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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316083/energy-metabolism-in-the-rat-cortex-under-thiopental-anaesthesia-measured-in-vivo-by-13-c-mrs
#1
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288850/comparison-of-umbilical-cord-tissue-and-meconium-for-the-confirmation-of-in-utero-drug-exposure
#2
Jennifer M Colby
OBJECTIVES: Drug screening in neonates is traditionally performed using meconium, but cord tissue has been proposed as an alternative specimen. This study compares the detection of drugs in a large number of paired meconium and umbilical cord tissue samples from subjects at risk of in utero drug exposure. DESIGN AND METHODS: Physician-ordered toxicology results and clinical information were collected in a retrospective review of subject medical records. All toxicology testing was performed by a national reference laboratory using a combination of immunoassays and chromatography-mass spectrometry...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253432/spectroscopic-and-computational-investigations-of-ligand-binding-to-isph-discovery-of-non-diphosphate-inhibitors
#3
Bing O'Dowd, Sarah Williams, Hongxin Wang, Joo Hwan No, Guodong Rao, Weixue Wang, J Andrew McCammon, Stephen P Cramer, Eric Oldfield
Isoprenoid biosynthesis is an important area for anti-infective drug development and one target is IspH, (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl 4-diphosphate (HMBPP) reductase, which forms isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate from HMBPP in a 2H+/2e- reduction. IspH contains a 4Fe-4S cluster and here, we first investigated how small molecules can bind to the cluster using HYSCORE and NRVS spectroscopies. The results of these as well as other structural and spectroscopic investigations led to the conclusion that in most cases, ligands bind to IspH 4Fe-4S clusters via 1 coordination, forming tetrahedral geometries at the unique 4th Fe, ligand side-chains preventing further ligand (e...
March 2, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242045/epidemiology-of-overdose-episodes-from-the-period-prior-to-hospitalization-for-drug-poisoning-until-discharge-in-japan-an-exploratory-descriptive-study-using-a-nationwide-claims-database
#4
Yasuyuki Okumura, Nobuo Sakata, Kunihiko Takahashi, Daisuke Nishi, Hisateru Tachimori
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nationwide epidemiology of the annual rate, causative substance, and clinical course of overdose-related admission. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of overdose episodes from the period prior to hospitalization for drug poisoning until discharge to home. METHODS: We assessed all cases of admission due to overdose (21,663 episodes) in Japan from October 2012 through September 2013 using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238428/sensitive-screening-of-abused-drugs-in-dried-blood-samples-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-ion-booster-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#5
Divyabharathi Chepyala, I-Lin Tsai, Hsiao-Wei Liao, Guan-Yuan Chen, Hsi-Chun Chao, Ching-Hua Kuo
An increased rate of drug abuse is a major social problem worldwide. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique offers many advantages over using urine or whole blood sampling techniques. This study developed a simple and efficient ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) method for the analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites using DBS. Fifty-seven compounds covering the most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the target analytes of this study...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236181/intracranial-pressure-monitoring-after-primary-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-clinical-study
#6
Edoardo Picetti, Maria Luisa Caspani, Corrado Iaccarino, Giulia Pastorello, Pierpaolo Salsi, Edoardo Viaroli, Franco Servadei
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring represents an important tool in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although current information exists regarding ICP monitoring in secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC), little is known after primary DC following emergency hematoma evacuation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for TBI and ICP monitoring after primary DC...
February 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235873/high-resolution-x-ray-structures-of-two-functionally-distinct-members-of-the-cyclic-amide-hydrolase-cyah-family-of-toblerone-fold-enzymes
#7
Thomas S Peat, Sahil Balotra, Matthew Wilding, Carol J Hartley, Janet Newman, Colin Scott
The Toblerone-fold was discovered recently when the first structure of the cyclic amide hydrolase, AtzD (a cyanuric acid hydrolase), was elucidated. We surveyed the cyclic amide hydrolase family finding a strong correlation between phylogenetic distribution and specificity for either cyanuric acid or barbituric acid; albeit, one of six classes (IV) could not be tested due to lack of expression of the proteins from it, and another class (V) had neither cyanuric acid nor barbituric acid hydrolase activity. High resolution X-ray structures were obtained for a class VI barbituric acid hydrolase (1...
February 24, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187810/management-of-infections-associated-with-neurocritical-care
#8
L Rivera-Lara, W Ziai, P Nyquist
The reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in the neurointensive care unit (NICU) ranges from 20% to 30%. HAIs in US hospitals cost between $28 and $45 billion per year in direct medical costs. These infections are associated with increased length of hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Infection risk is increased in NICU patients due to medication side-effects, catheter and line placement, neurosurgical procedures, and acquired immune suppression secondary to steroid/barbiturate use and brain injury itself...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186869/sedative-hypnotic-drug-withdrawal-syndrome-recognition-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Cynthia Santos, Ruben E Olmedo
Sedative-hypnotic drugs include gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid [GHB], gamma-Butyrolactone [GBL], baclofen, and ethanol. Chronic use of these substances can cause tolerance, and abrupt cessation or a reduction in the quantity of the drug can precipitate a life-threatening withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, propofol, and other GABA agonists or analogues can effectively control symptoms of withdrawal from GABAergic agents...
March 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182406/spirocyclopropanes-from-intramolecular-cyclopropanation-of-pyranopyrazoles-and-pyranopyrimidine-diones-and-lewis-acid-mediated-3-2-cycloadditions-of-spirocyclopropylpyrazolones
#10
Prasun Mukherjee, Asish R Das
A robust intramolecular cyclopropanation reaction was first performed on pyranopyrazole and pyranopyrimidine-dione derivatives to obtain spirocyclopropylpyrazolones and barbiturates, using iodosylbenzene (PhIO) or the combination of iodobenzene diacetate (PIDA)/molecular iodine (I2), under mild reaction conditions. Syntheses of functionally and stereochemically diversified, novel spiropyrazolone fused 2-iminothiophene and spiropyrazolone fused pyrroline scaffolds were also demonstrated via Lewis acid catalyzed highly diastereoselective (3 + 2) cycloaddition reactions of the synthesized spiro-cyclopropyl pyrazolones with phenyl isothiocyanate and benzonitrile, respectively...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182114/evolution-of-cerebral-atrophy-in-a-patient-with-super-refractory-status-epilepticus-treated-with-barbiturate-coma
#11
Christopher R Newey, Pravin George, Premkumar Nattanmai, Christine Ahrens, Stephen Hantus, Aarti Sarwal
Introduction. Status epilepticus is associated with neuronal breakdown. Radiological sequelae of status epilepticus include diffusion weighted abnormalities and T2/FLAIR cortical hyperintensities corresponding to the epileptogenic cortex. However, progressive generalized cerebral atrophy from status epilepticus is underrecognized and may be related to neuronal death. We present here a case of diffuse cerebral atrophy that developed during the course of super refractory status epilepticus management despite prolonged barbiturate coma...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128088/gestational-pityriasis-rosea-suggestions-for-approaching-affected-pregnant-women
#12
Alexandra Monastirli, Efstathia Pasmatzi, George Badavanis, Dionysios Tsambaos
Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120455/supramolecular-polymerization-of-supermacrocycles-effect-of-molecular-conformations-on-kinetics-and-morphology
#13
Mitsuaki Yamauchi, Bimalendu Adhikari, Deepak D Prabhu, Xu Lin, Takashi Karatsu, Tomonori Ohba, Nobutaka Shimizu, Hideaki Takagi, Rie Haruki, Shin-Ichi Adachi, Takashi Kajitani, Takanori Fukushima, Shiki Yagai
Intricately designed π-conjugated molecules containing interactive groups can be used to generate supramolecular polymers with outstanding structural and functional properties. To construct such supramolecular polymers, the noncovalent synthesis of supermacrocyclic monomers from relatively simple molecules represent attractive strategy, although this has been rarely exploited. Herein, we report the supramolecular polymerization of two barbiturated naphthalene derivatives that circularly hexamerize via hydrogen bonding...
January 25, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115043/-benzodiazepines-should-still-be-first-line-treatment-for-alcohol-withdrawal
#14
Gro Askgaard, Anton Pottegård, Anders Fink-Jensen
In this review, we summarize the evidence for benzodiazepines and barbiturates as alcohol withdrawal treatment and outline a treatment guideline. A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that benzodiazepine treatment decreases alcohol withdrawal seizures and is safe. For barbiturates, only a few RCTs have been undertaken, and barbiturates were not found to be superior to benzodiazepines. Consequently, we suggest that benzodiazepines should still be first-line treatment for alcohol withdrawal...
January 16, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079248/inhibition-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-by-a-barbiturate-nitrate-hybrid-ameliorates-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-colitis-effect-on-inflammation-related-genes
#15
Shane O'Sullivan, Jun Wang, Maria T Pigott, Neil Docherty, Noreen Boyle, Samuel Kana Lis, John F Gilmer, Carlos Medina
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is up-regulated in ulcerative colitis and implicated in the pathology of the disease. In this study, we have examined the effects of a barbiturate-based MMP inhibitor incorporating a nitric oxide donor/mimetic group (dinitrate-barbiturate) on the intestinal injury induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In vivo experiments were carried out using male Wistar rats given 5% DSS ad libitum in drinking water...
April 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029372/cajal-s-unbearable-cephalalgias-the-consequences-of-a-misdiagnosis
#16
REVIEW
S Giménez-Roldán
Around the age of 66 Cajal consulted neurologist Nicolas Achúcarro complaining of "unbearable cephalalgias". He had not ever suffered from headaches. The diagnosis of early arteriosclerosis that was considered at the time a physiological, irreversible ailment of ageing had a strong emotional impact on Cajal. Comorbid depression, insomnia and self-treatment with escalating doses of Veronal(®) (barbital), a short-acting barbiturate, presumably aggravated the situation. Exposure to warm environments and being involved in tense discussions were identified as triggering factors of the headaches...
October 28, 2016: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007369/pentobarbital-in-the-context-of-possible-suicides-analysis-of-a-case
#17
Paula Melo, Pedro Costa, Maria José Quintas, André Castro, Sónia Tarelho, João Miguel Franco, Helena M Teixeira
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate, acting as a central nervous system depressant (CNS), being used for its anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic and anaesthetic properties. Barbiturates were replaced by benzodiazepines, leading to a decrease in poisoning cases with these compounds. However, pentobarbital is still used in many countries as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Due to its properties, this compound is sought after by people who wish to commit suicide, acquiring it on the black market. The authors present an unusual fatal pentobarbital intoxication case, in a 37 years-old male salesperson, with no known connection with the veterinary field, being more difficult to obtain this compound...
December 8, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995785/dearomatizing-radical-cyclizations-and-cyclization-cascades-triggered-by-electron-transfer-reduction-of-amide-type-carbonyls
#18
Huan-Ming Huang, David J Procter
Highly selective dearomatizing radical cyclizations and cyclization cascades, triggered by single electron transfer to amide-type carbonyls by SmI2-H2O-LiBr, provide efficient access to unprecedented spirocyclic scaffolds containing up to five stereocenters with high diastereocontrol. The first dearomatizing radical cyclizations involving radicals derived from amide carbonyls by single electron transfer take place under mild conditions and engage a range of aromatic and heteroaromatic systems present in the barbiturate substrates...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992389/contrasting-effects-of-the-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-%C3%AE-3-subunit-n265m-mutation-on-loss-of-righting-reflexes-induced-by-etomidate-and-the-novel-anesthetic-barbiturate-r-mtfd-mpab-erratum
#19
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986812/barbiturates-bind-in-the-glic-ion-channel-pore-and-cause-inhibition-by-stabilizing-a-closed-state
#20
Zaineb Fourati, Reinis Reinholds Ruza, Duncan Laverty, Emmanuelle Drège, Sandrine Delarue-Cochin, Delphine Joseph, Patrice Koehl, Trevor Smart, Marc Delarue
Barbiturates induce anesthesia by modulating the activity of anionic and cationic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). Despite more than a century of use in clinical practice, the prototypic binding site for this class of drugs within pLGICs is yet to be described. In this study, we present the first X-ray structures of barbiturates bound to GLIC, a cationic prokaryotic pLGIC with excellent structural homology to other relevant channels sensitive to general anesthetics and, as shown here, to barbiturates, at clinically relevant concentrations...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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