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Eric Fillion, Azadeh Kavoosi, Kevin Nguyen, Christian Ieritano
Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane, B(C6F5)3, has been found to be an effective catalyst to access the hydridoborate anion, [N(CH2CH2CH2)3Sn][HB(C6F5)3], via hydride abstraction from the hypercoordinated tin reagent, iPr-tricarbastannatrane. This process has been applied to the B(C6F5)3-catalyzed transfer 1,4-hydrostannylation of electron-deficient olefins, namely benzylidene barbituric acids. Insights into the mechanism have been obtained via a series of (1)H, (2)H, (11)B, (13)C, and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and labeling experiments...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
O Shemchuk, D Braga, F Grepioni
Alloying isomorphous crystals of barbituric acid (BA) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) yields solid solutions of general formula BAxTBA1-x (x < 0.8); for x = 0.5 the stable co-crystal BA0.5TBA0.5, isomorphous with the parent keto forms, is observed, which melts at 265 °C, i.e. ca. 10 and 20 °C higher than the melting points of BA and TBA, respectively. While the BAxTBA1-x solid solutions with x > 0.5 are stable, those with x < 0.5 convert, with time or temperature, to the BA0.5TBA0.5 co-crystal.
September 27, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Keith L Shelton
Inhalants are a loosely organized category of abused compounds defined entirely by their common route of administration. Inhalants include volatile solvents, fuels, volatile anesthetics, gasses, and liquefied refrigerants, among others. They are ubiquitous in modern society as ingredients in a wide variety of household, commercial, and medical products. Persons of all ages abuse inhalants but the highest prevalence of abuse is in younger adolescents. Although inhalants have been shown to act upon a host of neurotransmitter receptors, the stimulus effects of the few inhalants which have been trained or tested in drug discrimination procedures suggest that their discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by a few key neurotransmitter receptor systems...
October 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
James R Hemmer, Saemi O Poelma, Nicolas Treat, Zachariah A Page, Neil Dolinski, Yvonne J Diaz, Warren Tomlinson, Kyle D Clark, Joseph P Hooper, Craig J Hawker, Javier Read de Alaniz
A class of tunable visible and near-infrared donor-acceptor Stenhouse adduct (DASA) photoswitches were efficiently synthesized in 2 to 4 steps from commercially available starting materials with minimal purification. Using either Meldrum's or barbituric acid "acceptors" in combination with aniline-based "donors" an absorption range spanning from 450 to 750 nm is obtained. Additionally, photoisomerization results in complete decoloration for all adducts, yielding fully transparent, colorless solutions and films...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christopher R Newey, Dolora Wisco, Premkumar Nattanmai, Aarti Sarwal
BACKGROUND: Refractory status epilepticus is often treated with third-line therapy, such as pentobarbital coma. However, its use is limited by side effects. Recognizing and preventing major and minor adverse effects of prolonged pentobarbital coma may increase good outcomes. This study retrospectively reviewed direct and indirect medical and surgical pentobarbital coma. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients with refractory status epilepticus treated with pentobarbital over a 1 year period at a large tertiary care center...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Michele Fiore, Peter Strazewski
There may be more than one way leading to RNA: Recent discoveries in the synthesis of nucleoside and nucleotide precursors are described and put into the wider context of prebiotic systems chemistry. Mixing Butlerow's carbohydrate precursors with Traube's 5-formylaminopyrimidines has led to the formation of prebiotic purine nucleosides whereas the mixing of 5-phosphoribose with barbituric acid and melamine gave supramolecular fibers from stacks of Whitesides' rosettas.
September 15, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Xiaonan Sun, Fabien Silly, Francois Maurel, Changzhi Dong
Barbituric acid derivatives are prochiral molecules, i.e. they are chiral upon adsorption on surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that barbituric acid derivatives self-assemble into a chiral guest-host supramolecular architecture at the solid-liquid interface on graphite. The host nanoarchitecture has a sophisticated wavy shape pattern and paired guest molecules are nested insides the cavities of the host structure. Each unit cell of the host structure is composed of both enantiomers with a ratio of 1:1...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Amber L Bahorik, Derek D Satre, Andrea H Kline-Simon, Constance M Weisner, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: We examined prevalence of major medical conditions and extent of disease burden among patients with and without substance use disorders (SUDs) in an integrated health care system serving 3.8 million members. METHODS: Medical conditions and SUDs were extracted from electronic health records in 2010. Patients with SUDs (n = 45,461; alcohol, amphetamine, barbiturate, cocaine, hallucinogen, and opioid) and demographically matched patients without SUDs (n = 45,461) were compared on the prevalence of 19 major medical conditions...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Khalil Eskandari, Bahador Karami
Catalytic reaction between barbituric acid (or N,N-dimethyl barbituric acid), 4-hydroxycoumarin, and a wide range of aryl aldehydes by employing titanium dioxide nanowires (TiO2 NWs) is described which led efficiently to obtain 12 newly prepared products successfully. Starting materials in the presence of catalytic amounts of TiO2 NWs as a key factor were condensed together via three C-C bond formation to obtain target products. This procedure profits some advantages such as an efficient, environmental safety and high recyclability of nano-catalyst...
September 7, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Fiona M Baumer, Jurriaan M Peters, Christelle M El Achkar, Phillip L Pearl
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are critical regulators of neuronal excitability. Genes for the α-subunits of three sodium channel subtypes-SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A-are all located on chromosome 2q24. A full-term boy with an unremarkable birth history presented at 1 month of age with unusual movements that had started on day of life 2. Exam was notable for lack of visual attention, hypotonia, and hyperreflexia. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed an invariant burst suppression with multifocal spikes, ictal episodes with bicycling movements associated with buildups of rhythmic activity, and epileptic spasms...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Epilepsy
Wilhelm Maximilian Hützler, Ernst Egert, Michael Bolte
A path to new synthons for application in crystal engineering is the replacement of a strong hydrogen-bond acceptor, like a C=O group, with a weaker acceptor, like a C=S group, in doubly or triply hydrogen-bonded synthons. For instance, if the C=O group at the 2-position of barbituric acid is changed into a C=S group, 2-thiobarbituric acid is obtained. Each of the compounds comprises two ADA hydrogen-bonding sites (D = donor and A = acceptor). We report the results of cocrystallization experiments of barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid, respectively, with 2,4-diaminopyrimidine, which contains a complementary DAD hydrogen-bonding site and is therefore capable of forming an ADA/DAD synthon with barbituric acid and 2-thiobarbituric acid...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Nadia Roumeliotis, Christian Dong, Géraldine Pettersen, Louis Crevier, Guillaume Emeriaud
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study are to describe the use of hyperosmolar therapy in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine its effect on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). DESIGN: A retrospective review of patients with severe TBI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ICP monitoring and administration of a hyperosmolar agent (20 % mannitol or 3 % hypertonic saline) within 48 h of PICU admission; for which dose and timing were recorded...
August 27, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Kanako Ichikura, Yasuyuki Okumura, Takashi Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Some patients with deliberate drug poisoning subsequently have an adverse clinical course. The present study aimed to examine whether the type of drugs ingested and psychiatric diagnoses were related to an adverse clinical course. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of patients with deliberate drug poisoning admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital located in Tokyo, Japan, between September 2006 and June 2013. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay of ≥4 days was used as a primary outcome measure, while the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis was used as a secondary outcome measure...
2016: PloS One
Roger L Bertholf, Rohit Sharma, Gary M Reisfield
Urine drug testing (UDT) has become an essential component in the management of patients prescribed opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. Several laboratory methods are available to monitor adherence with the pharmacological regimen and abstinence from illicit or unauthorized medications. Immunochemical screening methods are rapid and economical, but they have limitations, including lack of specificity, and confirmatory methods are often necessary to verify presumptive positive results...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Refat Abdel-Hamid, Emad F Newair
A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Vincent Cheng, Kenji Inaba, Megan Johnson, Saskya Byerly, Yue Jiang, Kazuhide Matsushima, Tobias Haltmeier, Elizabeth Benjamin, Lydia Lam, Demetrios Demetriades
BACKGROUND: A disproportionately high percentage of trauma patients use controlled substances, and they often co-ingest multiple drugs. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of individual drugs on clinical outcomes following trauma. However, the impact of all drugs included in a comprehensive screening panel has not yet been compared in a single cohort of patients. METHODS: All trauma patients who underwent urine drug screens following admission to the LAC+USC Medical Center (01/2008-06/2015) were identified retrospectively...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Oluwole Aremu, Kaalin Gopaul, Pramod Nanasaheb Kadam, Moganavelli Singh, Chunderika Mocktar, Parvesh Singh, Neil Anthony Koorbanally
BACKGROUND: Pyrimidines have widespread activity and have shown potent antibacterial and anticancer activity. OBJECTIVE: To synthesise a range of pyrimidine diones and test them for the antibacterial and anticancer activity. METHOD: The pyrano pyrimidin-2,4-dione derivatives (1-7) were synthesized in a one-pot reaction by reacting malononitrile and barbituric acid with several aromatic aldehydes in the presence of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) in aqueous medium...
August 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Arcadius V Krivoshein
The antiepileptic activity of α-substituted acetamides, lactams, and cyclic imides has been known for over six decades. We recently proposed an α-substituted amide group as the minimum pharmacophore responsible for inhibition of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by these compounds, with the implication that inhibition of these receptors in the brain might be the unifying mechanism of action for these classes of antiepileptic drugs. In order to realize the pharmacological potential of these orally administered drugs, their relevant aspects of solid-state chemistry and pharmaceutics (including solubility and stability) needs to be addressed...
July 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
T K Cooper, J W Griffith, Z C Chroneos, J M Izer, L B Willing, X Peng
Spontaneous age-related lesions of laboratory rabbits are not well documented in the contemporary scientific literature. A retrospective study of diagnostic necropsies of 36 rabbits >2 years of age found a number of common lung lesions. Fibromuscular intimal hyperplasia affected medium and to a lesser extent large pulmonary arteries and was present to a variable extent in all 36 rabbits >2 years of age. The lesions were characterized by fragmentation and/or reduplication of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), proliferation of smoothelin+/alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+/vimentin- smooth muscle cells and fewer smoothelin-/α-SMA+/vimentin+ myofibroblasts, and intimal deposition of collagen without thrombosis, embolism, or evidence of pulmonary hypertension...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Barton Bobb
Palliative sedation has become a standard practice to treat refractory symptoms at end-of-life. Dyspnea and delirium are the two most commonly treated symptoms. The medications used in palliative sedation are usually benzodiazepines, barbiturates, antipsychotics, and/or anesthetics. Some ethical considerations remain, especially surrounding the use of palliative sedation in psychological distress and existential suffering.
September 2016: Nursing Clinics of North America
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