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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092712/-global-bioethics-and-biocultural-ethics
#1
Ricardo Rozzi
The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092566/wake-up-exoskeleton-to-assist-children-with-cerebral-palsy-design-and-preliminary-evaluation-in-level-walking
#2
Fabrizio Patane, Stefano Rossi, Fausto Del Sette, Juri Taborri, Paolo Cappa
This paper presents the modular design and control of a novel compliant lower limb multi-joint exoskeleton for the rehabilitation of ankle knee mobility and locomotion of pediatric patients with neurological diseases, such as Cerebral Palsy (CP). The device consists of an untethered powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO), addressed as WAKE-up (Wearable Ankle Knee Exoskeleton), characterized by a position control and capable of operating synchronously and synergistically with the human musculoskeletal system...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092502/capacity-evaluation-of-a-quantum-based-channel-in-a-biological-context
#3
Valeria Loscri, Anna Maria Vegni
Nanotechnology, as enabler of the miniaturization of devices in a scale ranging from 1 to few hundreds of nm , represents a viable solution for " alternative" communication paradigms that could be effective in complex networked systems, as body area networks. Traditional communication paradigms are not effective in the context of joint body and nano-networked systems, for several reasons, and then novel approaches have been investigated such as nanomechanical, electromagnetic, acoustic, molecular, etc. On the other hand, quantum phenomena represent a natural direction for developing nanotechnology, since it has to be considered as a new scale where new phenomena can occur and can be exploited for information purpose...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092496/the-effect-of-contrast-material-on-radiation-dose-at-ct-part-i-incorporation-of-contrast-material-dynamics-in-anthropomorphic-phantoms
#4
Pooyan Sahbaee, W Paul Segars, Daniele Marin, Rendon C Nelson, Ehsan Samei
Purpose To develop a method to incorporate the propagation of contrast material into computational anthropomorphic phantoms for estimation of organ dose at computed tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A patient-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of the human cardiovascular system was incorporated into 58 extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) patient phantoms. The PBPK model comprised compartmental models of vessels and organs unique to each XCAT model. For typical injection protocols, the dynamics of the contrast material in the body were described according to a series of patient-specific iodine mass-balance differential equations, the solutions to which provided the contrast material concentration time curves for each compartment...
January 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092264/centriolar-sas-7-acts-upstream-of-spd-2-to-regulate-centriole-assembly-and-pericentriolar-material-formation
#5
Kenji Sugioka, Danielle R Hamill, Joshua B Lowry, Marie E McNeely, Molly Enrick, Alyssa C Richter, Lauren E Kiebler, James R Priess, Bruce Bowerman
The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation...
January 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092200/the-challenges-surrounding-preclinical-testing-in-transcatheter-device-development-and-the-implications-on-the-clinic
#6
Ralf Holzer, Jake Goble, Ziyad Hijazi
Transcatheter devices have contributed significantly to the advances achieved in treating many cardiovascular conditions over the last few decades. Sophisticated and detailed preclinical testing is not only a regulatory requirement to support an investigational device exemption (IDE) application, but more crucially its success and accuracy is needed to safeguard patients during the subsequent clinical testing stages. Areas Covered: This article covers the regulatory background as well as specific considerations related to pre-clinical testing of transcatheter devices...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092139/content-of-conventional-therapy-for-the-severely-affected-arm-during-subacute-rehabilitation-after-stroke-an-analysis-of-physiotherapy-and-occupational-therapy-practice
#7
Lex D de Jong, Frederike van Wijck, Roy E Stewart, Alexander C H Geurts, Pieter U Dijkstra
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physiotherapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) are key professions providing treatment for the arm after stroke; however, knowledge about the content of these treatments is scant. Detailed data are needed to replicate interventions, evaluate their effective components, and evaluate PT and OT practice. This paper describes PT and OT treatment for the severely affected arm in terms of duration, content according to components and categories of the International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health, and to analyze differences between professions...
January 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091892/bariatric-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-adipocyte-proteins-involved-in-increased-bone-remodeling-in-humans
#8
Maria Fernanda G Biagioni, Adriana L Mendes, Célia Regina Nogueira, Celso V Leite, Loraine Gollino, Gláucia Mfs Mazeto
PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery has been associated with bone remodeling changes. The action of adipokines on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa β ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) and on an increase in sclerostin could be related to these changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to assess the repercussions of weight loss, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) loss and biochemical and hormonal changes on bone remodeling markers after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)...
January 13, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090780/a-multi-body-dynamics-study-on-a-weight-drop-test-of-rat-brain-injury
#9
Wenyi Yan, Germain Sossou, Ramesh Rajan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), induced by impact of an object with the head, is a major health problem worldwide. Rats are a well-established animal analogue for study of TBI and the weight-drop impact-acceleration (WDIA) method is a well-established model in rats for creating diffuse TBI, the most common form of TBI seen in humans. However, little is known of the biomechanics of the WDIA method and, to address this, we have developed a four-degrees-of-freedom multi-body mass-spring-damper model for the WDIA test in rats...
January 16, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090737/a-framework-for-how-environment-contributes-to-cancer-risk
#10
Michael E Hochberg, Robert J Noble
Evolutionary theory explains why metazoan species are largely protected against the negative fitness effects of cancers. Nevertheless, cancer is often observed at high incidence across a range of species. Although there are many challenges to quantifying cancer epidemiology and assessing its causes, we claim that most modern-day cancer in animals - and humans in particular - are due to environments deviating from central tendencies of distributions that have prevailed during cancer resistance evolution. Such novel environmental conditions may be natural and/or of anthropogenic origin, and may interface with cancer risk in numerous ways, broadly classifiable as those: increasing organism body size and/or life span, disrupting processes within the organism, and affecting germline...
January 16, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090499/risk-factors-associated-with-high-thyroglobulin-level-following-radioactive-iodine-ablation-measured-12-months-after-treatment-for-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#11
Eun Young Kim, Kee Hoon Hyun, Yong Lai Park, Chan Heun Park, Ji-Sup Yun
PURPOSE: The measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients, 12 months after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation following thyroxine hormone withdrawal (T4-off Tg) or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (rhTSH-Tg), is standard method for monitoring disease status. The aim of this study was to find predictive factors for detectable T4-off Tg during follow-up. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 329 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and RAI ablation between October 2008 and August 2012...
January 2017: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090418/the-forgotten-lumbocostal-ligament-anatomical-study-with-application-to-thoracolumbar-surgery
#12
Erfanul Saker, Gabrielle G Tardieu, Fernando Alonso, Beom Sun Chung, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
INTRODUCTION: Most ligaments of the human body have been well studied. However, the lumbocostal ligament has received little attention in the extant medical literature and, to our knowledge, has not undergone anatomical study. Therefore, the present study was performed to better characterize this structure's anatomy and relationships. METHODS: In the prone position, 10 adult cadavers underwent dissection of their lumbocostal ligaments. All specimens were unembalmed and had no history of surgery to the spine...
December 11, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090275/induction-of-epigenetic-alteration-by-cpuk02-an-ent-kaurenoid-derivative-of-stevioside
#13
Pooneh Mokarram, Zeinab Mohammadi, Saeid Khazayel, Zhang Dayong
BACKGROUND: Dietary polyphenols, such as those found in green tea and red wine, are linked to antitumor activity. They are known to influence many signaling pathways epigenetically within the human body. In this regard, CPUK02 (15-Oxosteviol benzyl ester) is a new ent-kaurenoid derivative of stevioside and exhibits strong anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Nowadays, the role of epigenetics in cancer has been the subject of intensive study and DNA methylation targeting represents a relevant strategy for cancer treatment...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090039/interaction-between-the-rgs6-gene-and-psychosocial-stress-on-obesity-related-traits
#14
Hyun-Jin Kim, Jin-Young Min, Kyoung-Bok Min
Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population...
January 13, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089898/exercise-guidelines-to-promote-cardiometabolic-health-in-spinal-cord-injured-humans-time-to-raise-the-intensity
#15
Tom E Nightingale, Richard S Metcalfe, Niels Bj Vollaard, James L J Bilzon
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life changing event that, as a result of paralysis, negatively influences habitual levels of physical activity and hence cardiometabolic health. Performing regular structured exercise therefore appears extremely important in persons with SCI. However, exercise options are mainly limited to the upper-body, which involves a smaller activated muscle mass compared to the mainly leg-based activities commonly performed by non-disabled individuals. Current exercise guidelines for SCI focus predominantly on relative short durations of moderate-intensity aerobic arm cranking exercise, yet contemporary evidence suggests this is not sufficient to induce meaningful improvements in risk factors for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease in this population...
January 12, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089823/thyroid-hormones-and-browning-of-adipose-tissue
#16
Juliane Weiner, Mohammed Hankir, John T Heiker, Wiebke Fenske, Kerstin Krause
Thyroid hormone (TH) disorders are associated with profound changes in whole body energy metabolism. A major TH target is thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT), which can be stimulated directly through thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) expressed in brown adipocytes and indirectly, through TRs expressed in hypothalamic neurons. White adipose tissue (WAT) adopts BAT characteristics by a diverse range of stimuli in a process referred to as browning. It is now understood that TH also induce WAT browning through peripheral and central mechanisms...
January 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089755/biodistribution-and-retention-of-locally-administered-human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-based-detection-of-human-dna-in-murine-organs
#17
Michael Creane, Linda Howard, Timothy O'Brien, Cynthia M Coleman
BACKGROUND: Determining the distributive fate and retention of a cell therapy product after administration is an essential part of characterizing it's biosafety profile. Therefore, regulatory guidelines stipulate that biodistribution assays are a requirement prior to advancing a cell therapy to the clinic. Here the development of a highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based method of tracking the biodistribution and retention of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in mice, rats or rabbits is described...
January 12, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089717/persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-in-human-follicular-fluid-and-in-vitro-fertilization-outcomes-a-pilot-study
#18
Michael S Bloom, Victor Y Fujimoto, Robin Storm, Li Zhang, Celeste D Butts, Diana Sollohub, Robert L Jansing
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitously distributed among the U.S. population and adversely impact human reproduction. These compounds have been detected in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF), where they directly contact a developing oocyte. As a pilot investigation, we measured 43 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and its persistent metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in residual FF collected from 32 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)...
January 9, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089692/in-vitro-bioaccessibility-of-the-marine-biotoxins-okadaic-acid-dinophysistoxin-2-and-their-7-o-acyl-fatty-acid-ester-derivatives-in-raw-and-steamed-shellfish
#19
Diana Manita, Ricardo N Alves, Ana Catarina Braga, Fabiola Fogaça, António Marques, Pedro Reis Costa
Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxins (DTX1 and DTX2) and their acyl-derivatives (DTX3) are marine toxins responsible for the human diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. To date the amount of toxins ingested from consumption of shellfish has been considered equal to the amount of toxins available for uptake by the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the OA, DTX2 and DTX3 fractions released from raw and steamed mussels and cockles into the digestive fluids (bioaccessibility) using a static in vitro digestion model...
January 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089569/prevention-of-dietary-fat-fueled-ketogenesis-attenuates-braf-v600e-tumor-growth
#20
Siyuan Xia, Ruiting Lin, Lingtao Jin, Liang Zhao, Hee-Bum Kang, Yaozhu Pan, Shuangping Liu, Guoqing Qian, Zhiyu Qian, Evmorfia Konstantakou, Baotong Zhang, Jin-Tang Dong, Young Rock Chung, Omar Abdel-Wahab, Taha Merghoub, Lu Zhou, Ragini R Kudchadkar, David H Lawson, Hanna J Khoury, Fadlo R Khuri, Lawrence H Boise, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin H Lee, Brian P Pollack, Jack L Arbiser, Jun Fan, Qun-Ying Lei, Jing Chen
Lifestyle factors, including diet, play an important role in the survival of cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenic links between diet and particular oncogenic mutations in human cancers remain unclear. We recently reported that the ketone body acetoacetate selectively enhances BRAF V600E mutant-dependent MEK1 activation in human cancers. Here we show that a high-fat ketogenic diet increased serum levels of acetoacetate, leading to enhanced tumor growth potential of BRAF V600E-expressing human melanoma cells in xenograft mice...
January 9, 2017: Cell Metabolism
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