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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081564/african-non-human-primates-host-diverse-enteroviruses
#1
Illich Manfred Mombo, Alexander N Lukashev, Tobias Bleicker, Sebastian Brünink, Nicolas Berthet, Gael D Maganga, Patrick Durand, Céline Arnathau, Larson Boundenga, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Vanina Boué, Florian Liégeois, Benjamin Ollomo, Franck Prugnolle, Jan Felix Drexler, Christian Drosten, François Renaud, Virginie Rougeron, Eric Leroy
Enteroviruses (EVs) belong to the family Picornaviridae and are responsible for mild to severe diseases in mammals including humans and non-human primates (NHP). Simian EVs were first discovered in the 1950s in the Old World Monkeys and recently in wild chimpanzee, gorilla and mandrill in Cameroon. In the present study, we screened by PCR EVs in 600 fecal samples of wild apes and monkeys that were collected at four sites in Gabon. A total of 32 samples were positive for EVs (25 from mandrills, 7 from chimpanzees, none from gorillas)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077584/2-year-efficacy-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-vigoo-enterovirus-71-vaccine-in-healthy-chinese-children-a-randomized-open-label-study
#2
Mingwei Wei, Fanyue Meng, Shiyuan Wang, Jingxin Li, Yuntao Zhang, Qunying Mao, Yuemei Hu, Pei Liu, Nianmin Shi, Hong Tao, Kai Chu, Yuxiao Wang, Zhenglun Liang, Xiuling Li, Fengcai Zhu
BACKGROUND:  This study evaluated the 2-year efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the Vigoo enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine. METHOD:  In an initial phase 3 study, we randomly assigned healthy infants and children aged 6-35 months (ratio, 1:1) to receive 2 doses of either EV71 vaccine (5120 participants) or placebo (5125 participants) at days 0 and 28, and followed them for 12 months after vaccination. In this extended follow-up study, we continued to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the EV71 vaccine for up to 2 years...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077283/aetiology-of-febrile-pharyngitis-in-children-potential-of-myxovirus-resistance-protein-a-mxa-as-a-biomarker-of-viral-infection
#3
Lauri Ivaska, Jussi Niemelä, Johanna Lempainen, Riikka Österback, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen, Jukka Hytönen, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Ville Peltola
OBJECTIVES: Besides group A streptococcus (GAS), microbial causes of pharyngitis in children are not well known. We aimed to document the viral and bacterial aetiology of pharyngitis and to assess the pathogenic role of viruses by determining the myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) in the blood as a marker of interferon response. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, throat swabs and blood samples were collected from children (age 1-16 years) presenting to the emergency department with febrile pharyngitis...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073399/enterovirus-71-induces-apoptosis-by-directly-modulating-the-conformational-activation-of-pro-apoptotic-protein-bax
#4
Xiaodong Han, Haolong Cong
Enterovirus 71 (EVA71), a virus of the genus enterovirus in the picornaviridae family, is one of the main causative agents of foot, hand and mouth disease in infected infants and young children. In this study, we report that cells with EVA71 infection exhibit increased levels of cytochrome c release and Caspase-3 activation. EVA71 infection induces the conformational activation of pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and the subsequent formation of oligomers of Bax in mitochondria. Inhibitors that block Caspase-8 activation cannot inhibit apoptosis induced by EVA71 infection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071799/seroepidemiological-and-phylogenetic-characterisation-of-neurotropic-enteroviruses-in-ireland-2005-2014
#5
Jorge Abboud Guerra, Allison Waters, Alison Kelly, Ursula Morley, Paul O'Reilly, Edwin O'Kelly, Jonathan Dean, Robert Cunney, Piaras O'Lorcain, Suzanne Cotter, Jeff Connell, Joanne O'Gorman, William W Hall, Michael Carr, Cillian F De Gascun
Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070615/detection-of-enteroviruses-in-stools-precedes-islet-autoimmunity-by-several-months-possible-evidence-for-slowly-operating-mechanisms-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity
#6
Hanna Honkanen, Sami Oikarinen, Noora Nurminen, Olli H Laitinen, Heini Huhtala, Jussi Lehtonen, Tanja Ruokoranta, Minna M Hankaniemi, Valérie Lecouturier, Jeffrey W Almond, Sisko Tauriainen, Olli Simell, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Hanna Viskari, Mikael Knip, Heikki Hyöty
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This case-control study was nested in a prospective birth cohort to evaluate whether the presence of enteroviruses in stools was associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. METHODS: Altogether, 1673 longitudinal stool samples from 129 case children who turned positive for multiple islet autoantibodies and 3108 stool samples from 282 matched control children were screened for the presence of enterovirus RNA using RT-PCR...
January 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064293/epidemiological-and-clinical-features-of-enteroviral-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hospitalized-paediatric-patients-in-a-malaysian-tertiary-center
#7
J W Y Tan, R Nuryasmin, Y Apandi, V Nethiya, H Hussin, A L Zuraidah
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) have been recognized to cause a significant number of respiratory tract infections in many regions. Previous studies conducted to analyse enteroviral respiratory tract infections focused on outbreaks. Data in the Southeast Asian region is still rather limited to date. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective analysis to understand the epidemiological characteristics of enteroviral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among paediatric patients admitted to Hospital Ampang, a tertiary hospital in Malaysia...
October 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063993/inhibition-of-enterovirus-71-replication-by-an-%C3%AE-hydroxy-nitrile-derivative-nk-1-9k
#8
Yaxin Wang, Lin Cao, Yangyang Zhai, Jiaming Ma, Quandeng Nie, Ting Li, Zheng Yin, Yuna Sun, Luqing Shang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of human hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. EV71 infection in young children and people with immunodeficiency causes severe symptoms with a high fatality rates. However, there is still no approved drugs to treat such infections. Based on our previous report of a peptide-aldehyde anti-EV71 protease, we present here a highly specific α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k, which inhibited the proliferation of multiple EV71 strains and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) in various cells with EC50 of 37...
January 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060938/ev71-3d-protein-binds-with-nlrp3-and-enhances-the-assembly-of-inflammasome-complex
#9
Wenbiao Wang, Feng Xiao, Pin Wan, Pan Pan, Yecheng Zhang, Fang Liu, Kailang Wu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu
Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome is important for effective host defense against invading pathogen. Together with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD domain (ASC), NLRP3 induces the cleavage of caspase-1 to facilitate the maturation of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), an important pro-inflammatory cytokine. IL-1β subsequently plays critical roles in inflammatory responses by activating immune cells and inducing many secondary pro-inflammatory cytokines. Although the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in immune response is well defined, the mechanism underlying its assembly modulated by pathogen infection remains largely unknown...
January 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056277/-direct-medical-costs-and-influencing-factors-in-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-children-aged-between-six-months-and-five-years-old
#10
Y M Zheng, J Yang, Q H Liao
Objective: To estimate the direct medical cost of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in patients aged less than five years. Methods: A stratified sampling method was used to collect data on severe HFMD cases reported in the National HFMD surveillance database between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013. The sampling was referenced with the national aetiologic distribution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and other Enteroviruses (OEV) for severe HFMD cases and the included cases were distributed among seven geographic regions (Northeast, North China, Northwest, Central China, Southwest, East China and South China)...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053847/evaluation-of-antiviral-activity-of-zanthoxylum-species-against-picornaviruses
#11
Hwa-Jung Choi
Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) infect millions of people worldwide each year, but little is known about effective therapeutical treatment for the infection caused by these viruses. We sought to determine whether or not Zanthoxylum (Rutaceae) species can exhibit antiviral activity against picornaviruses. The leaf parts of four Zanthoxylum species were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were investigated for their antiviral activity against picornaviruses using cytopathic effects by cytopathic effect reduction...
December 2016: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050469/interference-of-vaccine-derived-polio-viruses-with-diagnosis-of-enteroviral-diseases-in-neonatal-period
#12
Mohammad Saeed Sasan, Alireza Ataei Nakhaei, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan
INTRODUCTION: Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of neonatal sepsis especially at the junction of summer and fall. AIM: This study was planned to find the frequency of Enteroviral (EV) sepsis among neonates with clinical sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective descriptive study. Rectal and pharyngeal swab samples were taken from all neonates with clinical sepsis and a control group of neonates with simple jaundice. EV was confirmed by both cell culture and RT-PCR...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042848/epidemiologic-features-of-enterovirus-71-associated-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-from-2009-to-2013-in-zhejiang-china
#13
Zhifang Wang, Huakun Lv, Wenming Zhu, Zhe Mo, Guangming Mao, Xiaofeng Wang, Xiaoming Lou, Yongdi Chen
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) usually causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) with severe clinical symptoms and even deaths in China. There is no efficient antiviral drug to protect against severe EV71-associated HFMD, making the development of EV71 vaccines therefore a priority. However, the potential target subject population(s) to be immunized with EV71 vaccine are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the epidemiology regarding EV71-associated HFMD on the basis of provincial-level surveillance...
December 30, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039136/laboratory-surveillance-of-polio-and-other-enteroviruses-in-high-risk-populations-and-environmental-samples
#14
Vasiliki Pogka, Stavroula Labropoulou, Mary Emmanouil, Androniki Voulgari-Kokota, Alexandra Vernardaki, Theano Georgakopoulou, Andreas F Mentis
: In the context of poliomyelitis eradication, a reinforced supplementary laboratory surveillance of enteroviruses was implemented in Greece. From 2008 to 2014, the Hellenic Polioviruses/Enteroviruses Reference Laboratory performed detailed supplementary surveillance of circulating enteroviruses among healthy individuals in high-risk population groups, among immigrants from poliovirus endemic countries as well as in environmental samples. In total, 722 stool samples and 179 sewage water samples were included in the study...
December 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038763/removal-of-human-pathogenic-viruses-in-a-down-flow-hanging-sponge-dhs-reactor-treating-municipal-wastewater-and-health-risks-associated-with-utilization-of-the-effluent-for-agricultural-irrigation
#15
Naohiro Kobayashi, Mamoru Oshiki, Toshihiro Ito, Takahiro Segawa, Masashi Hatamoto, Tsuyoshi Kato, Takashi Yamaguchi, Kengo Kubota, Masanobu Takahashi, Akinori Iguchi, Tadashi Tagawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Shigeki Uemura, Hideki Harada, Toshiki Motoyama, Nobuo Araki, Daisuke Sano
A down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor has been developed as a cost-effective wastewater treatment system that is adaptable to local conditions in low-income countries. A pilot-scale DHS reactor previously demonstrated stable reduction efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium nitrogen over a year at ambient temperature, but the pathogen reduction efficiency of the DHS reactor has yet to be investigated. In the present study, the reduction efficiency of a pilot-scale DHS reactor fed with municipal wastewater was investigated for 10 types of human pathogenic viruses (norovirus GI, GII and GIV, aichivirus, astrovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A and E viruses, rotavirus, and sapovirus)...
October 22, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031446/reply-to-universal-pcr-primers-are-critical-for-direct-sequencing-based-enterovirus-genotyping
#16
Coretta C Van Leer-Buter, Randy Poelman, Renze Borger, Hubert G M Niesters
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030926/prevalence-of-rotavirus-adenovirus-hepatitis-a-virus-and-enterovirus-in-water-samples-collected-from-different-region-of-peshawar-pakistan
#17
Tahir Ahmad, Najma Arshad, Fazal Adnan, Najam-Us-Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Muhammad Talha Shahid, Usman Zahoor, Muhammad S Afzal, Sadia Anjum
Viral gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases are the most neglected areas of research in Pakistan. To determine the quality of water, 4 enteric viruses were studied from different localities of Peshawar, Pakistan. The study validates the viral detection method for Rotavirus (RV), Human adenovirus (HAdV), Enterovirus (EV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV), directly from water sources of rural areas of Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan. Overall, 95 five water samples were tested; among them, 9.47% were positive for RV, 38...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030850/changes-of-circulating-th22-cells-in-children-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-caused-by-enterovirus-71-infection
#18
Dawei Cui, Fengyun Zhong, Jie Lin, Yidong Wu, Quan Long, Xianzhi Yang, Qiaoyun Zhu, Li Huang, Qifen Mao, Zhaoxia Huo, Zhe Zhou, Guoliang Xie, Shufa Zheng, Fei Yu, Yu Chen
Interleukin (IL)-22+CD4+T (Th22) cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases, although the role of Th22 cells remains largely unclear in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71). This study aims to explore the role of circulating IL-22+IL-17A-CD4+T (cTh22) cells in children with EV71-associated HFMD. We found that during the acute stage of illness, the frequencies of cTh22 and circulating IL-22+IL-17A+CD4+T (IL-22+cTh17) cells in CD4+T cells infrom affected patients, and especially in severely affected patients, were significantly higher than in healthy controls (HC)...
December 21, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030650/two-genotypes-of-coxsackievirus-a2-associated-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-circulating-in-china-since-2008
#19
Qian Yang, Yong Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Xiaolei Li, Yang Song, Xinrui Gu, Wenbo Xu
Coxsackievirus A2 (CV-A2) has been frequently detected and commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China since 2008. However, limited sequences of CV-A2 are currently available. As a result, we have been focusing on the genetic characteristics of CV-A2 in the mainland of China during 2008-2015 based on national HFMD surveillance. In this study, 20 CV-A2 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CV-A2 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028115/epidemiologic-analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-mainly-in-hospitalized-children-and-adults-in-a-midwest-university-medical-center-after-the-implementation-of-a-14-virus-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-test
#20
Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections mainly in hospitalized children and adults over a 12-month consecutive period after implementation of a 14-virus multiplex nucleic acid amplification test. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, a total of 2,237 respiratory samples were analyzed with the US Food and Drug Administration-cleared eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel (GenMark Diagnostics, Carlsbad, CA). RESULTS: Of the 2,237 specimens tested, 788 specimens were positive for at least one virus, giving a positivity rate of 35...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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