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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933577/environmental-and-health-impacts-of-effluents-from-textile-industries-in-ethiopia-the-case-of-gelan-and-dukem-oromia-regional-state
#1
Diriba Dadi, Till Stellmacher, Feyera Senbeta, Steven Van Passel, Hossein Azadi
This study focuses on four textile industries (DH-GEDA, NOYA, ALMHADI, and ALSAR) established between 2005 and 2008 in the peri-urban areas of Dukem and Gelan. The objectives of the study were to generate baseline information regarding the concentration levels of selected pollutants and to analyze their effects on biophysical environments. This study also attempts to explore the level of exposure that humans and livestock have to polluted effluents and the effects thereof. The findings of this study are based on data empirically collected from two sources: laboratory analysis of sample effluents from the four selected textile plants and quantitative as well as qualitative socioeconomic data collection...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933447/indian-summer-heat-wave-of-2015-a-biometeorological-analysis-using-half-hourly-automatic-weather-station-data-with-special-reference-to-andhra-pradesh
#2
M A Sarath Chandran, A V M Subba Rao, V M Sandeep, V P Pramod, P Pani, V U M Rao, V Visha Kumari, Ch Srinivasa Rao
Heat wave is a hazardous weather-related extreme event that affects living beings. The 2015 summer heat wave affected many regions in India and caused the death of 2248 people across the country. An attempt has been made to quantify the intensity and duration of heat wave that resulted in high mortality across the country. Half hourly Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), based on a complete heat budget of human body, was estimated using automatic weather station (AWS) data of four locations in Andhra Pradesh state, where the maximum number of deaths was reported...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933445/correlation-of-crevicular-fluid-and-serum-levels-of-retinol-binding-protein-4-and-leptin-in-chronic-periodontitis-and-obesity
#3
Dharmendra Kanoriya, A R Pradeep, A Mallika, Sandeep Singhal, Vibhuti Garg
OBJECTIVE: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and leptin are both adipokines and involved in the pathophysiology of different vascular and inflammatory diseases and selectively elevated in patients with obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine and correlate the levels of RBP4 and leptin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 patients with age group 25 to 45 years were divided into four groups based on gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), body mass index (BMI) and radiographic evidence of bone loss...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933392/leishmania-infection-painful-or-painless
#4
REVIEW
Sergio M Borghi, Victor Fattori, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Wander R Pavanelli, Waldiceu A Verri
The complex life cycle and immunopathological features underpinning the interaction of Leishmania parasites and their mammalian hosts poses frequent poorly explored and inconclusively resolved questions. The altered nociceptive signals over the course of leishmaniasis remain an intriguing issue for nociceptive and parasitology researchers. Experimental investigations have utilized behavioral, morphological, and neuro-immune approaches in the study of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The data generated indicates new venues for the study of the pathological characteristics of nociceptive processing in this parasitic disease...
December 9, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933296/modeling-diet-induced-obesity-with-obesity-prone-rats-implications-for-studies-in-females
#5
REVIEW
Erin D Giles, Matthew R Jackman, Paul S MacLean
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic, and the comorbidities associated with obesity are numerous. Over the last two decades, we and others have employed an outbred rat model to study the development and persistence of obesity, as well as the metabolic complications that accompany excess weight. In this review, we summarize the strengths and limitations of this model and how it has been applied to further our understanding of human physiology in the context of weight loss and weight regain. We also discuss how the approach has been adapted over time for studies in females and female-specific physiological conditions, such as menopause and breast cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933093/long-term-consumption-of-an-obesogenic-high-fat-diet-prior-to-ischemia-reperfusion-mediates-cardioprotection-via-epac1-dependent-signaling
#6
F Edland, A Wergeland, R Kopperud, K S Åsrud, E A Hoivik, S L Witsø, R Æsøy, L Madsen, K Kristiansen, M Bakke, S O Døskeland, A K Jonassen
BACKGROUND: Obesity is still considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, although more recent knowledge also suggests obesity to be associated with reduced morbidity and mortality - the "obesity paradox". This study explores if long-term feeding of an obesogenic high fat diet renders the myocardium less susceptible to ischemic-reperfusion induced injury via Epac-dependent signaling. METHODS: Wild type (wt), Epac1 (Epac1(-/-)) and Epac2 (Epac2(-/-)) deficient mice were fed a high fat (HFD) or normal chow diet (ND) for 33 ± 1 weeks...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932669/annals-express-quantification-of-the-steady-state-plasma-concentrations-of-clozapine-and-n-desmethylclozapine-in-japanese-patients-with-schizophrenia-using-a-novel-hplc-method-and-the-effects-of-cyps-and-abc-transporters-polymorphisms
#7
Yumiko Akamine, Yuka Sugawara-Kikuchi, Tsukasa Uno, Tetsuo Shimizu, Masatomo Miura
BACKGROUND: This study developed a novel high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of clozapine and its active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine, in human plasma and investigated the effects of various factors, including genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ABCG2, on the steady-state plasma trough concentrations (C0) of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Forty-five patients had been receiving fixed doses of clozapine for at least 4 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932592/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#8
Janina A Vaitkus, Francesco S Celi
Adipose tissue (fat) is a heterogeneous organ, both in function and histology, distributed throughout the body. White adipose tissue, responsible for energy storage and more recently found to have endocrine and inflammation-modulatory activities, was historically thought to be the only type of fat present in adult humans. The recent demonstration of functional brown adipose tissue in adults, which is highly metabolic, shifted this paradigm. Additionally, recent studies demonstrate the ability of white adipose tissue to be induced toward the brown adipose phenotype - "beige" or "brite" adipose tissue - in a process referred to as "browning...
December 8, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932526/human-plasma-n-glycosylation-as-analyzed-by-maldi-fticr-ms-associates-with-markers-of-inflammation-and-metabolic-health
#9
Karli R Reiding, L Renee Ruhaak, Hae-Won Uh, Said El Bouhaddani, Erik B van den Akker, Rosina Plomp, Liam A McDonnell, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom, Marian Beekman, Manfred Wuhrer
Glycosylation is an abundant co- and post-translational protein modification of importance to protein processing and activity. While not template-defined, glycosylation does reflect the biological state of an organism and is a high-potential biomarker for disease and patient stratification. However, to interpret a complex but informative sample like the total plasma N-glycome (TPNG), it is important to establish its baseline association with plasma protein levels and systemic processes. Thus far, large scale studies (n > 200) of the TPNG have been performed with methods of chromatographic and electrophoretic separation, which, while being informative, are limited in resolving the structural complexity of plasma N-glycans...
December 8, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932303/one-sample-one-shot-evaluation-of-sample-preparation-protocols-for-the-mass-spectrometric-proteome-analysis-of-human-bile-fluid-without-extensive-fractionation
#10
Dominik A Megger, Juliet Padden, Kristin Rosowski, Julian Uszkoreit, Thilo Bracht, Martin Eisenacher, Christian Gerges, Horst Neuhaus, Brigitte Schumacher, Jörg F Schlaak, Barbara Sitek
: The proteome analysis of bile fluid represents a promising strategy to identify biomarker candidates for various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. However, to obtain substantive results in biomarker discovery studies large patient cohorts necessarily need to be analyzed. Consequently, this would lead to an unmanageable number of samples to be analyzed if sample preparation protocols with extensive fractionation methods are applied. Hence, the performance of simple workflows allowing for "one sample, one shot" experiments have been evaluated in this study...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930746/perinatal-natural-history-of-the-ts1cje-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome-growth-restriction-early-mortality-heart-defects-and-delayed-development
#11
Millie A Ferrés, Diana W Bianchi, Ashley E Siegel, Roderick T Bronson, Gordon S Huggins, Faycal Guedj
BACKGROUND: The Ts1Cje model of Down syndrome is of particular interest for perinatal studies because affected males are fertile. This permits affected pups to be carried in wild-type females, which is similar to human pregnancies. Here we describe the early natural history and growth profiles of Ts1Cje embryos and neonates and determine if heart defects are present in this strain. METHODS: Pups were studied either on embryonic (E) day 15.5, or from postnatal (P) day 3 through weaning on P21...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929711/dual-effects-of-a-retn-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-snp-at-420-on-plasma-resistin-genotype-and-dna-methylation
#12
Hiroshi Onuma, Yasuharu Tabara, Ryoichi Kawamura, Jun Ohashi, Wataru Nishida, Yasunori Takata, Masaaki Ochi, Tatsuya Nishimiya, Yasumasa Ohyagi, Ryuichi Kawamoto, Katsuhiko Kohara, Tetsuro Miki, Haruhiko Osawa
CONTEXT: We previously reported that SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) -420 C>G (rs1862513) in the promoter region of RETN was associated with type 2 diabetes. Plasma resistin was tightly correlated with SNP-420 genotypes. SNP-420 is a CpG-SNP affecting the sequence of CpG dinucleotides. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether methylation at SNP-420 affects plasma resistin, we analyzed plasma resistin and methylation at RETN SNP-420. DESIGN AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells in 2,078 Japanese subjects...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929479/investigation-of-the-optimum-location-of-external-markers-for-patient-setup-accuracy-enhancement-at-external-beam-radiotherapy
#13
Payam Samadi Miandoab, Ahmad Esmaili Torshabi, Saber Nankali
In external beam radiotherapy, one of the most common and reliable methods for patient geometrical setup and/or predicting the tumor location is use of external markers. In this study, the main challenging issue is increasing the accuracy of patient setup by investigating external markers location. Since the location of each external marker may yield different patient setup accuracy, it is important to assess different locations of external markers using appropriate selective algorithms. To do this, two commercially available algorithms entitled a) canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and b) principal component analysis (PCA) were proposed as input selection algorithms...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929474/a-simple-one-step-dissection-protocol-for-whole-mount-preparation-of-adult-drosophila-brains
#14
Antonio J Tito, Shebna Cheema, Mian Jiang, Sheng Zhang
There is an increasing interest in using Drosophila to model human brain degenerative diseases, map neuronal circuitries in adult brains, and study the molecular and cellular basis of higher brain functions. A whole-mount preparation of adult brains with well-preserved morphology is critical for such whole brain-based studies, but can be technically challenging and time-consuming. This protocol describes an easy-to-learn, one-step dissection approach of an adult fly head in less than 10 s, while keeping the intact brain attached to the rest of the body to facilitate subsequent processing steps...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929396/detection-of-ciprofloxacin-in-urine-through-sensitized-lanthanide-luminescence
#15
Subhankar Singha, Kyo Han Ahn
Ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, is widely used for the treatment of bacterial infection in humans due to its broad antibacterial spectrum. An excessive use or overdose of ciprofloxacin on the other hand can cause several adverse effects not only to humans but also to microorganisms. Unabsorbed ciprofloxacin in the body is mostly excreted through urine and finally goes to the environment, providing a drug resistance pressure on bacteria. Hence a simple and efficient detection method of ciprofloxacin is necessary, which, for example, can be used to analyze ciprofloxacin content in urine...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929109/a-novel-method-to-visualise-and-quantify-circadian-misalignment
#16
Dorothee Fischer, Céline Vetter, Till Roenneberg
The circadian clock governs virtually all processes in the human body, including sleep-wake behaviour. Circadian misalignment describes the off-set between sleep-wake cycles and clock-regulated physiology. This strain is predominantly caused by external (societal) demands including shift work, early school start times and fast travels across time zones. Sleeping at the 'wrong' internal time can jeopardise health and safety, and we therefore need a good quantification of this phenomenon. Here, we propose a novel method to quantify the mistiming of sleep-wake rhythms and demonstrate its versatility in day workers and shift workers...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928740/anatomical-study-comparing-the-human-sheep-and-pig-knee-meniscus
#17
Talal Takroni, Leila Laouar, Adetola Adesida, Janet A W Elliott, Nadr M Jomha
BACKGROUND: Animal models are commonly used in investigating new treatment options for knee joint injuries including injuries to the meniscus. The reliability and applicability of these models to replicate findings in humans depends on determining the most suitable animal proxy. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the wet weight, volume and dimensions of the human meniscus with two commonly used animal models: sheep and pig. METHODS: Human menisci (n = 6 pairs) were obtained from the knee joints of cadaveric male donors...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928694/effect-of-rutin-against-a-mitochondrial-toxin-3-nitropropionicacid-induced-biochemical-behavioral-and-histological-alterations-a-pilot-study-on-huntington-s-disease-model-in-rats
#18
Sarumani Natarajan Suganya, Thangarajan Sumathi
Dietary compounds like flavonoids may offer protection against neurodegeneration. Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symptoms like chorea and dementia. 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) inhibitor produces behavioral, biochemical and histological changes in the striatum, mimics HD in animals and humans. The present study was designed to examine the protective activity of Rutin (RT), a primary flavonoid from citrus fruits, green tea on 3-NP induced experimental model of HD in rats...
December 8, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928043/understanding-the-value-of-plant-diversity-for-ecosystem-functioning-through-niche-theory
#19
REVIEW
Lindsay A Turnbull, Forest Isbell, Drew W Purves, Michel Loreau, Andy Hector
Biodiversity experiments have generated robust empirical results supporting the hypothesis that ecosystems function better when they contain more species. Given that ecosystems provide services that are valued by humans, this inevitably suggests that the loss of species from natural ecosystems could diminish their value. This raises two important questions. First, will experimental results translate into the real world, where species are being lost at an alarming rate? And second, what are the benefits and pitfalls of such valuation exercises? We argue that the empirical results obtained in experiments are entirely consistent with well-established theories of species coexistence...
December 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927918/coelomycetous-fungi-in-the-clinical-setting-morphological-convergence-and-cryptic-diversity
#20
Nicomedes Valenzuela-Lopez, Deanna A Sutton, José F Cano-Lira, Katihuska Paredes, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro, Alberto M Stchigel
Human infections by coelomycetous fungi are becoming more frequent and range from superficial to systemic dissemination. Traumatic implantation of contaminated plant material is the most common cause. The typical morphological feature of these fungi is the production of asexual spores (conidia) within fruiting bodies called conidiomata. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the coelomycetes in clinical samples by a phenotypic and molecular study of a large set of isolates received from a USA reference mycological institution and by obtaining the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of a selected group of strains against nine antifungals...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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