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mitochondria in stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643345/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-regulation-of-neurogenesis-from-development-to-the-adult-brain
#1
REVIEW
Mireille Khacho, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondria are classically known to be the cellular energy producers, but a renewed appreciation for these organelles has developed with the accumulating discoveries of additional functions. The importance of mitochondria within the brain has been long known, particularly given the high-energy demanding nature of neurons. The energy demands imposed by neurons require the well-orchestrated morphological adaptation and distribution of mitochondria. Recent studies now reveal the importance of mitochondrial dynamics not only in mature neurons but also during neural development, particularly during the process of neurogenesis and neural stem cell fate decisions...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643190/mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-neural-differentiation-of-human-ipsc-is-modulated-by-idebenone-in-a-developmental-stage-dependent-manner
#2
J Augustyniak, J Lenart, M Zychowicz, P P Stepien, L Buzanska
Idebenone, the synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10 can improve electron transport in mitochondria. Therefore, it is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive impairments. However, the mechanism of its action on neurodevelopment is still to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that the cellular response of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to idebenone depends on the stage of neural differentiation. When: neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and advanced neural progenitors (NP) have been studied a significant stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis was observed only at the eNP stage of development...
June 22, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639090/mitochondria-and-foxo3-in-stem-cell-homeostasis-a-window-into-hematopoietic-stem-cell-fate-determination
#3
Raymond Liang, Saghi Ghaffari
The production of all blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is highly sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria are critical for HSC fate determination. FOXO are known regulators of anti-oxidant response and key to the maintenance of HSC. Recent works indicate that FOXO3 is implicated in the control of mitochondrial function beyond regulating levels of ROS in HSC. Here we review these findings and discuss implications for homeostatic blood formation and stem cell fate determination...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634072/mitochondrial-dynamics-coordinate-cell-differentiation
#4
Masafumi Noguchi, Atsuko Kasahara
Cells differentiate into specific and functional lineages to build up tissues. It has been shown in several tissues that mitochondrial morphology, levels of "mitochondrial shaping" proteins, and mitochondrial functions change upon differentiation. In this review, we highlight the significance of mitochondrial dynamics and functions in tissue development, cell differentiation, and reprogramming processes. Signalling cascades are critical for tissue stem cell maintenance and cell fate determination, and growing evidence demonstrates mitochondria could act as a centre of intra and extracellular signals to coordinate signalling pathways, such as Notch, Wnt, and YAP/TAZ signalling...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627410/current-and-upcoming-mitochondrial-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Hyoung Kyu Kim, Yeon Hee Noh, Bernd Nilius, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Nari Kim, Jin Han
Mitochondria are essential intracellular organelles that regulate energy metabolism, cell death, and signaling pathways that are important for cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, mitochondria are fundamentally implicated in cancer biology, including initiation, growth, metastasis, relapse, and acquired drug resistance. Based on these implications, mitochondria have been proposed as a major therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In addition to classical view of mitochondria in cancer biology, recent studies found novel pathophysiological roles of mitochondria in cancer...
June 13, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627365/mitochondria-metabolic-reprogramming-in-the-formation-of-neurons-from-peripheral-cells-cause-or-consequence-and-the-implications-to-their-utility
#6
REVIEW
Gary E Gibson, Ankita Thakkar
The induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) from differentiated cells such as fibroblasts and their subsequent conversion to neural progenitor cells (NPC) and finally to neurons is intriguing scientifically, and its potential to medicine nearly infinite, but unrealized. A better understanding of the changes at each step of the transformation will enable investigators to use them better to model neurological disease. Each step of conversion from a differentiated cell to an iPSC to a NPC to neurons requires large changes in glycolysis including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose shunt, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the electron transport chain and in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624784/mitochondrial-pyruvate-carrier-function-determines-cell-stemness-and-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cancer-cells
#7
Xiaoli Li, Gaoyang Han, Xiaoran Li, Quancheng Kan, Zhirui Fan, Yaqing Li, Yasai Ji, Jing Zhao, Mingzhi Zhang, Mantas Grigalavicius, Viktor Berge, Mariusz Adam Goscinski, Jahn M Nesland, Zhenhe Suo
One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the "Warburg Effect", in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout...
May 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622697/vitamin-c-and-doxycycline-a-synthetic-lethal-combination-therapy-targeting-metabolic-flexibility-in-cancer-stem-cells-cscs
#8
Ernestina Marianna De Francesco, Gloria Bonuccelli, Marcello Maggiolini, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Here, we developed a new synthetic lethal strategy for further optimizing the eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Briefly, we show that chronic treatment with the FDA-approved antibiotic Doxycycline effectively reduces cellular respiration, by targeting mitochondrial protein translation. The expression of four mitochondrial DNA encoded proteins (MT-ND3, MT-CO2, MT-ATP6 and MT-ATP8) is suppressed, by up to 35-fold. This high selection pressure metabolically synchronizes the surviving cancer cell sub-population towards a predominantly glycolytic phenotype, resulting in metabolic inflexibility...
June 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612522/-the-mechanisms-of-trimetazidine-alleviating-the-oxidative-stress-in-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Mao-Han Tang, Yan-Jie Zhang, Yin Liu, Zhi-Guang Su
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of trimetazidine (TMZ) on the oxidative stress injury in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs). METHODS: ADSCs derived from adipose tissue of SD rats were characterized by flow cytometry and multiline age differentiation. ADSCs apoptosis was induced by H2O2 in vitro , Dirrerent concentration of TMZ (250 μmol/L, 500 μmol/L) was used to protect ADSCs from apoptosis. The morphological features of apoptotic ADSCs were analyzed by Hoechst 33342, mitochondrial potential and structure was analyzed by JC-1 staining and electron microscope, respectively...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607632/mitochondrial-transfer-from-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cell-to-merrf-cybrid-reduces-oxidative-stress-and-improves-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#10
Yao-Chung Chuang, Chia-Wei Liou, Shang-Der Chen, Pei-Wen Wang, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Mao-Meng Tiao, Te-Yao Hsu, Hung-Yu Lin, Tsu-Kung Lin
Myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disease affecting neuromuscular functions. Mt.8344A>G mutation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most common cause of MERRF syndrome and has been linked to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and oxidative stress, as well as impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, we tested whether WJMSC has therapeutic potential for the treatment of MERRF syndrome through the transfer of mitochondria...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604662/upregulation-of-mitochondrial-nad-levels-impairs-the-clonogenicity-of-ssea1-glioblastoma-tumor-initiating-cells
#11
Myung Jin Son, Jae-Sung Ryu, Jae Yun Kim, Youjeong Kwon, Kyung-Sook Chung, Seon Ju Mun, Yee Sook Cho
Emerging evidence has emphasized the importance of cancer therapies targeting an abnormal metabolic state of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in which they retain stem cell-like phenotypes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) metabolism. However, the functional role of NAD(+) metabolism in regulating the characteristics of TICs is not known. In this study, we provide evidence that the mitochondrial NAD(+) levels affect the characteristics of glioma-driven SSEA1(+) TICs, including clonogenic growth potential...
June 9, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596814/enhancement-of-mitochondrial-transfer-by-antioxidants-in-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Chia-Jung Li, Po-Kong Chen, Li-Yi Sun, Cheng-Yoong Pang
Excessive reactive oxygen species is the major component of a harsh microenvironment after ischemia/reperfusion injury in human tissues. Combined treatment of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AAP) promoted the growth of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and suppressed oxidative stress-induced cell death by enhancing mitochondrial integrity and function in vitro. In this study, we aimed to determine whether NAC and AAP (termed MCA) could enhance the therapeutic potential of hMSCs...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596681/effects-of-heme-oxygenase-1-modified-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-microcirculation-and-energy-metabolism-following-liver-transplantation
#13
Liu Yang, Zhong-Yang Shen, Rao-Rao Wang, Ming-Li Yin, Wei-Ping Zheng, Bin Wu, Tao Liu, Hong-Li Song
AIM: To investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on the microcirculation and energy metabolism of hepatic sinusoids following reduced-size liver transplantation (RLT) in a rat model. METHODS: BMMSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro using an adherent method, and then transduced with HO-1-bearing recombinant adenovirus to construct HO-1/BMMSCs. A rat acute rejection model following 50% RLT was established using a two-cuff technique...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596084/stem-cell-evolutionary-paradigm-and-cell-engineering
#14
Z Ivanovic
Studying hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells for almost three decades revealed some similarities between the stem cell entity and the single-celled eukaryotes exhibiting the anaerobic/facultative aerobic metabolic features. A careful analysis of nowadays knowledge concerning the early eukaryotic evolution allowed us to reveal some analogies between stem cells in the metazoan tissues and the single-celled eukaryotes which existed during the first phase of eukaryotes evolution in mid-Proterozoic era. In fact, it is possible to trace the principle of the self-renewal back to the first eukaryotic common ancestor, the first undifferentiated nucleated cell possessing the primitive, mostly anaerobically-respiring mitochondria and a capacity to reproduction by a simple cell division "à l'identique"...
June 5, 2017: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595361/mitochondrial-dysfunction-underlies-cognitive-defects-as-a-result-of-neural-stem-cell-depletion-and-impaired-neurogenesis
#15
Mireille Khacho, Alysen Clark, Devon S Svoboda, Jason G MacLaurin, Diane C Lagace, David S Park, Ruth S Slack
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of many genetic disorders that target the brain and cognition. However, the exact role these organelles play in the etiology of such disorders is not understood. Here we show that mitochondrial dysfunction impairs brain development, depletes the adult neural stem cell (NSC) pool and impacts embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Using deletion of the mitochondrial oxidoreductase AIF as a genetic model of mitochondrial and neurodegenerative diseases revealed the importance of mitochondria in multiple steps of the neurogenic process...
June 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593578/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-based-modeling-of-neurodegenerative-diseases-a-focus-on-autophagy
#16
REVIEW
Johannes Jungverdorben, Andreas Till, Oliver Brüstle
The advent of cell reprogramming has enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient skin fibroblasts or blood cells and their subsequent differentiation into tissue-specific cells, including neurons and glia. This approach can be used to recapitulate disease-specific phenotypes in classical cell culture paradigms and thus represents an invaluable asset for disease modeling and drug validation in the framework of personalized medicine. The autophagy pathway is a ubiquitous eukaryotic degradation and recycling system, which relies on lysosomal degradation of unwanted and potentially cytotoxic components...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586483/isolated-mitochondria-transfer-improves-neuronal-differentiation-of-schizophrenia-derived-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-rescues-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-the-disorder
#17
Odile Robicsek, Hila M Ene, Rachel Karry, Ofer Ytzhaki, Eyal Asor, Donna McPhie, Bruce M Cohen, Rotem Ben-Yehuda, Ina Weiner, Dorit Ben-Shachar
Dysfunction of mitochondria, key players in various essential cell processes, has been repeatedly reported in schizophrenia (SZ). Recently, several studies have reported functional recovery and cellular viability following mitochondrial transplantation, mostly in ischemia experimental models. Here, we aimed to demonstrate beneficial effects of isolated active normal mitochondria (IAN-MIT) transfer in vitro and in vivo, using SZ-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) differentiating into glutamatergic neuron, as well as a rodent model of SZ...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585336/liver-directed-human-amniotic-epithelial-cell-transplantation-improves-systemic-disease-phenotype-in-hurler-syndrome-mouse-model
#18
Natalie S Rodriguez, Lisa Yanuaria, Kevin Murphy R Parducho, Irving M Garcia, Bino A Varghese, Brendan H Grubbs, Toshio Miki
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-degrading enzyme α-l-iduronidase (IDUA). In affected patients, the systemic accumulation of GAGs results in skeletal dysplasia, neurological degeneration, multiple organ dysfunction, and early death. Current therapies, including enzyme replacement and bone marrow transplant, improve life expectancy but the benefits to skeletal and neurological phenotypes are limited. In this study, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of liver-directed transplantation of a placental stem cell, which possesses multilineage differentiation potential, low immunogenicity, and high lysosomal enzyme activity...
June 6, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576772/incompatibility-between-mitochondrial-and-nuclear-genomes-during-oogenesis-results-in-ovarian-failure-and-embryonic-lethality
#19
Chunyang Zhang, Kristi L Montooth, Brian R Calvi
Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause female infertility. An important remaining question is the extent to which incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes contributes to female infertility. It was previously shown that a mitochondrial haplotype from D. simulans (simw(501) ) is incompatible with a nuclear genome from the D. melanogaster strain Oregon-R (OreR), resulting in impaired development, which was enhanced at higher temperature. This mito-nuclear incompatibility is between alleles of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl- tRNA synthetase (Aatm) and the mitochondrial-encoded tyrosyl-tRNA that it aminoacylates...
June 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573522/embryo%C3%A2-development-after-mitochondrial-supplementation-from-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Ruiqi Li, Bingqiang Wen, Haijing Zhao, Nengyong Ouyang, Songbang Ou, Wenjun Wang, Jianyong Han, Dongzi Yang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mitochondrial supplementation (MS) on early embryonic development and to assess the safety of MS treatments using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the mitochondrial donor. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the effect of MS on early embryonic development using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as the donor. Mouse zygotes were injected with either mitochondria from iPSCs or a vehicle solution...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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