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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511969/the-current-role-of-decompressive-craniectomy-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
REVIEW
S Honeybul, K M Ho, C R P Lind, G R Gillett
There is little doubt that decompressive craniectomy can reduce mortality however, the results of a recent study has provided more evidence to inform the debate regarding clinical and ethical concerns that it merely converts death into survival with severe disability or in a vegetative state. The recently published RESCUEicp trial compared last-tier secondary decompressive craniectomy with continued medical management for refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Patients were randomly assigned to decompressive craniectomy with medical therapy or to receive continued medical therapy with the option of adding barbiturates...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505538/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-neurosteroid-photoaffinity-ligands
#2
Pavel Y Savechenkov, David C Chiara, Rooma Desai, Alexander T Stern, Xiaojuan Zhou, Alexis M Ziemba, Andrea L Szabo, Yinghui Zhang, Jonathan B Cohen, Stuart A Forman, Keith W Miller, Karol S Bruzik
Neuroactive steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (GABAAR), but the locations of their GABAAR binding sites remain poorly defined. To discover these sites, we synthesized two photoreactive analogs of alphaxalone, an anesthetic neurosteroid targeting GABAAR, 11β-(4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyloxy)allopregnanolone, (F4N3Bzoxy-AP) and 11-aziallopregnanolone (11-AziAP). Both photoprobes acted with equal or higher potency than alphaxalone as general anesthetics and potentiators of GABAAR responses, left-shifting the GABA concentration - response curve for human α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and enhancing [(3)H]muscimol binding to α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in HEK293 cells...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492674/a-phenazine-barbituric-acid-based-colorimetric-and-ratiometric-near-infrared-fluorescent-probe-for-sensitively-differentiating-biothiols-and-its-application-in-tio2-sensor-devices
#3
Xiao Zhang, Yongchao Yan, Yandi Hang, Jian Wang, Jianli Hua, He Tian
A new colorimetric and ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probe based on phenazine-barbituric acid was developed to ultrasensitively detect biothiols. The favorable ratiometric changes helped the imaging and differentiation of Cys in living cells. Besides, the probe was successfully employed to construct TiO2 sensor devices, which could quantify Hcy concentration in serum.
May 11, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484371/state-dependent-modulation-of-slow-wave-motifs-towards-awakening
#4
Daisuke Shimaoka, Chenchen Song, Thomas Knöpfel
Slow cortical waves that propagate across the cerebral cortex forming large-scale spatiotemporal propagation patterns are a hallmark of non-REM sleep and anesthesia, but also occur during resting wakefulness. To investigate how the spatial temporal properties of slow waves change with the depth of anesthetic, we optically imaged population voltage transients generated by mouse layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons across one or two cortical hemispheres dorsally with a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI). From deep barbiturate anesthesia to light barbiturate sedation, depolarizing wave events recruiting at least 50% of the imaged cortical area consistently appeared as a conserved repertoire of distinct wave motifs...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482512/mechanistic-study-of-in-vitro-chemical-interaction-of-trimipramine-drug-with-barbituric-derivative-after-its-oxidation-electrochemical-synthesis-of-new-dibenzazepine-derivative
#5
Shahram Lotfi, Esmail Tammari, Azizollah Nezhadali
Electrochemical oxidation of trimipramine in the absence and presence of 1,3 dimethyl barbituric acid as a nucleophile in aqueous solution has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry electrolysis. Voltammetric studies of electro-oxidation of trimipramine were realized in a range of pH1.0 to 8.0 in the absence and presence of 1,3 dimethyl barbituric acid. Based on the obtained electrochemical results, dimerization is the main reaction of electro-oxidation of trimipramine in the absence of nucleophile...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480864/-antiseizure-activity-of-c-ephalaria-gigantea-root-extract
#6
N Gogitidze, N Mushkiashvili, M Gedevanishvili, N Tabatadze, G Dekanosidze
Antiseizure activity of Cephalaria gigantea root extract was studied using PTZ- and/or audiogenic seizure models in outbred Wistar and inbred Krouchinsky- Molodkina rats respectively. In PTZ - model onset of tonic- clonic seizures, latencies to the beginning of the seizure activity, and mortality, and similarly in audiogenic seizures behavioral convulsive reactions , facial automatisms and latency to wild running were evaluated. The extract is used traditionally in Georgian folk medicine as anticonvulsant drug...
March 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475406/a-survey-of-hospice-and-palliative-care-clinician-s-experiences-and-attitudes-regarding-the-use-of-palliative-sedation
#7
Samuel Maiser, Karen Estrada-Stephen, Natasha Sahr, Jonathan Gully, Sean Marks
BACKGROUND: A variety of terms and attitudes surround palliative sedation (PS) with little research devoted to hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinicians' perceptions and experiences with PS. These factors may contribute to the wide variability in the reported prevalence of PS. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to better identify hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinician attitudes toward, and clinical experiences with palliative sedation (PS). METHODS: A 32-question survey was distributed to members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (n = 4678)...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464765/functional-chemical-groups-that-may-likely-become-source-for-synthesis-of-novel-central-nervous-system-cns-acting-drugs
#8
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are on increase perhaps due to genetic, enviromental, social and dietetic factors. Unfortunately, a large number of CNS drugs have adverse effects such as addiction, tolerance, psychological and physical dependence. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to identifying functional chemical groups that may serve as lead molecule for synthesis of compounds that may have CNS activity. The search revealed that heterocycles that have heteroatoms such as nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and oxygen (O) form the largest class of organic compounds...
May 2, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435989/aggressive-medical-management-of-acute-traumatic-subdural-hematomas-before-emergency-craniotomy-in-patients-presenting-with-bilateral-unreactive-pupils-a-cohort-study
#9
Arturo Chieregato, Alessandra Venditto, Emanuele Russo, Costanza Martino, Giovanni Bini
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic subdural hematoma (aSDH) admitted to the emergency room with bilaterally dilated, unreactive pupils (bilateral mydriasis) is notoriously poor. METHODS: Of 2074 TBI patients consecutively admitted to our facility between 1997 and 2012, 115 had a first CT scan with aSDH, unreactive bilateral mydriasis, and a Glasgow Coma Score of 3 or 4. Sixty-two patients were unoperated and died within hours or a few days...
April 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431430/contrasting-effects-of-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-%C3%AE-3-subunit-n265m-mutation-on-loss-of-righting-reflexes-induced-by-etomidate-and-the-novel-anesthetic-barbiturate-r-mtfd-mpab-erratum
#10
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428226/rapid-throughput-analysis-of-gabaa-receptor-subtype-modulators-and-blockers-using-disbac1-3-membrane-potential-red-dye
#11
Atefeh Mousavi Nik, Brandon Pressly, Vikrant Singh, Shane Antrobus, Susan Hulsizer, Michael A Rogawski, Heike Wulff, Isaac N Pessah
Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR®) membrane potential dye (FMP-Red-Dye) is a proprietary tool for basic discovery and high throughput drug screening for G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels. We optimized and validated this potentiometric probe to assay functional modulators of heterologous expressed GABAA receptor (GABAAR) isoforms (synaptic α1β3γ2, extrasynaptic α4β3δ, and β3 homopentomers). High-resolution mass spectrometry identified FMP-Red-dye as DisSBAC1(3). GABAAR expressing cells equilibrated with FMP-Red-Dye exhibited depolarized equilibrium membrane (Em) potentials compared to GABAAR-null cells...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426047/selective-construction-of-quaternary-stereocentres-in-radical-cyclisation-cascades-triggered-by-electron-transfer-reduction-of-amide-type-carbonyls
#12
Huan-Ming Huang, Pablo Bonilla, David J Procter
Radical-radical cyclisation cascades, triggered by single-electron-transfer to amide-type carbonyls using SmI2-H2O-LiBr, result in the selective construction of quaternary carbon stereocentres. The cascades deliver tricyclic barbiturates with four stereocentres in good yield and with excellent diastereocontrol.
May 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414664/gonococcal-endocarditis-the-gift-that-stops-giving-an-uncommon-presentation-of-a-common-disease
#13
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399085/-the-development-of-the-method-for-enzymatic-hydrolysis-for-the-extraction-of-toxic-substances-from-the-hair-samples
#14
Yu V Slustovskaya, M V Krys'ko, O Yu Strelova
The objective of the present study was to develop and validate the method for the extraction of toxic substances from the hair samples as exemplified by enzymatic hydrolysis of barbituric acid derivatives. The experiments were carried out with the use of laboratory animals (white female rats and albino guinea pigs) that had been daily given a phenobarbital solution per os during 4 months preceding the study. The hairs obtained from the experimental animals were subjected to acid hydrolysis with a 6 mole hydrochloric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis with the use of chymopsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain solutions...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399083/-the-identification-of-barbituric-acid-derivatives-in-the-old-blood-stains-on-textiles
#15
A V Kirichek, A E Shabalina, L A Rassinskaya
Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387807/validated-lc-ms-ms-method-for-simultaneous-analysis-of-17-barbiturates-in-horse-plasma-for-doping-control
#16
Ying Liu, Cornelius E Uboh, Xiaoqing Li, Fuyu Guan, Youwen You, George A Maylin, Fengchang Zhu, Lawrence R Soma
A rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous screening, quantification and confirmation of 17 barbiturates in horse plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on a C18 column, and analyzed in negative electrospray ionization mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for screening and quantification. Confirmation for the presence of the analytes was achieved by comparing ion intensity ratio...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385704/adjunctive-ketamine-in-electroconvulsive-therapy-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Alexander McGirr, Marcelo T Berlim, David J Bond, Peter Y Chan, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
BackgroundKetamine has emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for major depressive episodes, spurring interest in its potential to augment electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).AimsWe sought to update our preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving an index course of ECT, and testing the hypothesis that lack of efficacy is due to barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration.MethodWe searched EMBASE, CENTRAL and Medline to identify RCTs examining the efficacy of ketamine during a course of ECT...
April 6, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377032/a-sensitive-colorimetric-determination-of-cyanuric-chloride-and-its-activated-agarose-immobilization-resins
#18
Talia Miron, Meir Wilchek
A colorimetric method for determining cyanuric chloride (CC) and for monitoring its polysaccharide gel activation, before and after ligand binding, was developed. The method is based on the reaction of CC or its activated gel with pyridine and barbituric acid or dimethylbarbituric acid. The product formed yields a purple red color with λ max at 595 nm, and an EM value of approximately 300,000 after 1 h at room temperature. Due to its high sensitivity, this method can detect traces of CC (1 μM) under the above conditions...
April 1, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375610/development-of-chiral-bifunctional-thiosquaramides-enantioselective-michael-additions-of-barbituric-acids-to-nitroalkenes
#19
Michael Rombola, Chintan S Sumaria, Thomas D Montgomery, Viresh H Rawal
We report a general method for the synthesis of chiral thiosquaramides, a class of bifunctional catalysts not previously described in the literature. Thiosquaramides are found to be more acidic and significantly more soluble in nonpolar solvents than their oxosquaramide counterparts, and they are excellent catalysts for the unreported, enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of the barbituric acid pharmacaphore to nitroalkenes, delivering the chiral barbiturate derivatives in high yields and high enantioselectivities, even with catalyst loadings as low as 0...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355148/the-unusual-solvatochromism-and-solvatofluorochromism-of-longwave-absorbing-and-emitting-barbiturate-merocyanine-dyes
#20
Alexander A Ishchenko, Andrii V Kulinich
Spectral-fluorescent properties of a series of merocyanine dyes comprising the barbituric acid residue as the electron-accepting terminal group are investigated in comparison with those of their N,N-methylated analogues in media of various polarity. It is revealed that in polar aprotic solvents the electronic absorption spectra of the studied compounds are influenced dramatically by the formation of hydrogen bonds between the NH-groups of barbituric residue and solvent molecules. An effect of such nucleophilic solvation on the electronic structure of the studied dyes is analysed using both the spectral data obtained and the DFT/B3LYP quantum chemical simulation...
July 12, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
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