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F Eduardo Martinez, Erin Kelty, Samantha Barr, Monique McLeod, Nathan Smalley
OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of medical emergency team (MET) events at an Australian pediatric, tertiary-care center in a way that would allow for comparison with other MET systems. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center, observational study. Consecutive MET events that occurred between January 2013 and July 2014 at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth, Western Australia, were included. RESULTS: There were 46 445 hospital admissions during the study period and 197 MET events in children...
March 15, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Marguerite A Renouf, Steven J Kenway, Ka Leung Lam, Tony Weber, Estelle Roux, Silvia Serrao-Neumann, Darryl Low Choy, Edward A Morgan
Water sensitive interventions are being promoted to reduce the adverse impacts of urban development on natural water cycles. However it is currently difficult to know the best strategy for their implementation because current and desired urban water performance is not well quantified. This is particularly at the city-region scale, which is important for strategic urban planning. This work aimed to fill this gap by quantifying the water performance of urban systems within city-regions using 'urban water metabolism' evaluation, to inform decisions about water sensitive interventions...
February 8, 2018: Water Research
M N Arslan, Ç Kertmen, I Esen Melez, D O Melez
Traumatic asphyxia is a rare clinical syndrome usually caused by sudden and severe thoracic and/or thoracoabdominal compression. It presents with craniofacial cyanosis, petechiae, and subconjunctival haemorrhages. The present study employed a postmortem retrospective methodology to analyse autopsy findings and accompanying injuries in cases of death due to traumatic asphyxia. Four years of case files from a morgue department at a forensic medicine institute were searched and 53 cases of lethal traumatic asphyxia were found...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Elizabeth Wilson, Peter Cox, Karen Greaves, Siba Prosad Paul
Children with acute onset non-traumatic limp often present to emergency departments (EDs). The limp can occasionally be associated with medical emergencies such as septic arthritis and slipped upper femoral epiphysis but is often due to less severe conditions. This article discusses the common and self-limiting causes of acute onset of non-traumatic limp in children, such as transient synovitis, reactive arthritis, and benign acute childhood myositis. It also discusses more severe conditions, including septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, Perthes disease, malignancies and non-accidental injury...
March 9, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Cheryl Da Costa, Robert H Eikelboom, Angela Jacques, De Wet Swanepoel, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Sarra E Jamieson, Christopher G Brennan-Jones
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between early life episodes of otitis media and later behavioural development with adjustment for confounders. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 2900 pregnant women from King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1991. PARTICIPANTS: Data from the children born were collected at both the Year 3 and Year 5 follow up...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Yasmin D Hailer, Nils P Hailer
BACKGROUND: Osteochondrosis includes numerous diseases that occur during rapid growth, characterized by disturbances of endochondral ossification. One example, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, is characterized by disruption of the blood supply to the femoral head epiphysis, and a systemic etiology often has been suggested. If this were the case, secondary osteochondroses at locations other than the hip might be expected to be more common among patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, but to our knowledge, this has not been evaluated in a nationwide sample...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Paul M Dietze, Bridget Draper, Anna Olsen, Karen J Chronister, Ingrid van Beek, Nicholas Lintzeris, Robyn Dwyer, Marina Nelson, Simon Lenton
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Take-home naloxone (THN) programs have been operating in Australia since 2012 in a variety of settings. We examine whether THN programs were effective in increasing knowledge about opioid overdose and appropriate responses in program participants. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from pre- and post-training questionnaires administered as part of the early evaluations of THN naloxone programs operated in Sydney (n = 67), Melbourne (n = 280), Perth (n = 153) and Canberra (n = 183)...
February 22, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Review
C Mallet, A Abitan, C Vidal, L Holvoet, K Mazda, A-L Simon, B Ilharreborde
Purpose: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common cause of femoral head osteonecrosis (ONFH) during childhood with an overall prevalence of 10%. In children, spontaneous revascularization can occur, as in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Consequently, the aim of treatment is to restore proper hip containment to prevent joint arthritis. This is the first study reporting long-term results at skeletal maturity of non-operative and surgical treatments for ONFH in SCD children. Methods: All children with ONFH due to SCD were retrospectively reviewed...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
Breanna Wright, Liam Smith, Fraser Tull
Cleaning and disposal of illegal dumping at charitable collection points costs charities and diverts funds from their charitable programs. However, there is no published literature that attempts to better understand this problem. The current study assesses site-specific characteristics, community level indicators and sociodemographic factors as predictors of both charity stores and collection bin dumping in the metropolitan area of Perth, Australia. Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of dumping at stores were predicted by being open on Sundays, the presence of gates/fencing, bringing bins in at night, greater 5-year mobility and lower levels of education and occupation in the area...
February 13, 2018: Waste Management
Cristina E Ramalho, Kym M Ottewell, Brian K Chambers, Colin J Yates, Barbara A Wilson, Roberta Bencini, Geoff Barrett
The rapid and large-scale urbanization of peri-urban areas poses major and complex challenges for wildlife conservation. We used population viability analysis (PVA) to evaluate the influence of urban encroachment, fire, and fauna crossing structures, with and without accounting for inbreeding effects, on the metapopulation viability of a medium-sized ground-dwelling mammal, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus), in the rapidly expanding city of Perth, Australia. We surveyed two metapopulations over one and a half years, and parameterized the PVA models using largely field-collected data...
2018: PloS One
Christian Dippmann, Otto Kraemer, Bent Lund, Michael Krogsgaard, Per Hölmich, Martin Lind, Karen Briggs, Marc Philippon, Bjarne Mygind-Klavsen
INTRODUCTION: Hip arthroscopy has become a standard procedure in the treatment of hip joint pain not related to osteoarthritis or dysplasia in the young and active patient. There has been increasing focus on the contribution of the hip capsule to function and on stability following hip arthroscopy. It has been suggested that capsular closure after hip arthroscopy may prevent microinstability and macroinstability of the hip joint and reduce revision rate. However, it remains unknown whether capsular closure should be performed as a standard procedure when performing hip arthroscopies, especially in patients without additional risk factors for instability such as hypermobility or dysplasia of the hip...
February 10, 2018: BMJ Open
M Pinheiro, C A Dobson, D Perry, M J Fagan
OBJECTIVES: Legg-Calvé-Perthes' disease (LCP) is an idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head that is most common in children between four and eight years old. The factors that lead to the onset of LCP are still unclear; however, it is believed that interruption of the blood supply to the developing epiphysis is an important factor in the development of the condition. METHODS: Finite element analysis modelling of the blood supply to the juvenile epiphysis was investigated to understand under which circumstances the blood vessels supplying the femoral epiphysis could become obstructed...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Research
Andrew W Rate
Urban environments are dynamic and highly heterogeneous, and multiple additions of potential contaminants are likely on timescales which are short relative to natural processes. The likely sources and location of soil or sediment contamination in urban environment should therefore be detectable using multielement geochemical composition combined with rigorously applied multivariate statistical techniques. Soil, wetland sediment, and street dust was sampled along intersecting transects in Robertson Park in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia...
February 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Helen Wood, Caroline Hall, Emma Ioppolo, Renée Ioppolo, Ella Scacchia, Rhonda Clifford, Sajni Gudka
Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia ("standard partner therapy") is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT), need to be identified in the Australian setting...
February 8, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Manuel da Silva Pinheiro, Catherine Dobson, Nicholas M Clarke, Michael Fagan
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) is one of the most poorly understood diseases in paediatric orthopaedics. One common trait of LCP is the marked morphological difference between healthy and pathological hips, early deviations of which (i.e. prior to disease onset) have been suggested to lead to the overload and collapse of the epiphysis. Here, the impact of common variations in geometry is investigated with a finite element model of a juvenile femur under single leg standing and landing. Here, the impact of typical variations in geometry is investigated with a finite element model of a juvenile femur under single leg standing and landing...
February 8, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Tammy Hine, Yun Zhao, Andrea Begley, Sheila Skeaff, Jill Sherriff
BACKGROUND: Iodine requirements increase during pregnancy and although national recommendations for daily iodine supplementation (150 µg) exist, there is no research related to the uptake of these recommendations by pregnant women in Western Australia. AIMS: To investigate the use of iodine-containing supplements and associations with their use in a sample of Western Australian pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in a public tertiary hospital for women and neonates in Perth during 2012 and 2013 (n = 425)...
February 7, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Sharon Keesing, Lorna Rosenwax, Beverley McNamara
Early survivorship is a time of critical transition for women survivors of breast cancer as they attempt to resume functional activities and important life roles. This study aimed to explore the challenges of women and their partners as they attempted to resume activities and roles, identify unmet needs and make recommendations regarding a suitable framework to support women and partners to recommence valued activities and important roles during early survivorship. Qualitative methods utilising in-depth interviews of women (n = 18) and their partners (n = 8), and two focus groups (n = 10) were completed in Perth, Western Australia, between June 2014 and April 2015...
January 2018: Women's Health
Michelle Hobday, Lynn Meuleners
This study examined the effects of distance from alcohol outlets to motor vehicle crashes across the Perth metropolitan area. A retrospective population-based study was undertaken using measures of alcohol- and non-alcohol-related crashes, and their proximity to alcohol outlets, using a geographic information system. Two logistic regression models were developed with the following outcomes: i) crashes including drivers with BAC ≥ 0.05%, and ii) weekend single vehicle night-time crashes, a surrogate measure of alcohol-related crashes...
January 31, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Richard P Mattick, Philip J Clare, Alexandra Aiken, Monika Wadolowski, Delyse Hutchinson, Jackob Najman, Tim Slade, Raimondo Bruno, Nyanda McBride, Kypros Kypri, Laura Vogl, Louisa Degenhardt
BACKGROUND: Some parents supply alcohol to their children, reportedly to reduce harm, yet longitudinal research on risks associated with such supply is compromised by short periods of observation and potential confounding. We aimed to investigate associations between parental supply and supply from other (non-parental) sources, with subsequent drinking outcomes over a 6-year period of adolescence, adjusting for child, parent, family, and peer variables. METHODS: We did this prospective cohort study using data from the Australian Parental Supply of Alcohol Longitudinal Study cohort of adolescents...
January 25, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Maria Markoulli, Amanda Sobbizadeh, Jacqueline Tan, Nancy Briggs, Minas Coroneo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of Optive (Allergan, Irvine, CA) and Optive Advanced (Allergan, Irvine, CA) on tear film stability and quality during a one-hour observation period when compared to saline (Pfizer, Perth, WA). METHODS: This was a double-masked, cross-over study. Twenty participants attended three visits, randomly receiving either Optive, Optive Advanced or saline. Oculus Keratograph 5M (Oculus, Arlington, WA, USA), non-invasive keratograph break-up time (NIKBUT), Lipiview (TearScience Inc, Morrisville, NC, USA), lipid layer thickness (LLT) and comfort were measured prior to and 5, 15 and 60 min after drop instillation...
February 1, 2018: Current Eye Research
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