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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239408/the-effects-of-probiotics-on-depressive-symptoms-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Caroline J K Wallace, Roumen Milev
BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from depression experience significant mood, anxiety, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, most antidepressants work by altering neurotransmitter activity in the brain to improve these symptoms. However, in the last decade, research has revealed an extensive bidirectional communication network between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, referred to as the "gut-brain axis." Advances in this field have linked psychiatric disorders to changes in the microbiome, making it a potential target for novel antidepressant treatments...
2017: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239322/intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-infants-with-cholestasis
#2
Nagla H Abu Faddan, Tahra M K Sherif, Omnia A Mohammed, Khalid A Nasif, Ebtesam M El Gezawy
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The safety of the human body is maintained by effective monitoring of the mucosal surface integrity and protection against potentially harmful compounds. This function of the gut called intestinal barrier function can be affected by cholestasis and the absence of bile in the intestinal lumen. We aimed to determine whether the gut barrier integrity is impaired in infants with cholestasis by evaluation of the intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (I-FABP) and ileal bile acid binding protein (I-BABP) as markers of intestinal epithelial cell damage and plasma D-lactate level as a marker of gut wall permeability...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239164/adipocyte-c1qtnf5-expression-is-bmi-dependently-related-to-early-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-systemic-ctrp5-serum-levels-in-obese-children
#3
J T Schwartze, K Landgraf, U Spielau, D Rockstroh, D Löffler, J Kratzsch, W Kiess, A Körner
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The recently identified adipocytokine C1QTNF5 (encodes for CTRP5) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-metabolic insulin signaling in adipocytes. We hypothesized that adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression in subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue (AT) would correlate with the degree of obesity, systemic CTRP5 serum levels, and early AT and metabolic dysfunction in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sc AT samples were obtained from 33 healthy Caucasian lean children aged 10...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238835/hypoxia-regulates-microrna-expression-in-the-human-carotid-body
#4
Souren Mkrtchian, Kian Leong Lee, Jessica Kåhlin, Anette Ebberyd, Lorenz Poellinger, Malin Jonsson Fagerlund, Lars I Eriksson
The carotid body (CB) is the key sensing organ for physiological oxygen levels in the body. Under conditions of low oxygen (hypoxia), the CB plays crucial roles in signaling to the cardiorespiratory center in the medulla oblongata for the restoration of oxygen homeostasis. How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human CB remains poorly understood. While limited information on transcriptional regulation in animal CBs is available, the identity and impact of important post-transcriptional regulators such as non-coding RNAs, and in particular miRNAs are not known...
February 23, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238824/effect-of-chronic-stress-during-adolescence-in-prefrontal-cortex-structure-and-function
#5
Otávio Augusto de Araújo Costa Folha, Carlomagno Pacheco Bahia, Gisele Priscila Soares de Aguiar, Anderson Manoel Herculano, Nicole Leite Galvão Coelho, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro de Sousa, Victor Kenji Medeiros Shiramizu, Ana Cecília Galvão Menezes, Walther Carvalho, Antonio Pereira
Critical periods of plasticity (CPPs) are defined by intervals of postnatal brain development wherein neuronal circuits are most susceptible to environmental influences. The CPP of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which controls executive functions, extends up to early adulthood and, like other cortical areas, reflects the maturation of perineuronal nets (PNNs) surrounding the cell bodies of specialized inhibitory interneurons. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of chronic stress on the spatiotemporal distribution of PNN(+) neurons in the adolescent's rat PFC and behavior controlled by this cortical area...
February 23, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238406/the-effect-of-trauma-on-neanderthal-culture-a-mathematical-analysis
#6
W Nakahashi
Traumatic lesions are often observed in ancient skeletal remains. Since ancient medical technology was immature, severely traumatized individuals may have frequently lost the physical ability for cultural skills that demand complex body movements. I develop a mathematical model to analyze the effect of trauma on cultural transmission and apply it to Neanderthal culture using Neanderthal fossil data. I estimate from the data that the proportion of adult individuals who suffered traumatic injuries before death was approximately 0...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238242/porcine-tricuspid-valve-anatomy-and-human-compatibility-relevance-for-preclinical-validation-of-novel-valve-interventions
#7
Farhad Waziri, Sten Lyager Nielsen, John Michael Hasenkam
BACKGROUND: Tricuspid regurgitation may be a precursor for heart failure, reduced functional capacity, and poor survival. A human compatible experimental model is required to understand the pathophysiology of the tricuspid valve disease as a basis for validating novel tricuspid valve interventions before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin-fixed porcine hearts obtained from Danish Landrace pigs (body weight 80 kg)...
September 2016: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238064/hepatic-inflammation-fibrosis-cancer-axis-in-the-rat-hepatocellular-carcinoma-induced-by-diethylnitrosamine
#8
Yong-Fang Ding, Zhen-Hui Wu, Ying-Jie Wei, Luan Shu, Yun-Ru Peng
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases are closely associated with chronic inflammation and fibrosis which is known as hepatic inflammation-fibrosis-cancer (IFC) axis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the development characteristics of the rat HCC model based on IFC axis. METHODS: The diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced rat HCC, which presents a stepwise histopathological progression that is similar to human HCC, was used to analyze the features of the different stages (inflammation, fibrosis, cancer)...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237918/optimal-control-of-inspired-perfluorocarbon-temperature-for-ultrafast-hypothermia-induction-by-total-liquid-ventilation-in-adult-patient-model
#9
Mathieu Nadeau, Michael Sage, Matthias Kohlhauer, Julien Mousseau, Jonathan Vandamme, Etienne Fortin-Pellerin, Jean-Paul Praud, Renaud Tissier, Herve Walti, Philippe Micheau
OBJECTIVE: Recent preclinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia induced in less than 30 min by total liquid ventilation (TLV) strongly improves the survival rate after cardiac arrest. When the lung is ventilated with a breathable perfluorocarbon liquid, the inspired perfluorocarbon allows to control efficiently the cooling process of the organs. While TLV can rapidly cool animals, the cooling speed in humans remains unknown. The objective is to predict the efficiency and safety of ultrafast cooling by TLV in adult humans...
February 20, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237713/poly-l-glutamic-acid-drug-delivery-system-for-the-intravesical-therapy-of-bladder-cancer-using-wga-as-targeting-moiety
#10
C Apfelthaler, M Anzengruber, F Gabor, M Wirth
In the management of bladder cancer, surgical resection of the tumour is usually followed by intravesical instillation of immunomodulatives and/or chemotherapeutics. The purpose of this local intravesical therapy is to eliminate residual malignant cells after surgical intervention. The main limitation of a localised adjuvant therapy is the insufficient concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in malignant cells due to the unique structure of the human urothelium making it an exclusively hard to overcome barrier in the human body...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237465/human-and-soil-exposure-during-mechanical-chlorpyrifos-myclobutanil-and-copper-oxychloride-application-in-a-peach-orchard-in-argentina
#11
Giselle Berenstein, Soledad Nasello, Érica Beiguel, Pedro Flores, Johanna Di Schiena, Silvana Basack, Enrique A Hughes, Anita Zalts, Javier M Montserrat
The objective of this study was to measure the impact of the mechanized chlorpyrifos, copper oxychloride and myclobutanil application in a small peach orchard, on humans (operators, bystanders and residents) and on the productive soil. The mean Potential Dermal Exposure (PDE) of the workers (tractor drivers) was 30.8mL·h(-1)±16.4mL·h(-1), with no specific pesticide distribution on the laborers body. Although the Margin of Safety (MOS) factor for the application stage were above 1 (safe condition) for myclobutanil and cooper oxycloride it was below 1 for chlorpyrifos...
February 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237347/generation-of-lif-independent-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-canine-fetal-fibroblasts
#12
N J N Gonçalves, F F Bressan, K C S Roballo, F V Meirelles, P L P Xavier, H Fukumasu, C Williams, M Breen, S Koh, R Sper, J Piedrahita, C E Ambrósio
Takahashi and Yamanaka established the first technique in which transcription factors related to pluripotency are incorporated into the genome of somatic cells to enable reprogramming of these cells. The expression of these transcription factors enables a differentiated somatic cell to reverse its phenotype to an embryonic state, generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs from canine fetal fibroblasts were produced through lentiviral polycistronic human and mouse vectors (hOSKM/mOSKM), aiming to obtain pluripotent stem cells with similar features to embryonic stem cells (ESC) in this animal model...
April 1, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237186/a-learning-based-markerless-approach-for-full-body-kinematics-estimation-in-natura-from-a-single-image
#13
Ami Drory, Hongdong Li, Richard Hartley
We present a supervised machine learning approach for markerless estimation of human full-body kinematics for a cyclist from an unconstrained colour image. This approach is motivated by the limitations of existing marker-based approaches restricted by infrastructure, environmental conditions, and obtrusive markers. By using a discriminatively learned mixture-of-parts model, we construct a probabilistic tree representation to model the configuration and appearance of human body joints. During the learning stage, a Structured Support Vector Machine (SSVM) learns body parts appearance and spatial relations...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237015/integrating-a-human-thermoregulatory-model-with-a-clothing-model-to-predict-core-and-skin-temperatures
#14
Jie Yang, Wenguo Weng, Faming Wang, Guowen Song
This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236710/an-evaluation-of-behavioural-endpoints-the-pharmaceutical-pollutant-fluoxetine-decreases-aggression-across-multiple-contexts-in-round-goby-neogobius-melanostomus
#15
Erin S McCallum, Aneesh P H Bose, Theresa R Warriner, Sigal Balshine
Fluoxetine (Prozac™) is designed to alter human behaviour; however, because many physiological pathways are conserved across vertebrates, this drug may affect the behaviour of fish living in fluoxetine-polluted environments. Although a number of studies have used behaviour to document the sub-lethal effects of fluoxetine, the repeatability of these effects across experiments, across behavioural contexts, and over different exposure durations are rarely considered. Here, we conducted two experiments and assessed how fluoxetine exposure affected a range of fitness-related behaviours in wild round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)...
February 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236659/a-simple-formulation-for-deriving-effective-atomic-numbers-via-electron-density-calibration-from-dual-energy-ct-data-in-the-human-body
#16
Masatoshi Saito, Shota Sagara
PURPOSE: The main objective of this study is to propose a simple formulation (which we called DEEDZ) for deriving effective atomic numbers (Zeff ) via electron density (ρe ) calibration from dual-energy (DE) CT data. We carried out numerical analysis of this DEEDZ method for a large variety of materials with known elemental compositions and mass densities using an available photon cross sections database. The new conversion approach was also applied to previously published experimental DECT data to validate its practical feasibility...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236287/behavioural-susceptibility-theory-professor-jane-wardle-and-the-role-of-appetite-in-genetic-risk-of-obesity
#17
REVIEW
Clare H Llewellyn, Alison Fildes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is considerable variability in human body weight, despite the ubiquity of the 'obesogenic' environment. Human body weight has a strong genetic basis and it has been hypothesised that genetic susceptibility to the environment explains variation in human body weight, with differences in appetite being implicated as the mediating mechanism; so-called 'behavioural susceptibility theory' (BST), first described by Professor Jane Wardle. This review summarises the evidence for the role of appetite as a mediator of genetic risk of obesity...
February 24, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236044/burning-issues-cremation-and-incineration-in-modern-india
#18
David Arnold
The cremation of human bodies and the incineration of urban waste provide two interrelated examples of technologies using the destructive power of fire that "travelled" in both directions between India and the West in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Rather than granting an automatic ascendency to western ways of burning the dead or disposing of urban rubbish, these case studies indicate the manner in which culture and environment inhibited or prevented their advance and favoured the survival or re-articulation of pre-existing technological practices and the socio-political infrastructure in which they were embedded...
February 24, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235859/an-international-collaboration-studying-the-physiological-and-anatomical-cerebral-effects-of-carbon-dioxide-during-head-down-tilt-bed-rest-the-spacecot-study
#19
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Edwin Mulder, Dorit Donoviel, Gary Strangman, Jose I Suarez, Chethan Venkatasubba Rao, Petra Frings-Meuthen, Ulrich Limper, Jörn Rittweger, Eric M Bershad
Exposure to the microgravity environment results in various adaptive and maladaptive physiological changes in the human body, with notable ophthalmic abnormalities developing during 6-month missions on the International Space Station (ISS). These findings have led to the hypothesis that the loss of gravity induces a cephalad fluid shift, decreased cerebral venous outflow and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) which may be further exacerbated by increased ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on the ISS. Here we describe the "SPACECOT study" (Studying the Physiological and Anatomical Cerebral Effects of CO2 during Head-Down Tilt), a randomized, double-blinded cross-over design study with two conditions: 29 h of 12° head-down tilt (HDT) with ambient air and 29 h of 12° HDT with 0...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235857/combined-long-term-caffeine-intake-and-exercise-inhibits-the-development-of-diabetic-nephropathy-in-oletf-rats
#20
Masato Suzuki, Daisuke Shindo, Ryuichiro Suzuki, Yoshiaki Shirataki, Hidefumi Waki
This study was performed to examine the effects of long-term caffeine-intake, with and without exercise, on the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in an obese diabetic rat model. Thirty-two male Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were assigned to sedentary (OLETF-Sed), exercise (OLETF-Ex), caffeine-intake (OLETF-Caf), and combined (OLETF-Caf & Ex) groups. Caffeine-intake groups were fed rat chow containing caffeine (90.7 ± 4.7 mg/kg/day). The OLETF-Ex and OLETF-Caf & Ex groups were able to run voluntarily at any time using a rotatory wheel...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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