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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935856/sequence-controlled-supramolecular-terpolymerization-directed-by-specific-molecular-recognitions
#1
Takehiro Hirao, Hiroaki Kudo, Tomoko Amimoto, Takeharu Haino
Nature precisely manipulates primary monomer sequences in biopolymers. In synthetic polymer sequences, this precision has been limited because of the lack of polymerization techniques for conventional polymer synthesis. Engineering the primary monomer sequence of a polymer main chain represents a considerable challenge in polymer science. Here, we report the development of sequence-controlled supramolecular terpolymerization via a self-sorting behavior among three sets of monomers possessing mismatched host-guest pairs...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905718/physiologic-behavioral-and-histologic-responses-to-various-euthanasia-methods-in-c57bl-6ntac-male-mice
#2
Gregory P Boivin, Michael A Bottomley, Patricia A Schiml, Lori Goss, Nadja Grobe
Rodent euthanasia using exposure to increasing concentrations of CO2 has come under scrutiny due to concerns of potential pain during the euthanasia process. Alternatives to CO2, such as isoflurane and barbiturates, have been proposed as more humane methods of euthanasia. In this study, we examined 3 commonly used euthanasia methods in mice: intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital-phenytoin solution, CO2 inhalation, and isoflurane anesthesia followed by CO2 inhalation. We hypothesized that pentobarbital-phenytoin euthanasia would cause fewer alterations in cardiovascular response, result in less behavioral evidence of pain or stress, and produce lower elevations in ACTH than would the isoflurane and CO2 methods, which we hypothesized would not differ in regard to these parameters...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#3
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894410/life-threatening-dyskalaemia-after-barbiturate-coma-therapy-the-strategy-of-management
#4
Yeap Boon Tat, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Ting Yung Chuen, Abdul Rahman Izaini Ghani
Barbiturate coma therapy (BCT) is a treatment option that is used for refractory intracranial hypertension after all other options have been exhausted. Although BCT is a brain protection treatment, it also has several side effects such as hypotension, hepatic dysfunction, renal dysfunction, respiratory complications and electrolyte imbalances. One less concerning but potentially life-threatening complication of BCT is dyskalaemia. This complication could present as severe refractory hypokalaemia during the therapy with subsequent rebound hyperkalaemia after cessation of the therapy...
March 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878016/enantiomeric-barbiturates-bind-distinct-inter-and-intra-subunit-binding-sites-in-a-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr
#5
Zhiyi Yu, Jonathan B Cohen
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Drugs acting as positive allosteric modulators of muscle-type α2βγδ nAChRs, of use in treatment of neuromuscular disorders, have been hard to identify. However, identification of nAChR allosteric modulator binding sites has been facilitated by using drugs developed as photoreactive GABAAR modulators. Recently, R-mTFD-MPAB (R-1-methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirinylphenyl) barbituric acid), an anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has been shown to inhibit Torpedo α2βγδ nAChRs, binding in the ion channel and to a γ(+)-α(-) subunit interface site similar to its GABAAR intersubunit binding site...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866270/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-bacterial-transcription-complex-formation
#6
Daniel S Wenholz, Ming Zeng, Cong Ma, Marcin Mielczarek, Xiao Yang, Mohan Bhadbhade, David St C Black, Peter J Lewis, Renate Griffith, Naresh Kumar
Knoevenagel condensation was employed to generate a set of molecules potentially capable of inhibiting the RNA polymerase-σ(70)/σ(A) interaction in bacteria. Synthesis was achieved via reactions between a variety of indole-7-carbaldehydes and rhodanine, N-allylrhodanine, barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. A library of structurally diverse compounds was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the inhibition of the targeted protein-protein interaction. Inhibition of bacterial growth was also evaluated using Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cultures...
September 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862044/acute-lamotrigine-overdose-a-systematic-review-of-published-adult-and-pediatric-cases
#7
Bader Alyahya, Marjorie Friesen, Bénédicte Nauche, Martin Laliberté
CONTEXT: Lamotrigine is a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant commonly used to treat seizure and bipolar mood disorders. Evidence from case series and retrospective studies indicate that lamotrigine overdose is usually benign. However, there are reported cases of cardiac arrest and mortality following lamotrigine overdose. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on lamotrigine overdoses to better understand the clinical severity, the relevance of serum concentrations, and therapeutic interventions for overdose...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858148/alcohol-or-drug-use-and-trauma-recidivism
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sergio Cordovilla-Guardia, Raquel Vilar-López, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, Francisco Guerrero-López, Enrique Fernández-Mondéjar
BACKGROUND: Alcohol, illicit drugs, and psychotropic medications are well-known causes of traumatic events. However, the association of each type of substance with trauma recidivism remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to quantify the strength of associations between the type of substance detected in patients admitted for traumatic injury and trauma recidivism, defined as a documented history of past trauma. METHODS: The presence of alcohol and drugs (cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazepines, opiates, methadone, barbiturates, and tricyclic antidepressants) was analyzed in 1,156 patients between 16 and 70 years old, hospitalized in a trauma hospital between November 2011 and March 2015...
September 2017: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857763/competitive-antagonism-of-anesthetic-action-at-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-by-a-novel-etomidate-analog-with-low-intrinsic-efficacy
#9
Celena Ma, Ervin Pejo, Megan McGrath, Selwyn S Jayakar, Xiaojuan Zhou, Keith W Miller, Jonathan B Cohen, Douglas E Raines
BACKGROUND: The authors characterized the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor pharmacology of the novel etomidate analog naphthalene-etomidate, a potential lead compound for the development of anesthetic-selective competitive antagonists. METHODS: The positive modulatory potencies and efficacies of etomidate and naphthalene-etomidate were defined in oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors using voltage clamp electrophysiology. Using the same technique, the ability of naphthalene-etomidate to reduce currents evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid alone or γ-aminobutyric acid potentiated by etomidate, propofol, pentobarbital, and diazepam was quantified...
August 29, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799512/modulation-of-gabaa-receptors-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#10
Eleonora Palma, Gabriele Ruffolo, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
BACKGROUND: A variety of evidence suggested that an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission could be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the occurrence and progression of seizures. Understanding the causes of this imbalance may provide essential insight into the basic mechanisms of epilepsy and may uncover novel targets for future drug therapies. Accordingly, GABA is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS and its receptors (e.g., GABAARs) can still be relevant targets of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
August 9, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795057/side-effects-of-indomethacin-in-refractory-post-traumatic-intracranial-hypertension-a-comprehensive-case-study-and-review
#11
REVIEW
Daniel Agustín Godoy, Pablo David Guerrero Suarez, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Mario Di Napoli
Intracranial hypertension (IH) is one of the final pathways of acute brain injury. In severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI), it independently predicts poor outcomes. Its control represents a key aspect of the management. Lack of response to conventional therapies signals a state of ''refractory IH'', with an associated mortality rate of 80-100%. In such cases, hypothermia, barbiturates at high doses (BBT), decompressive craniectomy (DC), and extreme hyperventilation are utilized. However, none of them has proven efficacy...
July 2017: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783350/3d-4f-coordination-clusters-as-cooperative-catalysts-for-highly-diastereoselective-michael-addition-reactions
#12
Kieran Griffiths, Athanassios C Tsipis, Prashant Kumar, Oliver P E Townrow, Alaa Abdul-Sada, Geoffrey R Akien, Amgalanbaatar Baldansuren, Alan C Spivey, George E Kostakis
Michael addition (MA) is one of the most well studied chemical transformation in synthetic chemistry. Here, we report the synthesis and crystal structures of a library of 3d/4f coordination clusters (CCs) formulated as [Zn(II)2Y(III)2L4(solv)X(Z)Y] and study their catalytic properties toward the MA of nitrostyrenes with barbituric acid derivatives. Each CC presents two borderline hard/soft Lewis acidic Zn(II) centers and two hard Lewis acidic Y(III) centers in a defect dicubane topology that brings the two different metals into a proximity of ∼3...
August 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749264/pulmonary-lesions-caused-by-the-lungworm-didelphostrongylus-hayesi-in-the-opossum-didelphis-virginiana-in-colima-mexico
#13
Rubén A López-Crespo, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Luis J García-Márquez
Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745845/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment-digest
#14
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo, Jeremy Kim
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 22, 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741370/non-health-care-facility-anticonvulsant-medication-errors-in-the-united-states
#15
Emily A DeDonato, Henry A Spiller, Marcel J Casavant, Thitphalak Chounthirath, Nichole L Hodges, Gary A Smith
INTRODUCTION: This study provides an epidemiological description of non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant drugs. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of National Poison Data System data was conducted on non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant drugs reported to US Poison Control Centers from 2000 through 2012. RESULTS: During the study period, 108,446 non-health care facility medication errors involving anticonvulsant pharmaceuticals were reported to US Poison Control Centers, averaging 8342 exposures annually...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733841/analgosedation-of-adult-patients-with-elevated-intracranial-pressure-survey-of-current-clinical-practice-in-austria
#16
Guenther Herzer, Claudia Mirth, Udo M Illievich, Wolfgang G Voelckel, Helmut Trimmel
BACKGROUND: Analgesia and sedation are key items in intensive care. Recently published S3 guidelines specifically address treatment of patients with elevated intracranial pressure. METHODS: The Austrian Society of Anesthesiology, Resuscitation and Intensive Care Medicine carried out an online survey of neurointensive care units in Austria in order to evaluate the current state of practice in the areas of analgosedation and delirium management in this high-risk patient group...
July 21, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729223/synthesis-characterization-and-antimicrobial-study-of-polymeric-transition-metal-complexes-of-mn-ii-co-ii-ni-ii-cu-ii-and-zn-ii
#17
Shamim Ahmad Khan, Shahab A A Nami, Shahnawaz Ahmad Bhat, Abdul Kareem, Nahid Nishat
Salen ligands comprising of o-phenylenediamine (salop) and p-phenylenediamine (salpp) have been synthesized. The salen ligand, salop undergo Schiff base reaction with Formaldehyde and Barbituric acid to generate novel polymeric Schiff base, SBOPA in one instance while the second salen ligand, salpp on Schiff base reaction with formaldehyde and piperazine gives another novel polymeric Schiff base, SBPBA. These polymeric Schiff base ligands, SBOPA and SBPBA generates polymeric metal complexes in high yields on reaction with transition metal acetates, M(CH3COO)2...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726590/a-method-of-managing-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-absence-of-intracranial-pressure-monitoring-the-ice-protocol
#18
Randall Chesnut, Nancy Temkin, Sureyya Dikmen, Carlos Rondina, Walter Videtta, Gustavo Petroni, Silvia Lujan, Victor Alanis, Antonio Luis Eiras Falcao, Gustavo La Fuente, Luis Gonzalez, Manuel Jibaja, Arturo Lavendez, Freddy Sandi Lora, Roberto Merida, Ricardo Romero, James Pridgeon, Jason Barber, Joan Machamer, Kelley Chaddock
Purpose - The imaging- and clinical-examination (ICE) algorithm used in the BEST TRIP ICP randomized controlled trial is the only prospectively investigated clinical protocol for TBI management without ICP monitoring. As the default literature standard, it warrants careful evaluation. Methods - We present the ICE protocol in detail and analyse the demographics, outcome, treatment intensity, frequency of intervention usage, and related adverse events in the ICE-protocol cohort. Results - The 167 ICE protocol patients were young (median 29 years) with a median Glasgow Coma Scale motor score of 4 but with anisocoria or abnormal pupillary reactivity in 40%...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719099/spontaneous-keto-enol-tautomerization-in-the-crystal-lattice-visualized-with-the-help-of-water-encapsulated-in-hydrophilic-reservoirs
#19
Marta K Dudek, Ewelina Wielgus, Piotr Paluch, Marek Potrzebowski
Keto-enol tautomerism in the solid phase is a process that is particularly difficult to follow. In this work we demonstrate how it can be done by introducing deuterium into the crystal lattice of organic compounds, which tend to form hydrates. In our studies we explored H-D exchange in the crystals stored in contact with deuterium oxide vapors. Employing barbituric acid (BA) and (+)-catechin (CAT) as model samples, by means of advanced solid-state NMR and mass spectrometry, we revealed that not only OH and NH protons of these chemicals undergo exchange to deuterium in a crystal lattice, but also usually immobile protons, i...
July 18, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717877/temporal-envelope-coding-by-inferior-colliculus-neurons-with-cochlear-implant-stimulation
#20
Kenneth E Hancock, Yoojin Chung, Martin F McKinney, Bertrand Delgutte
Modulations in temporal envelopes are a ubiquitous property of natural sounds and are especially important for hearing with cochlear implants (CIs) because these devices typically discard temporal fine structure information. With few exceptions, neural temporal envelope processing has been studied in both normal hearing (NH) and CI animals using only pure sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM) which poorly represents the diversity of envelope shapes contained in natural sounds because it confounds repetition rate and the width of each modulation cycle...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
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