa Dreizehnter, Nathan J Dupper, Qinghai Tian, Alessandra Moretti, Ilaria My, Ohyun Kwon, Silvia G Priori, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Ursula Storch, Peter Lipp, Andreas Breit, Michael Mederos Y Schnitzler, Thomas Gudermann, Johann Schredelseker
Cardiovascular disease-related deaths frequently arise from arrhythmias, but treatment options are limited due to perilous side effects of commonly used antiarrhythmic drugs. Cardiac rhythmicity strongly depends on cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling and prevalent cardiac diseases are causally associated with perturbations in intracellular Ca2+ handling. Therefore, intracellular Ca2+ transporters are lead candidate structures for novel and safer antiarrhythmic therapies. Mitochondria and mitochondrial Ca2+ transport proteins are important regulators of cardiac Ca2+ handling...
December 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353044/bmp4-signaling-in-npcs-upregulates-bcl-xl-to-promote-their-survival-in-the-presence-of-fgf-2
#13
Hanako Yamamoto, Masashi Kurachi, Masae Naruse, Koji Shibasaki, Yasuki Ishizaki
We previously reported that BMP4 does not promote proliferation or differentiation of CD44-positive astrocyte precursor cells (APCs) but greatly promotes their survival in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In this study, we examined if BMP4 acts as a survival factor also for neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) isolated from ganglionic eminence of neonatal mouse brain. We found BMP4 promotes survival but not proliferation or differentiation of these cells, just as in the case for CD44-positive APCs...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352318/temozolomide-induced-increase-of-tumorigenicity-can-be-diminished-by-targeting-of-mitochondria-in-in-vitro-models-of-patient-individual-glioblastoma
#14
Doreen William, Madlin Walther, Björn Schneider, Michael Linnebacher, Carl Friedrich Classen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. Development of resistance towards cytostatic drugs like the GBM standard drug temozolomide is a severe problem in GBM treatment. One potential source of GBM relapse could be so called cancer stem like cells (CSCs). These represent an undifferentiated subpopulation of cells with high potential for tumor initiation. Furthermore, it has been shown that differentiated GBM cells can regain CSC properties when exposed to continuous temozolomide treatment in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335528/exd2-governs-germ-stem-cell-homeostasis-and-lifespan-by-promoting-mitoribosome-integrity-and-translation
#15
Joana Silva, Suvi Aivio, Philip A Knobel, Laura J Bailey, Andreu Casali, Maria Vinaixa, Isabel Garcia-Cao, Étienne Coyaud, Alexis A Jourdain, Pablo Pérez-Ferreros, Ana M Rojas, Albert Antolin-Fontes, Sara Samino-Gené, Brian Raught, Acaimo González-Reyes, Lluís Ribas de Pouplana, Aidan J Doherty, Oscar Yanes, Travis H Stracker
Mitochondria are subcellular organelles that are critical for meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of the cell. Mitochondrial function relies on genes and RNA species encoded both in the nucleus and mitochondria, and on their coordinated translation, import and respiratory complex assembly. Here, we characterize EXD2 (exonuclease 3'-5' domain-containing 2), a nuclear-encoded gene, and show that it is targeted to the mitochondria and prevents the aberrant association of messenger RNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome...
February 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321615/functional-isolation-of-tumor-initiating-cells-using-microfluidic-based-migration-identifies-phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-as-a-key-regulator
#16
Yu-Chih Chen, Brock Humphries, Riley Brien, Anne E Gibbons, Yu-Ting Chen, Tonela Qyli, Henry R Haley, Matthew E Pirone, Benjamin Chiang, Annie Xiao, Yu-Heng Cheng, Yi Luan, Zhixiong Zhang, Jason Cong, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker, Euisik Yoon
Isolation of tumor-initiating cells currently relies on markers that do not reflect essential biologic functions of these cells. We proposed to overcome this limitation by isolating tumor-initiating cells based on enhanced migration, a function tightly linked to tumor-initiating potential through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We developed a high-throughput microfluidic migration platform with automated cell tracking software and facile recovery of cells for downstream functional and genetic analyses...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318513/targeted-elimination-of-mutant-mitochondrial-dna-in-melas-ipscs-by-mitotalens
#17
Yi Yang, Han Wu, Xiangjin Kang, Yanhui Liang, Ting Lan, Tianjie Li, Tao Tan, Jiangyun Peng, Quanjun Zhang, Geng An, Yali Liu, Qian Yu, Zhenglai Ma, Ying Lian, Boon Seng Soh, Qingfeng Chen, Ping Liu, Yaoyong Chen, Xiaofang Sun, Rong Li, Xiumei Zhen, Ping Liu, Yang Yu, Xiaoping Li, Yong Fan
Mitochondrial diseases are maternally inherited heterogeneous disorders that are primarily caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Depending on the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA, known as heteroplasmy, mitochondrial defects can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mitochondria-targeted endonucleases provide an alternative avenue for treating mitochondrial disorders via targeted destruction of the mutant mtDNA and induction of heteroplasmic shifting. Here, we generated mitochondrial disease patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (MiPSCs) that harbored a high proportion of m...
January 9, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313241/cd146-positive-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-promote-regeneration-of-dentin-pulp-like-structures
#18
Mikiko Matsui, Tomoko Kobayashi, Takeo W Tsutsui
CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146+) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146-) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146+ and CD146- cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146+ cells and 75% CD146- cells (CD146+/-)...
January 8, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290359/nutritional-support-contributes-to-recuperation-in-a-rat-model-of-aplastic-anemia-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-function
#19
Guang Yang, Lifen Zhao, Bing Liu, Yujia Shan, Yang Li, Huimin Zhou, Li Jia
OBJECTIVES: Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease that leads to hematopoietic disorder and peripheral blood pancytopenia. We investigated whether nutritional support is helpful to AA recovery. METHODS: We established a rat model with AA. A nutrient mixture was administered to rats with AA through different dose gavage once per day for 55 d. Animals in this study were assigned to one of five groups: normal control (NC; group includes normal rats); AA (rats with AA); high dose (AA + nutritional mixture, 2266...
February 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283885/transfer-of-autologous-mitochondria-from-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-rescues-oocyte-quality-and-infertility-in-aged-mice
#20
Zhen-Bo Wang, Jian-Xiu Hao, Tie-Gang Meng, Lei Guo, Ming-Zhe Dong, Li-Hua Fan, Ying-Chun Ouyang, Guopeng Wang, Qing-Yuan Sun, Xiang-Hong Ou, Yuan-Qing Yao
Elder women suffer from low or loss of fertility because of decreasing oocyte quality as maternal aging. As energy resource, mitochondria play pivotal roles in oocyte development, determining oocyte quality. With advanced maternal age, increased dysfunctions emerge in oocyte mitochondria, which decrease oocyte quality and its developmental potential. Mitochondria supplement as a possible strategy for improving egg quality has been in debate due to ethnic problems. Heterogeneity is an intractable problem even transfer of germinal vesicle, spindle, pronuclei or polar body is employed...
December 27, 2017: Aging
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