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mitochondria in stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231483/a-novel-redox-regulator-mntnbuoe-2-pyp-5-enhances-normal-hematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cell-function
#1
Y Zhao, D W Carroll, Y You, L Chaiswing, R Wen, I Batinic-Haberle, S Bondada, Y Liang, D K St Clair
The signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential for the maintenance of normal cellular function. However, whether and how ROS regulate stem cells are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that, in transgenic mice expressing the human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, a scavenger of ROS in mitochondria, the number and function of mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) under physiological conditions are enhanced. Importantly, giving MnTnBuOE-2-PyP(5+)(MnP), a redox- active MnSOD mimetic, to mouse primary bone marrow cells or to C57B/L6 mice significantly enhances the number of HSPCs...
February 10, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229407/assessment-of-energy-metabolic-changes-in-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells
#2
Ghazaleh Hajmousa, Martin C Harmsen
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) are promising candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. By definition, the phenotype ADSCs, e.g., the ubiquitous secretion of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix components is not met in vivo, which renders ADSC a culture "artefact." The medium constituents therefore impact the efficacy of ADSC. Little attention has been paid to the energy source in medium, i.e., glucose, which feeds the cell's power plants: mitochondria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216144/patient-ipsc-derived-neurons-for-disease-modeling-of-frontotemporal-dementia-with-mutation-in-chmp2b
#3
Yu Zhang, Benjamin Schmid, Nanett K Nikolaisen, Mikkel A Rasmussen, Blanca I Aldana, Mikkel Agger, Kirstine Calloe, Tina C Stummann, Hjalte M Larsen, Troels T Nielsen, Jinrong Huang, Fengping Xu, Xin Liu, Lars Bolund, Morten Meyer, Lasse K Bak, Helle S Waagepetersen, Yonglun Luo, Jørgen E Nielsen, Bjørn Holst, Christian Clausen, Poul Hyttel, Kristine K Freude
The truncated mutant form of the charged multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B) is causative for frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD3). CHMP2B is a constituent of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) and, when mutated, disrupts endosome-to-lysosome trafficking and substrate degradation. To understand the underlying molecular pathology, FTD3 patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were differentiated into forebrain-type cortical neurons. FTD3 neurons exhibited abnormal endosomes, as previously shown in patients...
February 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214945/characterization-of-tunneling-nanotubes-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-intercellular-exchange-of-components-between-neighboring-cells
#4
Viviana Sanchez, Nerina Villalba, Luciano Fiore, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Alberto Boveris, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alicia Brusco, Juan José Poderoso
Intercellular communication is one of the most important events in cell population behavior. In the last decade, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as a new form of long distance intercellular connection. TNT function is to allow molecular and subcellular structure exchange between neighboring cells via the transfer of molecules and organelles such as calcium ions, prions, viral and bacterial pathogens, small lysosomes and mitochondria. New findings support the concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect cell microenvironment by the release of soluble factors or the transfer of cellular components to neighboring cells, in a way which significantly contributes to cell regulation and tissue repair, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195557/biogenetic-and-morphofunctional-heterogeneity-of-mitochondria-the-case-of-synaptic-mitochondria
#5
Sergei V Fedorovich, Tatyana V Waseem, Ludmila V Puchkova
The mitochondria of different cells are different in their morphological and biochemical properties. These organelles generate free radicals during activity, leading inevitably to mitochondrial DNA damage. It is not clear how this problem is addressed in long-lived cells, such as neurons. We propose the hypothesis that mitochondria within the same cell also differ in lifespan and ability to divide. According to our suggestion, cells have a pool of 'stem' mitochondria with low metabolic activity and a pool of 'differentiated' mitochondria with significantly shorter lifespans and high metabolic activity...
February 14, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188219/distinct-effects-of-mir-210-reduction-on-neurogenesis-increased-neuronal-survival-of-inflammation-but-reduced-proliferation-associated-with-mitochondrial-enhancement
#6
Ludmila A Voloboueva, Xiaoyun Sun, Lijun Xu, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Rona G Giffard
Neurogenesis is essential to brain development, and plays a central role in the response to brain injury. Stroke and head trauma stimulate proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSC). However, the survival of young neurons is sharply reduced by post-injury inflammation. Cellular mitochondria are critical to successful neurogenesis and are a major target of inflammatory injury. Mitochondrial protection was shown to improve survival of young neurons. This study tested whether reducing cellular microRNA-210 (miR-210) would enhance mitochondrial function and improve survival of young murine neurons under inflammatory conditions...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182106/tnf-%C3%AE-induced-the-enhanced-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-by-overexpressing-trail-r2
#7
Zhenhua Liu, Liangbin Gao, Peng Wang, Zhongyu Xie, Shuizhong Cen, Yuxi Li, Xiaohua Wu, Le Wang, Hongjun Su, Wen Deng, Shan Wang, Deng Li, Jinteng Li, Yi Ouyang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. Dysregulated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. However, apoptosis of MSCs from patients with AS (ASMSCs) has not been investigated yet. The present study aims to assess the apoptosis of bone marrow-derived ASMSCs and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of altered ASMSCs apoptosis. We successfully induced the apoptosis of ASMSCs and MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs) using the combination of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and cycloheximide (CHX)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178868/low-level-lasers-effect-on-proliferation-migration-and-anti-apoptosis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to be helpful elements in tissue regeneration. Photobiomodulation (PBM) used extremely low level lasers (LLL) to affect the behaviour of cells. The effect mechanism of LLL on MSCs remained to be discovered. Here cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by FACS. The influence of LLL on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, ROS, NO) were evaluated by TEM, FACS, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry. Cell migration and cytoskeleton alteration (actin and tubulin) were evaluated using transwell assay, immunocytochemistry, ELISA and Western blotting...
February 8, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166201/downregulation-of-pck2-remodels-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-in-tumor-repopulating-cells-of-melanoma
#9
S Luo, Y Li, R Ma, J Liu, P Xu, H Zhang, K Tang, J Ma, N Liu, Y Zhang, Y Sun, T Ji, X Liang, X Yin, Y Liu, W Tong, Y Niu, N Wang, X Wang, B Huang
For cancer cells to proliferate, a balance must be built between biomass-forming, glucose-metabolized intermediates and ATP production. How intrinsic glucose carbon flow regulates this balance remains unclear. Here we show that mitochondrial phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK2), the hub molecule linking tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by conversion of mitochondrial oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate, regulates glucose carbon flow direction in stem-like cells that repopulate tumors (tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs))...
February 6, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137779/cardiolipin-promotes-electron-transport-between-ubiquinone-and-complex-i-to-rescue-pink1-deficiency
#10
Melissa Vos, Ann Geens, Claudia Böhm, Liesbeth Deaulmerie, Jef Swerts, Matteo Rossi, Katleen Craessaerts, Elvira P Leites, Philip Seibler, Aleksandar Rakovic, Thora Lohnau, Bart De Strooper, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Vanessa A Morais, Christine Klein, Patrik Verstreken
PINK1 is mutated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and mutations cause mitochondrial defects that include inefficient electron transport between complex I and ubiquinone. Neurodegeneration is also connected to changes in lipid homeostasis, but how these are related to PINK1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is unknown. Based on an unbiased genetic screen, we found that partial genetic and pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) suppresses toxicity induced by PINK1 deficiency in flies, mouse cells, patient-derived fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130214/the-amyloidogenic-light-chain-is-a-stressor-that-sensitizes-plasma-cells-to-proteasome-inhibitor-toxicity
#11
Laura Oliva, Ugo Orfanelli, Massimo Resnati, Andrea Raimondi, Andrea Orsi, Enrico Milan, Giovanni Palladini, Paolo Milani, Fulvia Cerruti, Paolo Cascio, Simona Casarini, Paola Rognoni, Thierry Touvier, Magda Marcatti, Fabio Ciceri, Silvia Mangiacavalli, Alessandro Corso, Giampaolo Merlini, Simone Cenci
Systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis is caused by the clonal production of an unstable immunoglobulin light chain (LC), which affects organ function systemically. While pathogenic LCs have been characterized biochemically, little is known about the biology of amyloidogenic PCs. Intrigued by the unique response rates of AL amyloidosis patients to the first-in-class proteasome inhibitor (PI) bortezomib, we purified and investigated patient-derived AL PCs, in comparison with primary multiple myeloma (MM) PCs, the prototypical PI-responsive cells...
January 27, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123635/bmsc-paracrine-activity-attenuates-interleukin-1%C3%AE-induced-inflammation-and-apoptosis-in-rat-af-cells-via-inhibiting-relative-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-the-mitochondrial-pathway
#12
Jinquan Hu, Qiang Yan, Changgui Shi, Ye Tian, Peng Cao, Wen Yuan
We previously showed that bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) inhibit interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) induced degenerative effects in NP cells by their paracrine activity, but the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effect of BMSC paracrine activity and the relative signaling pathway were not further investigated in annulus fibrosus (AF) cells. In this study, AF cells were exposed to IL-1β, which was applied to mimic intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in vitro. Indirect co-culture with BMSCs in a transwell co-culture system reduced the activity of nuclear factor-κB-p65 (NF-κB-p65) through the restoration of its inhibitor IκBa...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118061/a-comparison-of-radiation-induced-mitochondrial-damage-between-neural-progenitor-stem-cells-and-differentiated-cells
#13
Tsutomu Shimura, Megumi Sasatani, Hidehiko Kawai, Kenji Kamiya, Junya Kobayashi, Kenshi Komatsu, Naoki Kunugita
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining cellular homeostasis during stress responses, and mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to carcinogenesis, aging, and neurological disease. We here investigated ionizing radiation (IR)-induced mitochondrial damage in human neural progenitor stem cells (NSCs), their differentiated counterparts and human normal fibroblasts. Long-term fractionated radiation (FR) with low doses of X-rays for 31 days enhanced mitochondrial activity as evident by elevated mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity to fill the energy demands for the chronic DNA damage response in differentiated cells...
January 24, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114961/mif-cd74-axis-is-a-target-for-novel-therapies-in-colon-carcinomatosis
#14
Fabio Bozzi, Angela Mogavero, Luca Varinelli, Antonino Belfiore, Giacomo Manenti, Claudio Caccia, Chiara C Volpi, Galina V Beznoussenko, Massimo Milione, Valerio Leoni, Annunziata Gloghini, Alexandre A Mironov, Ermanno Leo, Silvana Pilotti, Marco A Pierotti, Italia Bongarzone, Manuela Gariboldi
BACKGROUND: Strategies aimed at obtaining a complete cytoreduction are needed to improve long-term survival for patients with colorectal cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRC-pc). METHODS: We established organoid models from peritoneal metastases of two naïve CRC patients. A standard paraffin inclusion was conducted to compare their 3D structure and immunohistochemical profile with that of the corresponding surgical samples. RNA expression levels of the CRC stem cell marker LGR5 was measured by in situ hybridization...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112581/toxoplasma-gondii-induces-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-downregulation-of-mcl-1
#15
Jia-Qi Chu, Kai-Peng Jing, Xiang Gao, Peng Li, Rui Huang, Yan-Ru Niu, Shou-Quan Yan, Jun-Chao Kong, Cai-Yuan Yu, Ge Shi, Yi-Ming Fan, Young-Ha Lee, Yu Zhou, Juan-Hua Quan
Autophagy and apoptosis are critical for controlling Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection. T. gondii infection during pregnancy can damage the fetus and cause birth defects; however, the molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the activities of autophagy and apoptosis as well as their regulatory mechanisms during T. gondii infection by using human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a model of congenital diseases. LC3B, a hallmark protein of autophagy was incrementally upregulated with the infection duration, whereas p62 was downregulated in T...
January 23, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112198/chlorpyrifos-inhibits-neural-induction-via-mfn1-mediated-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Shigeru Yamada, Yusuke Kubo, Daiju Yamazaki, Yuko Sekino, Yasunari Kanda
Organophosphates, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), are widely used as insecticides in agriculture. CPF is known to induce cytotoxicity, including neurodevelopmental toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of CPF toxicity at early fetal stage have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined the mechanisms of CPF-induced cytotoxicity using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We found that exposure to CPF at micromolar levels decreased intracellular ATP levels. As CPF suppressed energy production that is a critical function of the mitochondria, we focused on the effects of CPF on mitochondrial dynamics...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088333/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-cancer-cells-liabilities-and-opportunities
#17
REVIEW
Gyorgy Baffy
Acquisition of the endosymbiotic ancestor of mitochondria was a critical event in eukaryote evolution. Mitochondria offered an unparalleled source of metabolic energy through oxidative phosphorylation and allowed the development of multicellular life. However, as molecular oxygen had become the terminal electron acceptor in most eukaryotic cells, the electron transport chain proved to be the largest intracellular source of superoxide, contributing to macromolecular injury, aging, and cancer. Hence, the 'contract of endosymbiosis' represents a compromise between the possibilities and perils of multicellular life...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#18
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068628/epoxy-clerodane-diterpene-inhibits-mcf-7-human-breast-cancer-cell-growth-by-regulating-the-expression-of-the-functional-apoptotic-genes-cdkn2a-rb1-mdm2-and-p53
#19
P Subash-Babu, Ghedeir M Alshammari, S Ignacimuthu, Ali A Alshatwi
Systematic analyses of plants that are used in traditional medicine may lead to the discovery of novel cytotoxic secondary metabolites. Diterpene possesses multiple bioactivities; here, epoxy clerodane diterpene (ECD) was isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem and shown potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The antiproliferative effect of ECD on MCF-7 cells was systematically analyzed by cell and nuclear morphology, alterations in oxidative stress, and the expression of tumor suppressor and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis-related genes...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066829/the-multifaceted-role-of-nrf2-in-mitochondrial-function
#20
REVIEW
Kira M Holmström, Rumen V Kostov, Albena T Dinkova-Kostova
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 target genes comprise of a large network of antioxidant enzymes, proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins, inhibition of inflammation, as well as other transcription factors. In recent years it has emerged that as part of its role as a regulator of cytoprotective gene expression, Nrf2 impacts mitochondrial function. Increased Nrf2 activity defends against mitochondrial toxins...
December 2016: Curr Opin Toxicol
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