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Arturo Chieregato, Alessandra Venditto, Emanuele Russo, Costanza Martino, Giovanni Bini
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and acute traumatic subdural hematoma (aSDH) admitted to the emergency room with bilaterally dilated, unreactive pupils (bilateral mydriasis) is notoriously poor. METHODS: Of 2074 TBI patients consecutively admitted to our facility between 1997 and 2012, 115 had a first CT scan with aSDH, unreactive bilateral mydriasis, and a Glasgow Coma Score of 3 or 4. Sixty-two patients were unoperated and died within hours or a few days...
April 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Atefeh Mousavi Nik, Brandon Pressly, Vikrant Singh, Shane Antrobus, Susan Hulsizer, Michael A Rogawski, Heike Wulff, Isaac N Pessah
Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR®) membrane potential dye (FMP-Red-Dye) is a proprietary tool for basic discovery and high throughput drug screening for G-protein coupled receptors and ion channels. We optimized and validated this potentiometric probe to assay functional modulators of heterologous expressed GABAA receptor (GABAAR) isoforms (synaptic α1β3γ2, extrasynaptic α4β3δ, and β3 homopentomers). High-resolution mass spectrometry identified FMP-Red-dye as DisSBAC1(3). GABAAR expressing cells equilibrated with FMP-Red-Dye exhibited depolarized equilibrium membrane (Em) potentials compared to GABAAR-null cells...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
Huan-Ming Huang, Pablo Bonilla, David J Procter
Radical-radical cyclisation cascades, triggered by single-electron-transfer to amide-type carbonyls using SmI2-H2O-LiBr, result in the selective construction of quaternary carbon stereocentres. The cascades deliver tricyclic barbiturates with four stereocentres in good yield and with excellent diastereocontrol.
April 20, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
G Olayemi, M Oferczak, A Elagizi, I El-Abbassi, M Eschete, J Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Gonorrhea is the 2nd most common sexually transmitted disease in the US with 800,000 cases of gonorrhea each year. Disseminated gonorrhea infection occurs in 0.5 percent - 3 percent of these patients and is more frequent in woman younger than 40 years of age. CASE: A 36 year old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse presented with 10 day history of feeling generally unwell. At presentation, vitals were remarkable for tachycardia and hypotension...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Yu V Slustovskaya, M V Krys'ko, O Yu Strelova
The objective of the present study was to develop and validate the method for the extraction of toxic substances from the hair samples as exemplified by enzymatic hydrolysis of barbituric acid derivatives. The experiments were carried out with the use of laboratory animals (white female rats and albino guinea pigs) that had been daily given a phenobarbital solution per os during 4 months preceding the study. The hairs obtained from the experimental animals were subjected to acid hydrolysis with a 6 mole hydrochloric acid and enzymatic hydrolysis with the use of chymopsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain solutions...
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
A V Kirichek, A E Shabalina, L A Rassinskaya
Thus article was designed to report a few cases of the identification of barbituric acid derivatives in the old blood stains on the clothes and other textiles. The data presented give evidence that barbiturates are capable of persisting in dry blood stains during rather a long period. The authors emphasize the necessity of mandatory control investigations to avoid obtaining the false positive results.
2017: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Ying Liu, Cornelius E Uboh, Xiaoqing Li, Fuyu Guan, Youwen You, George A Maylin, Fengchang Zhu, Lawrence R Soma
A rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous screening, quantification and confirmation of 17 barbiturates in horse plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described. Analytes were recovered from plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using methyl tert-butyl ether, separated on a C18 column, and analyzed in negative electrospray ionization mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for screening and quantification. Confirmation for the presence of the analytes was achieved by comparing ion intensity ratio...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Alexander McGirr, Marcelo T Berlim, David J Bond, Peter Y Chan, Lakshmi N Yatham, Raymond W Lam
BackgroundKetamine has emerged as a novel therapeutic agent for major depressive episodes, spurring interest in its potential to augment electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).AimsWe sought to update our preliminary systematic review and meta-analysis, focusing on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving an index course of ECT, and testing the hypothesis that lack of efficacy is due to barbiturate anaesthetic co-administration.MethodWe searched EMBASE, CENTRAL and Medline to identify RCTs examining the efficacy of ketamine during a course of ECT...
April 6, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Talia Miron, Meir Wilchek
A colorimetric method for determining cyanuric chloride (CC) and for monitoring its polysaccharide gel activation, before and after ligand binding, was developed. The method is based on the reaction of CC or its activated gel with pyridine and barbituric acid or dimethylbarbituric acid. The product formed yields a purple red color with λ max at 595 nm, and an EM value of approximately 300,000 after 1 h at room temperature. Due to its high sensitivity, this method can detect traces of CC (1 μM) under the above conditions...
April 1, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Michael Rombola, Chintan S Sumaria, Thomas D Montgomery, Viresh H Rawal
We report a general method for the synthesis of chiral thiosquaramides, a class of bifunctional catalysts not previously described in the literature. Thiosquaramides are found to be more acidic and significantly more soluble in nonpolar solvents than their oxosquaramide counterparts, and they are excellent catalysts for the unreported, enantioselective conjugate addition reaction of the barbituric acid pharmacaphore to nitroalkenes, delivering the chiral barbiturate derivatives in high yields and high enantioselectivities, even with catalyst loadings as low as 0...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Alexander A Ishchenko, Andrii V Kulinich
Spectral-fluorescent properties of a series of merocyanine dyes comprising the barbituric acid residue as the electron-accepting terminal group are investigated in comparison with those of their N,N-methylated analogues in media of various polarity. It is revealed that in polar aprotic solvents the electronic absorption spectra of the studied compounds are influenced dramatically by the formation of hydrogen bonds between the NH-groups of barbituric residue and solvent molecules. An effect of such nucleophilic solvation on the electronic structure of the studied dyes is analysed using both the spectral data obtained and the DFT/B3LYP quantum chemical simulation...
July 12, 2016: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Nicholas E Jones, Michael S Kelleman, Harold K Simon, Jana A Stockwell, Courtney McCracken, Michael D Mallory, Pradip P Kamat
BACKGROUND: Propofol is a preferred agent for many pediatric sedation providers because of its rapid onset and short duration of action. It allows for quick turn around times and enhanced throughput. Occasionally, intravenous (IV) methohexital (MHX), an ultra-short acting barbiturate is utilized instead of propofol. OBJECTIVE: Describe the experience with MHX in a primarily propofol driven outpatient sedation program and to see if it serves as an acceptable alternative when propofol is not the preferred pharmacologic option...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sarah Sonnay, João M N Duarte, Nathalie Just, Rolf Gruetter
Barbiturates, commonly used as general anaesthetics, depress neuronal activity and thus cerebral metabolism. Moreover, they are likely to disrupt the metabolic support of astrocytes to neurons, as well as the uptake of nutrients from circulation. By employing (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in vivo at high magnetic field, we characterized neuronal and astrocytic pathways of energy metabolism in the rat cortex under thiopental anaesthesia. The neuronal tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate was 0.46 ± 0...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Jennifer M Colby
OBJECTIVES: Drug screening in neonates is traditionally performed using meconium, but cord tissue has been proposed as an alternative specimen. This study compares the detection of drugs in a large number of paired meconium and umbilical cord tissue samples from subjects at risk of in utero drug exposure. DESIGN AND METHODS: Physician-ordered toxicology results and clinical information were collected in a retrospective review of subject medical records. All toxicology testing was performed by a national reference laboratory using a combination of immunoassays and chromatography-mass spectrometry...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
Bing O'Dowd, Sarah Williams, Hongxin Wang, Joo Hwan No, Guodong Rao, Weixue Wang, J Andrew McCammon, Stephen P Cramer, Eric Oldfield
Isoprenoid biosynthesis is an important area for anti-infective drug development. One isoprenoid target is (E)-1-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl 4-diphosphate (HMBPP) reductase (IspH), which forms isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate from HMBPP in a 2H(+) /2e(-) reduction. IspH contains a 4 Fe-4 S cluster, and in this work, we first investigated how small molecules bound to the cluster by using HYSCORE and NRVS spectroscopies. The results of these, as well as other structural and spectroscopic investigations, led to the conclusion that, in most cases, ligands bound to IspH 4 Fe-4 S clusters by η(1) coordination, forming tetrahedral geometries at the unique fourth Fe, ligand side chains preventing further ligand (e...
March 2, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Yasuyuki Okumura, Nobuo Sakata, Kunihiko Takahashi, Daisuke Nishi, Hisateru Tachimori
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nationwide epidemiology of the annual rate, causative substance, and clinical course of overdose-related admission. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of overdose episodes from the period prior to hospitalization for drug poisoning until discharge to home. METHODS: We assessed all cases of admission due to overdose (21,663 episodes) in Japan from October 2012 through September 2013 using the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
Divyabharathi Chepyala, I-Lin Tsai, Hsiao-Wei Liao, Guan-Yuan Chen, Hsi-Chun Chao, Ching-Hua Kuo
An increased rate of drug abuse is a major social problem worldwide. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique offers many advantages over using urine or whole blood sampling techniques. This study developed a simple and efficient ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) method for the analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites using DBS. Fifty-seven compounds covering the most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the target analytes of this study...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Edoardo Picetti, Maria Luisa Caspani, Corrado Iaccarino, Giulia Pastorello, Pierpaolo Salsi, Edoardo Viaroli, Franco Servadei
BACKGROUND: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring represents an important tool in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although current information exists regarding ICP monitoring in secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC), little is known after primary DC following emergency hematoma evacuation. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years and admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) for TBI and ICP monitoring after primary DC...
April 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Thomas S Peat, Sahil Balotra, Matthew Wilding, Carol J Hartley, Janet Newman, Colin Scott
The Toblerone fold was discovered recently when the first structure of the cyclic amide hydrolase, AtzD (a cyanuric acid hydrolase), was elucidated. We surveyed the cyclic amide hydrolase family, finding a strong correlation between phylogenetic distribution and specificity for either cyanuric acid or barbituric acid. One of six classes (IV) could not be tested due to a lack of expression of the proteins from it, and another class (V) had neither cyanuric acid nor barbituric acid hydrolase activity. High-resolution X-ray structures were obtained for a class VI barbituric acid hydrolase (1...
May 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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