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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786923/biodiversity-of-the-human-oral-mycobiome-in-health-and-disease
#1
H M H N Bandara, C P Panduwawala, L P Samaranayake
The organisms that colonize the human body over a lifetime are diverse, extensive and gargantuan. A fair proportion of the microbiota that constitutes this human microbiome live within our oral cavities mostly as harmonious associates causing only sporadic disease. An important core constituent of the microbiome is the mycobiome, representing various fungal genera. Up until recently, only a few species of fungi, mainly Candida species, were thought to constitute the human oral mycobiome. The reasons for this are manifold, although the uncultivable nature of many fungi in conventional laboratory media, and their complex genetic composition seem to be the major factors which eluded their detection over the years...
May 22, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786835/bilateral-asymmetry-of-the-humerus-in-neandertals-australian-aborigines-and-medieval-humans
#2
Anna Maria Kubicka, Wioletta Nowaczewska, Antoine Balzeau, Janusz Piontek
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral asymmetry of diaphyseal shape and size may be a reflection of relative activity levels and patterns of habitual biomechanical stress in the upper arms of Neandertals and Homo sapiens. The main purpose of our study was to assess the level of directional asymmetry of humeral cross sections in Neandertals, recent Australian aborigines, and medieval farmers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Indices of directional and absolute asymmetry (%DA and %AA) of humeral cross-sectional properties in Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens were calculated...
May 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786788/transplantable-animal-studies-and-whole-body-optical-imaging-in-prostate-carcinoma
#3
Geertje van der Horst, Maaike van der Mark, Henry Cheung, Gabri van der Pluijm
Current treatments of advanced prostate cancer only marginally increase overall survival and can be regarded as predominantly palliative. Hence, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of primary tumors and, more importantly perhaps, for the prevention of tumor progression and metastasis formation. Clinically relevant preclinical models are therefore urgently needed. An ideal, clinically relevant preclinical model would mimic the genetic and phenotypic changes that occur at the different stages of human prostate cancer progression and subsequent metastasis...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786787/protocols-for-migration-and-invasion-studies-in-prostate-cancer
#4
Arjanneke F van de Merbel, Geertje van der Horst, Jeroen T Buijs, Gabri van der Pluijm
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed in men in the western world. The development of distant metastases and therapy resistance are major clinical problems in the management of prostate cancer patients. In order for prostate cancer to metastasize to distant sites in the human body, prostate cancer cells have to migrate and invade neighboring tissue. Cancer cells can acquire a migratory and invasive phenotype in several ways, including single cell and collective migration. As a requisite for migration, epithelial prostate cancer cells often need to acquire a motile, mesenchymal-like phenotype...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786575/spatial-organization-of-the-excretory-ducts-and-sections-of-microcirculatory-blood-flow-of-the-labial-salivary-glands-in-older-adults
#5
Volodymyr H Hryn, Tamara F Deineha, Аndrij V Piliuhin, Anna V Lavrenko, Dmytro O Lavrenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Salivary glands have a significant impact on the state of the homeostasis of the human body, oral cavity in particular, sensitively responding to pathological processes. The reactivity of the salivary glands in response to pathological processes that are organically linked to morphology and functions of the organ's structures, and particularly the excretory ducts of the glands and their microcirculatory blood flow, is one of the problems which have not been solved to date...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786557/the-gene-regulatory-network-of-mesc-differentiation-a-benchmark-for-reverse-engineering-methods
#6
Johannes Meisig, Nils Blüthgen
A large body of data have accumulated that characterize the gene regulatory network of stem cells. Yet, a comprehensive and integrative understanding of this complex network is lacking. Network reverse engineering methods that use transcriptome data to derive these networks may help to uncover the topology in an unbiased way. Many methods exist that use co-expression to reconstruct networks. However, it remains unclear how these methods perform in the context of stem cell differentiation, as most systematic assessments have been made for regulatory networks of unicellular organisms...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786466/mineralo-organic-nanoparticles-in-health-and-disease-an-overview-of-recent-findings
#7
Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Hsin-Hsin Peng, John D Young
We observed earlier that mineralo-organic nanoparticles form in human body fluids when the concentrations of calcium, carbonate and phosphate exceed saturation. The particles have been shown to represent mineral precursors in developing bones and teeth as well as in ectopic calcification and kidney stones. Recent studies suggest that the mineral particles may also be involved in other physiological processes, including immune tolerance against the gut microbiota and food antigens. We review here the involvement of mineralo-organic nanoparticles in physiological and pathological processes and discuss recent findings that reveal novel and unexpected roles for these particles in the human body...
May 22, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786429/development-of-a-nanostructured-%C3%AE-mno2-carbon-paper-composite-for-removal-of-ni2-mn2-ions-by-electrosorption
#8
Pengju Li, Yang Gui, Daniel John Blackwood
Toxic metal ions, such as Ni2+ and Mn2+, in industrial waste streams are non-biodegradable and can cause damage to the human body. Electrochemical cleaning techniques are attractive as they offer more control and produce less sludge than chemical / biological approaches without the high pressures needed for membranes. Here nanoneedle structured α-MnO2/carbon fiber paper (CFP) composites were synthesized by a hydrothermal approach and used as electrodes for combined electro-adsorption and capacitive deionization removal of nickel and manganese ions from pseudo industrial waste streams...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786142/the-bone-marrow-is-not-only-a-primary-lymphoid-organ-the-critical-role-for-t-lymphocyte-migration-and-housing-of-long-term-memory-plasma-cells
#9
REVIEW
Reinhard Pabst
In immunology and anatomy textbooks the bone marrow is described as a typical "primary lymphoid organ" producing lymphoid cells independent of antigens. The hematopoietic bone marrow is largely age-dependent organ with great anatomical and functional differences among various species. There are estimates that about 12 % of all lymphoid cells in the human body are found in the bone marrow at any given time (2 % in the peripheral blood). Enormous numbers of T lymphocytes migrate to the bone marrow and partly return later to the blood...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785711/illness-as-a-crisis-of-meaning
#10
REVIEW
Michael Hauskeller
In Phenomenological Bioethics: Medical Technologies, Human Suffering, and the Meaning of Being Alive, the Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus aims to show how the continental tradition of phenomenology can enrich bioethical debates by adding important but often-ignored perspectives, namely, that of lived experience. Phenomenology focuses not on supposedly objective, scientifically validated facts, but on the "life world" of the individuals affected by a situation. Individuals' life worlds consist of their experience of their own lived bodies (or Leiber) and the meaning structures of their everyday worlds...
May 21, 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#11
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785143/pilot-study-of-the-antifibrotic-effects-of-the-multikinase-inhibitor-pacritinib-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-fibrosis
#12
Suliman Al-Fayoumi, Taishi Hashiguchi, Yuka Shirakata, John Mascarenhas, Jack W Singer
Background: Fibrotic diseases result from an exuberant response to chronic inflammation. Myelofibrosis is the end result of inflammation in bone, caused by an inflammatory process triggered by production of abnormal myeloid cells driven by mutations affecting the JAK-STAT pathway. Inflammatory cytokine overproduction leads to increased mesenchymal cell proliferation, culminating in fibrosis. Although JAK2 inhibitors, such as the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib and the JAK2/FLT3/CSF1R/IRAK1 inhibitor pacritinib suppress abnormal clone expansion in myelofibrosis, ruxolitinib does not appear to prevent or reverse bone-marrow fibrosis in most patients...
2018: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784926/clinical-utility-of-circulating-non-coding-rnas-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Simone Anfossi, Anna Babayan, Klaus Pantel, George A Calin
Over the past decade, the amount of research and the number of publications on associations between circulating small and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and cancer have grown exponentially. Particular focus has been placed on the development of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to enable efficient patient management - from early detection of cancer to monitoring for disease recurrence or progression after treatment. Owing to their high abundance and stability, circulating ncRNAs have potential utility as non-invasive, blood-based biomarkers that can provide information on tumour biology and the effects of treatments, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies...
May 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784764/links-between-immunologic-memory-and-metabolic-cycling
#14
REVIEW
Matthew A Cottam, Hana A Itani, Arch A Beasley, Alyssa H Hasty
Treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diet and therapeutics, often provide short-term therapy for metabolic stressors, but relapse is common. Repeated bouts of exposure to, and relief from, metabolic stimuli results in a phenomenon we call "metabolic cycling." Recent human and rodent data suggest metabolic cycling promotes an exaggerated response and ultimately worsened metabolic health. This is particularly evident with cycling of body weight and hypertension. The innate and adaptive immune systems have a profound impact on development of metabolic disease, and current data suggest that immunologic memory may partially explain this association, especially in the context of metabolic cycling...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784759/of-what-use-is-connectomics-a-personal-perspective-on-the-drosophila-connectome
#15
REVIEW
Ian A Meinertzhagen
The brain is a network of neurons and its biological output is behaviour. This is an exciting age, with a growing acknowledgement that the comprehensive compilation of synaptic circuits densely reconstructed in the brains of model species is now both technologically feasible and a scientifically enabling possibility in neurobiology, much as 30 years ago genomics was in molecular biology and genetics. Implemented by huge advances in electron microscope technology, especially focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) milling (see Glossary), image capture and alignment, and computer-aided reconstruction of neuron morphologies, enormous progress has been made in the last decade in the detailed knowledge of the actual synaptic circuits formed by real neurons, in various brain regions of the fly Drosophila It is useful to distinguish synaptic pathways that are major, with 100 or more presynaptic contacts, from those that are minor, with fewer than about 10; most neurites are both presynaptic and postsynaptic, and all synaptic sites have multiple postsynaptic dendrites...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784673/formation-of-the-sacrum-requires-down-regulation-of-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-the-sacral-intervertebral-discs
#16
Raffaella Bonavita, Kathleen Vincent, Robert Pinelli, Chitra Lekha Dahia
In humans, the sacrum forms an important component of the pelvic arch, and it transfers the weight of the body to the lower limbs. The sacrum is formed by collapse of the intervertebral discs (IVDs) between the five sacral vertebrae during childhood, and their fusion to form a single bone. We show that collapse of the sacral discs in the mouse is associated with the down-regulation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling in the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the disc, and many aspects of this phenotype can be reversed by experimental postnatal activation of HH signaling...
May 21, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784654/preliminary-study-into-the-skeletal-injuries-sustained-to-the-spine-from-posterior-non-perforating-ballistic-impacts-into-body-armour
#17
Rosalind M Jennings, C Malbon, F Brock, S E Harrisson, D J Carr
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this paper was to examine any injuries from posterior behind armour blunt trauma ballistic impacts directly over the spine onto typical hard body armours. Due to the spine being close to the surface of the skin and a lack of any previous specific research into this topic, this study was designed to gain preliminary insight into the mechanisms involved and injuries caused. Pigs were chosen as the closest representative of human spine, tissue and skin, although their spines are deeper under the surface than humans...
May 21, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784358/short-probe-based-duplex-specific-nuclease-signal-amplification-strategy-enables-imaging-of-endogenous-micrornas-in-living-cells-with-ultrahigh-specificity
#18
Yingjun Ma, Jun Chen, Danping Chen, Yuzhi Xu, Li Zhang, Zong Dai, Xiaoyong Zou
Specific nucleic acids amplification at a constant and mild temperature is important for imaging assay of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in living cells. Duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) is attractive in one-step isothermal assay of miRNA; however, its intrinsic limitations of low amplification specificity and high reaction temperature greatly restrict the application scope. Herein, we present a short-probe-based DSN signal amplification (spDSNSA) strategy enabling analysis of miRNAs at body temperature with significantly high specificity...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784084/perception-of-social-interaction-compresses-subjective-duration-in-an-oxytocin-dependent-manner
#19
Rui Liu, Xiangyong Yuan, Kepu Chen, Yi Jiang, Wen Zhou
Communication through body gestures permeates our daily life. Efficient perception of the message therein reflects one's social cognitive competency. Here we report that such competency is manifested temporally as shortened subjective duration of social interactions: motion sequences showing agents acting communicatively are perceived to be significantly shorter in duration as compared with those acting noncommunicatively. The strength of this effect is negatively correlated with one's autistic-like tendency...
May 22, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784006/secure-corridor-for-infraacetabular-screws-in-acetabular-fracture-fixation-a-3-d-radiomorphometric-analysis-of-124-pelvic-ct-datasets
#20
Stephan Arlt, Hansrudi Noser, Andreas Wienke, Florian Radetzki, Gunther Olaf Hofmann, Thomas Mendel
BACKGROUND: Acetabular fracture surgery is directed toward anatomical reduction and stable fixation to allow for the early functional rehabilitation of an injured hip joint. Recent biomechanical investigations have shown the superiority of using an additional screw in the infraacetabular (IA) region, thereby transfixing the separated columns to strengthen the construct by closing the periacetabular fixation frame. However, the inter-individual existence and variance concerning secure IA screw corridors are poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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