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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346919/the-pregnancy-microbiome
#1
Hadar Neuman, Omry Koren
In recent years, microbiome research has revealed multiple essential roles of the microorganisms residing within the human body in host metabolism, immunity, and overall health. Numerous physiological and pathological states, including obesity and the metabolic syndrome, have been correlated with microbial changes, termed dysbiosis. Our microbiomes change in response to our environment, diet, weight, hormones, and other factors. It is, therefore, not surprising that there are also significant changes in the microbiome during pregnancy when dramatic weight gain and metabolic and immunological changes occur...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346847/does-acute-normobaric-hypoxia-induce-anapyrexia-in-adult-humans
#2
Yongsuk Seo, Hayden D Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, Ellen L Glickman
Seo, Yongsuk, Hayden D. Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, and Ellen L. Glickman. Does acute normobaric hypoxia induce anapyrexia in adult humans? High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Exposure to hypoxia is known to induce a reduction in core body temperature as a protective mechanism, which has been shown in both animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to test if acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia (NH) induces anapyrexia in adult humans in association with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2)...
March 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346411/the-cold-induced-lipokine-12-13-dihome-promotes-fatty-acid-transport-into-brown-adipose-tissue
#3
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi, Tian Lian Huang, Hirokazu Takahashi, Michael F Hirshman, Christian Schlein, Alexandra Lee, Lisa A Baer, Francis J May, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Michael A Kiebish, Aaron M Cypess, Matthias Blüher, Laurie J Goodyear, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Kristin I Stanford, Yu-Hua Tseng
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Cold exposure can enhance energy expenditure by activating BAT, and it has been shown to improve nutrient metabolism. These therapies, however, are time consuming and uncomfortable, demonstrating the need for pharmacological interventions. Recently, lipids have been identified that are released from tissues and act locally or systemically to promote insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; as a class, these lipids are referred to as 'lipokines'...
March 27, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346343/lifetime-exposure-to-a-constant-environment-amplifies-the-impact-of-a-fructose-rich-diet-on-glucose-homeostasis-during-pregnancy
#4
Aleida Song, Stuart Astbury, Abha Hoedl, Brent Nielsen, Michael E Symonds, Rhonda C Bell
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy...
March 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#5
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346122/non-targeted-metabolomics-in-sport-and-exercise-science
#6
Liam M Heaney, Kevin Deighton, Toru Suzuki
Metabolomics incorporates the study of metabolites that are produced and released through physiological processes at both the systemic and cellular levels. Biological compounds at the metabolite level are of paramount interest in the sport and exercise sciences, although research in this field has rarely been referred to with the global 'omics terminology. Commonly studied metabolites in exercise science are notably within cellular pathways for adenosine triphosphate production such as glycolysis (e.g., pyruvate and lactate), β-oxidation of free fatty acids (e...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346117/on-the-communicative-function-of-body-odors
#7
Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin, Monique A M Smeets
Humans use multiple senses to navigate the social world, and the sense of smell is arguably the most underestimated one. An intriguing aspect of the sense of smell is its social communicative function. Research has shown that human odors convey information about a range of states (e.g., emotions, sickness) and traits (e.g., individuality, gender). Yet, what underlies the communicability of these states and traits via smell? We fill this explanatory gap with a framework that highlights the dynamic and flexible aspects of human olfactory communication...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346030/antimicrobial-activity-of-eugenol-and-essential-oils-containing-eugenol-a-mechanistic-viewpoint
#8
Anna Marchese, Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Ilkay Erdogan Orhan, Maria Daglia, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Morteza Izadi, Mohammad Abdollahi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Marjan Ajami
Eugenol is a hydroxyphenyl propene, naturally occurring in the essential oils of several plants belonging to the Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Myrtaceae, and Myristicaceae families. It is one of the major constituents of clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry, Myrtaceae) oil and is largely used in both foods and cosmetics as a flavoring agent. A large body of recent scientific evidence supports claims from traditional medicine that eugenol exerts beneficial effects on human health. These effects are mainly associated with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities...
March 27, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346013/the-physiology-of-blood-loss-and-shock-new-insights-from-a-human-laboratory-model-of-hemorrhage
#9
Alicia M Schiller, Jeffrey T Howard, Victor A Convertino
The ability to quickly diagnose hemorrhagic shock is critical for favorable patient outcomes. Therefore, it is important to understand the time course and involvement of the various physiological mechanisms that are active during volume loss and that have the ability to stave off hemodynamic collapse. This review provides new insights about the physiology that underlies blood loss and shock in humans through the development of a simulated model of hemorrhage using lower body negative pressure. In this review, we present controlled experimental results through utilization of the lower body negative pressure human hemorrhage model that provide novel insights on the integration of physiological mechanisms critical to the compensation for volume loss...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345657/multicolor-bioimaging-with-biosynthetic-zinc-nanoparticles-and-their-application-in-tumor-detection
#10
Yanjun Kang, Yi-Zhou Wu, Xianyun Hu, Xueqin Xu, Jie Sun, Rong Geng, Tongxing Huang, Xiaohang Liu, Yichen Ma, Ying Chen, Quan Wan, Xiaobang Qi, Gen Zhang, Xiaohui Zhao, Xin Zeng
Because they generate excellent images, nanoparticles (NPs), especially biosynthesized NPs, provide a new solution for tumor imaging. In this research, we unveil a novel type of biosynthesized NPs featuring multicolor fluorescence. These NPs exhibit little cytotoxicity to cells. The explored NPs, designated Zn-ZFP-GST NPs (Zinc NPs in abbreviation), are generated from leukemia cells treated with a Zn(2+) solution, while zinc-finger protein and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were also identified in the Zinc NPs...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345609/environmental-dna-in-subterranean-biology-range-extension-and-taxonomic-implications-for-proteus
#11
Špela Gorički, David Stanković, Aleš Snoj, Matjaž Kuntner, William R Jeffery, Peter Trontelj, Miloš Pavićević, Zlatko Grizelj, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Gregor Aljančič
Europe's obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander's exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345531/polyphenols-in-preventing-endothelial-dysfunction
#12
Sylwia Biegańska-Hensoldt, Danuta Rosołowska-Huszcz
One of the main causes of mortality in developed countries is atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consumption of food rich in natural antioxidants including polyphenols significantly improves endothelial cells functions. Polyphenols have a beneficial effect on the human body and play an important part in protecting the cardiovascular system. Polyphenols present in food have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antiproliferative properties...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344905/evolution-of-the-patellar-sesamoid-bone-in-mammals
#13
Mark E Samuels, Sophie Regnault, John R Hutchinson
The patella is a sesamoid bone located in the major extensor tendon of the knee joint, in the hindlimb of many tetrapods. Although numerous aspects of knee morphology are ancient and conserved among most tetrapods, the evolutionary occurrence of an ossified patella is highly variable. Among extant (crown clade) groups it is found in most birds, most lizards, the monotreme mammals and almost all placental mammals, but it is absent in most marsupial mammals as well as many reptiles. Here, we integrate data from the literature and first-hand studies of fossil and recent skeletal remains to reconstruct the evolution of the mammalian patella...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344872/intravenously-usable-fully-serotype-3-oncolytic-adenovirus-coding-for-cd40l-as-an-enabler-of-dendritic-cell-therapy
#14
Sadia Zafar, Suvi Parviainen, Mikko Siurala, Otto Hemminki, Riikka Havunen, Siri Tähtinen, Simona Bramante, Lotta Vassilev, Hongjie Wang, Andre Lieber, Silvio Hemmi, Tanja de Gruijl, Anna Kanerva, Akseli Hemminki
Vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells in the body, is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy. However, tumors induce immunosuppression in their microenvironment that suppresses and impairs the function of DCs. Therefore, human clinical trials with DC therapy have often been disappointing. To improve the therapeutic efficacy and to overcome the major obstacles of DC therapy, we generated a novel adenovirus, Ad3-hTERT-CMV-hCD40L, which is fully serotype 3 and expresses hCD40L for induction of antitumor immune response...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344836/human-body-mechanics-of-pushing-and-pulling-analyzing-the-factors-of-task-related-strain-on-the-musculoskeletal-system
#15
REVIEW
Andreas Argubi-Wollesen, Bettina Wollesen, Martin Leitner, Klaus Mattes
The purpose of this review is to name and describe the important factors of musculoskeletal strain originating from pushing and pulling tasks such as cart handling that are commonly found in industrial contexts. A literature database search was performed using the research platform Web of Science. For a study to be included in this review differences in measured or calculated strain had to be investigated with regard to: (1) cart weight/ load; (2) handle position and design; (3) exerted forces; (4) handling task (push and pull); or (5) task experience...
March 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344789/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-protects-from-radiation-induced-intestinal-toxicity
#16
Monica Mangoni, Mariangela Sottili, Chiara Gerini, Isacco Desideri, Cinzia Bastida, Stefania Pallotta, Francesca Castiglione, Pierluigi Bonomo, Icro Meattini, Daniela Greto, Sabrina Cappelli, Lucia Di Brina, Mauro Loi, Giampaolo Biti, Lorenzo Livi
OBJECTIVE: Because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-apoptotic and anti-neoplastic properties, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone is an interesting drug for investigating for use in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced intestinal damage. We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone in a murine model of acute intestinal damage, assessing whether radioprotection is selective for normal tissues or also occurs in tumour cells. METHODS: Mice were total-body irradiated (12 Gy), with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day)...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344593/agaricus-brasiliensis-polysaccharides-stimulate-human-monocytes-to-capture-candida-albicans-express-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-and-produce-pro-inflammatory-cytokines
#17
Priscila Raquel Martins, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Andrea Vanessa da Silva Pinto Domeneghini, Márjorie Assis Golim, Ramon Kaneno
BACKGROUND: Agaricus brasiliensis is a medicinal mushroom with immunomodulatory and antitumor activities attributed to the β-glucans presented in the polysaccharide fraction of its fruiting body. Since β-glucans enhance cellular immunoresponsiveness, in this study we aimed to evaluate the effect of an acid-treated polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of A. brasiliensis on the ability of human monocytes to adhere/phagocyte C. albicans yeast cells, their expression of pattern recognition receptors and their ability to produce cytokines...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344565/from-attire-to-assault-clothing-objectification-and-de-humanization-a-possible-prelude-to-sexual-violence
#18
Bhuvanesh Awasthi
In the context of objectification and violence, little attention has been paid to the perception neuroscience of how the human brain perceives bodies and objectifies them. Various studies point to how external cues such as appearance and attire could play a key role in encouraging objectification, dehumanization and the denial of agency. Reviewing new experimental findings across several areas of research, it seems that common threads run through issues of clothing, sexual objectification, body perception, dehumanization, and assault...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343799/characterization-of-deficits-across-the-spectrum-of-motor-abilities-in-dialysis-patients-and-the-impact-of-sarcopenic-overweight-and-obesity
#19
Maja Bučar Pajek, Jernej Pajek
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Physical performance deficits in kidney failure predict mortality and quality of life. We aimed to quantify deficits in multiple motor abilities, investigate associations of lean and fat tissue content with test results and analyzed performance of sarcopenic individuals with adipose tissue excess. METHODS: Ninety hemodialysis patients and 140 healthy controls performed 6-minute walk test, gait speed measurement, sit-to-stand and time up and go tests, upper extremity handgrip and tapping tests, Stork balance and forward bend flexibility tests...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343568/thermogenic-and-psychogenic-recruitment-of-human-eccrine-sweat-glands-variations-between-glabrous-and-non-glabrous-skin-surfaces
#20
Christiano A Machado-Moreira, Nigel A S Taylor
Human eccrine sweat-gland recruitment and secretion rates were investigated from the glabrous (volar) and non-glabrous hand surfaces during psychogenic (mental arithmetic) and thermogenic stimuli (mild hyperthermia). It was hypothesised that these treatments would activate glands from both skin surfaces, with the non-thermal stimulus increasing secretion rates primarily by recruiting more sweat glands. Ten healthy men participated in two seated, resting trials in temperate conditions (25-26°C). Trials commenced under normothermic conditions during which the first psychogenic stress was applied...
April 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
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