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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757583/what-immunological-defects-predispose-to-non-tuberculosis-mycobacterial-infections
#1
Esmaeil Mortaz, Milad Moloudizargari, Mohammad Varahram, Mehrnaz Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Mehdi Kazempour Dizagie, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Ian M Adcock
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the only consequences of being infected by NTM as they can also infect skin and soft tissue and may also cause lymphadenitis (predominantly in young children) and disseminated disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients or those with severely compromised immune system...
April 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756005/peripheral-lymph-node-excisional-biopsy-yield-relevance-and-outcomes-in-a-remote-surgical-setup
#2
Ashish Lal Shrestha, Pradita Shrestha
Objective: To study the patient profile for symptomatic peripheral lymphadenopathy in terms of histopathological findings and demography and evaluate the yield, relevance, and outcomes of peripheral lymph node biopsy (PLNB) as a diagnostic step in a remote setup in the absence of less invasive options like fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or ultrasonogram- (USG-) guided FNAC. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing PLNB between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2013 was done...
2018: Surgery Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742144/mpt64-antigen-detection-test-improves-routine-diagnosis-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-low-resource-setting-a-study-from-the-tertiary-care-hospital-in-zanzibar
#3
Melissa Davidsen Jørstad, Msafiri Marijani, Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise, Lisbet Sviland, Tehmina Mustafa
BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is a diagnostic challenge. An immunochemistry-based MPT64 antigen detection test (MPT64 test) has reported higher sensitivity in the diagnosis of EPTB compared with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate the MPT64 test in routine diagnostics in a low-resource setting. METHODS: Patients with presumptive EPTB were prospectively enrolled at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital, Zanzibar, and followed to the end of treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742052/clinical-and-drug-resistance-characteristics-of-new-pediatric-tuberculosis-cases-in-northern-china
#4
Ting Wang, Fang Dong, Qin-Jing Li, Qing-Qin Yin, Wen-Qi Song, Igor Mokrousov, Wei-Wei Jiao, A-Dong Shen
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and characteristics of drug resistance in newly diagnosed pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients in northern China. METHODS: Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from September 2010 to October 2016 at the Beijing Children's Hospital. Patients were divided into two groups (resistant to at least one drug and pan-susceptible) according to drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. RESULTS: A total of 132 new cases, mainly from northern China (87...
May 9, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675262/genotyping-and-molecular-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-among-tuberculosis-lymphadenitis-cases-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#5
O Zewdie, A Mihret, T Abebe, A Kebede, K Desta, A Worku, G Ameni
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major public health problem. Drug-resistance surveillance data show that 3.9% of new and 21% of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have had rifampicin/ multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) in 2015. This implies that the MDR-TB is increasing alarmingly. Hence, a better understanding of drug resistance mechanisms and genotypes associated with multidrug resistance in M. tuberculosis is crucial for improving diagnostic and therapeutic methods to treat individuals with MDR-TB...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545423/disseminated-tuberculous-lymphadenitis-presenting-as-cervical-mass-in-patient-with-hiv-infection-worsening-after-antiretroviral-initiation-diagnosis-and-treatment-challenges
#6
Alain Bruno Tagne Nouemssi
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to represent an important public health challenge in the world and the USA, especially given its association with HIV infection and population migration. Cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis represents the most common extrapulmonary presentation of TB in the USA. Considerations for other causes of neck mass often contribute to delay in diagnosis. In this report, we describe the case of a 41-year-old man who presented with painful swelling of the neck and was diagnosed with tuberculous lymphadenitis, complicated by HIV therapy-associated immune reconstitution syndrome...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402607/conservative-treatment-for-cutaneous-fistula-resulted-from-abscess-formation-in-patients-with-tuberculous-cervical-lymphadenitis
#7
Bo Hae Kim, Yung Jin Jeon, Young Ju Jin, Woo-Jin Jeong, Sung Joon Park, Soon-Hyun Ahn
OBJECTIVE: This study describes the clinical characteristics and course of conservative treatment using anti-Tb medication and dressing in patients with tuberculous cervical fistula resulting from abscess formation, and to investigate factors prognostic of dressing and treatment duration. METHODS: The medical records of patients with tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis were reviewed, and 38 of these patients who presented with cutaneous fistula that resulted from abscess formation were included in the study...
February 2, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398862/tuberculous-gingival-enlargement-a-rare-clinical-manifestation
#8
Maria Subash Aaron Muthuraj, Arun Parappa Maradi, Srihari Janakiram, Koshy Chithresan
Tuberculosis (TB) is an inflammatory granulomatous disease that rarely presents as primary lesion in gingiva. Gingival involvement has been reported in only a very limited number of cases. A 13-year-old boy presented with gingival enlargement in the maxillary and mandibular anterior region associated with enlargement of lower lip with no systemic manifestations. He had a history of tuberculous lymphadenitis before 5 years which was inadequately treated. The patient's erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 70 mm/h...
March 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332654/evaluation-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-a-pilot-study
#9
Baijayantimala Mishra, Vinaykumar Hallur, Bijayini Behera, C Preetam, Priti Nanda Mishra, Jyotirmayee Turuk, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLA) contributes to 30-40% of extrapulmonary TB cases in the immunocompetent individuals and 40-50% in people with HIV. Current diagnostic methods for TBLA like Gene-Xpert or PCR are costly and conventional methods like fine needle aspiration cytology, histopathology lack sensitivity and specificity. Culture which is considered as gold standard require high turnaround time. Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay has been developed as a novel technique for nucleic acid amplification and has shown promising results in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327734/clinical-study-of-extrapulmonary-head-and-neck-tuberculosis-in-an-urban-setting
#10
S Monga, J N Malik, S Jan, S Bahadur, S Jetley, H Kaur
Tuberculosis (TB) of the head and neck region is quite common in endemic countries, but is still misdiagnosed due to its varied presentation and different sites of involvement. The aims of the present study were to present the diversities of presentation of head and neck tuberculosis with the diagnostic predicaments faced during evaluation and to assess treatment response to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). We analysed 48 patients with head and neck tuberculosis who presented to the Department of Otorhinolaryngology in our tertiary care urban hospital over a period of two years from 2013 to 2015 and recorded their data, which included presenting complaints, local and systemic examination findings, investigation results and treatment outcomes...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179883/shifting-trend-of-tubercular-lymphadenitis-over-a-decade-a-study-from-eastern-region-of-india
#11
Senjuti Dasgupta, Sudipta Chakrabarti, Supriya Sarkar
BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is changing in India. The commonest extra pulmonary manifestation of TB is tuberculous lymphadenitis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To detect changes in occurrence of TB lymphadenitis by comparing current data with that from 10 years back. METHODS: Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) findings of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy between January 2014 and December 2015 were included in the study as current data...
October 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044084/infectious-chorioretinitis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#12
Sudha K Ganesh, B Sowkath Ali, H N Madhavan
A 44-year-old male presented with a history of defective vision in the right eye for the past 5 months with the previous history of tubercular cervical lymphadenitis. On examination, right eye revealed panuveitis with dense vitritis and chorioretinitis in the superotemporal quadrant. His Mantoux test was positive (25 mm × 25 mm induration), QuantiFERON-TB Gold was test positive, aqueous aspirate was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, negative for viruses and toxoplasma, and hence he was initiated on four-drug antitubercular therapy (ATT) with oral steroids...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954754/multimodality-cardiac-imaging-of-submitral-left-ventricular-aneurysm-with-concurrent-descending-aorta-mycotic-aneurysm
#13
Hazrini Abdullah, Kam Jiyen, Norliza Othman
We present a case of a 20-year-old Malay man with underlying tuberculous (TB) lymphadenitis who presented with shortness of breath and found to have submitral left ventricular aneurysm (SLVA). SLVA is well recognised but rare. Incidence of SLVA in Malay has never been documented. This is the first reported case of SLVA in Malays with concomitant thoracic aorta mycotic aneurysm. TB has been reported to be associated with SLVA. Treatment is either surgical or conservative. Imaging is required for diagnosis and preoperative assessment...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946148/assessment-of-clinically-suspected-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-by-real-time-pcr-compared-to-non-molecular-methods-on-lymph-node-aspirates
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN) is challenging. This study assesses the role of diagnostic intervention with real-time PCR in clinically suspected tubercular lymphadenopathy in relation to cytology and microbiological methods. METHODS: The cross-sectional study involved 214 patients, and PCR, cytology, and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was performed on aspirates. The findings were compared with culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium. The overall concordance of cytology and PCR, both individually and combined, was calculated...
2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776534/recovery-of-mycobacterium-lentiflavum-from-bronchial-lavage-during-follow-up-of-an-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-patient
#15
Esther Vise, Michael Mawlong, Akshay Garg, Arnab Sen, Ingudam Shakuntala, Samir Das
Initially diagnosed with cervical lymphadenitis, a 15-year-old boy was started with category I anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Follow-up investigations led to isolation and identification of Mycobacterium lentiflavum by multiple diagnostic and identification approaches. Observation of this rare pathogen from human origin urges cautious diagnosis while attending TB cases.
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709488/endobronchial-ultrasound-experience-in-a-high-tuberculosis-prevalence-setting
#16
Balamugesh Thangakunam, Barney Thomas Jesudason Isaac, Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher
BACKGROUND: Most of the published endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) data are from the western countries, establishing the role of EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. The etiology of mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be different in an ethnic group with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). OBJECTIVE: To assess the etiology of mediastinal adenopathy in a high TB prevalence setting and to determine the performance of various tests in the diagnosis of tuberculous mediastinal lymphadenitis...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705265/comparison-of-histological-microbiological-and-molecular-methods-in-diagnosis-of-patients-with-tbln-having-different-anti-tb-treatment-background
#17
Nan Ying Che, Shao Jun Huang, Yan Ma, Yi Han, Zi Chen Liu, Chen Zhang, Jing Mu, Dan Zhao, Yang Qu, Hai Qing Zhang, Zhi Dong Liu, Shao Fa Xu
OBJECTIVE: The influence of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment history on tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) diagnosis is unclear. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the diagnostic methods, including histology, microbiology, and molecular tests, used for TBLN. METHODS: In this study, suspected patients with TBLN and having different anti-TB treatment background were enrolled. All the samples were tested simultaneously by histology, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, mycobacterial culture (culture), Xpert MTB/RIF (xpert), real-time PCR, and high-resolution melting curve PCR (HRM)...
June 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607892/manifestations-of-tuberculosis-in-otorhinolaryngology-practice-a-retrospective-study-conducted-in-a-coastal-city-of-south-india
#18
Rithika Sriram, Kiran M Bhojwani
Tuberculosis (TB) of the head and neck has proved to be a diagnostic challenge for otorhinolarynologists around the world and is often misdiagnosed as cancer. To contribute to a better understanding of TB in the head and neck region by assessing its various manifestations, presentations, diagnostic techniques, risk factors, coexisting illnesses and treatment modalities. This was a retrospective study conducted over a 3 year period (2012-2014) in 2 hospitals in South India, among patients diagnosed to have TB of the head and neck...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604316/when-students-become-patients-tb-disease-among-medical-undergraduates-in-cape-town-south-africa
#19
Helene-Mari Van der Westhuizen, Angela Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Medical students acquire latent tuberculosis (TB) infection at a rate of 23 cases/100 person-years. The frequency and impact of occupational TB disease in this population are unknown. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed via email and social media to current medical students and recently graduated doctors (2010 - 2015) at two medical schools in Cape Town. Individuals who had developed TB disease as undergraduate students were eligible to participate...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475618/first-time-detection-and-identification-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex-members-in-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-clinical-samples-in-south-tunisia-by-a-single-tube-tetraplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#20
Mariam Siala, Salma Smaoui, Wafa Taktak, Salma Hachicha, Asma Ghorbel, Chema Marouane, Sana Kammoun, Dhikrayet Gamara, Leila Slim, Radhouane Gdoura, Férièle Messadi-Akrout
INTRODUCTION: Tunisia has one of the highest burdens of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among tuberculosis (TB) cases but the contribution of MTBC-mediated human EPTB is unknown. EPTB diagnosis is challenging due to the paucibacillary nature of clinical samples. Therefore, a need of a simplified molecular method for sensitive and specific TB detection and differentiation of MTBC members caused EPTB remains a priority to an early diagnosis, optimize successful anti-TB treatment and minimize transmission...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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