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Claire Henry, Neville Hacker, Caroline Ford
OBJECTIVE: Elevated expression of the ROR1 and ROR2 Wnt receptors has been noted in both the tumour and stromal compartments of ovarian cancer patient tissue samples. In vitro studies have suggested these receptors play a role in ovarian cancer metastasis. However, these previous studies have utilised simple 2D in vitro models to investigate cancer cell growth and migration, which does not allow investigation of stromal involvement in Wnt driven metastasis. AIM: To investigate targeting ROR1 and ROR2 using a primary co-culture 3D model of epithelial ovarian cancer dissemination to the omentum...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Kenan Qu, Qing Jia, Nathaniel J Fisch
An optical vortex is a light wave with a twisting wavefront around its propagation axis and null intensity in the beam center. Its unique spatial structure of field lends itself to a broad range of applications, including optical communication, quantum information, superresolution microscopy, and multidimensional manipulation of particles. However, accessible intensity of optical vortices have been limited to material ionization threshold. This limitation might be removed by using the plasma medium. Here we propose the design of suitably magnetized plasmas which, functioning as a q-plate, leads to a direct conversion from a high-intensity Gaussian beam into a twisted beam...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Gill Sang Han, Seongha Lee, Matthew Duff, Fen Qin, Jung-Kun Lee
We report highly bendable and efficient perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that use thermally oxidized layer of Ti metal plate as an electron transport layer (ETL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of flexible PSCs reaches 14.9 % with short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.9 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.09, and fill factor (ff) of 0.74. Moreover, the Ti metal based PSCs exhibit a superior fatigue resistance over ITO/PEC substrate. Flexible PSCs maintain 100 % of their initial PCE even after PSCs are bent 1000 times at the bending radius of 4 mm...
January 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kym J Williams, Dale W Chapman, Elissa J Phillips, Nick Ball
This study aimed to investigate if hip, knee and ankle peak power is influenced by the relative load lifted, altering the joint and system load-power relationship during a countermovement jump (CMJ). Twenty-Three male national representative athletes (age: 20.3 ± 3.1y, squat 1RM: 133.8 ± 24.8kg) completed three CMJs at relative barbell loads of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of an athlete's estimated back squat 1RM. Ground reaction force and joint kinematics were captured using a 16 camera motion capture array integrated with two in ground tri-axial force plates...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
John P Begly, Michael S Guss, Theodore S Wolfson, Siddharth A Mahure, Andrew S Rokito, Laith M Jazrawi
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine whether professional baseball positional players who underwent medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) reconstruction demonstrate decreases in performance on return to competition compared with preoperative performance metrics and their control-matched peers. METHODS: Data for 35 Major League Baseball positional players who underwent MUCL reconstruction during 31 seasons were obtained. Twenty-six players met inclusion criteria...
February 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Thomas Desvignes, Andrew Carey, Ingo Braasch, Trevor Enright, John H Postlethwait
BACKGROUND: The caudal fin of actinopterygians experienced substantial morphological changes during evolution. In basal actinopterygians, the caudal fin skeleton supports an asymmetrical heterocercal caudal fin, while most teleosts have a symmetrical homocercal caudal fin. The transition from the ancestral heterocercal form to the derived homocercal caudal fin remains poorly understood. Few developmental studies provide an understanding of derived and ancestral characters among basal actinopterygians...
January 13, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Zheng Li, Alexey M Lomonosov, Chenyin Ni, Bing Han, Zhonghua Shen
This Letter focuses on the selectively non-contact generation of Lamb wave modes in plates by using a continuous-wave (CW) laser moving along sample surface. Compared with the generated Lamb waves with broadband, multiple modes (the existence of at least two modes at any given frequency) excited by a pulsed laser, the desired single narrowband mode of the Lamb wave can be generated by a moving CW laser, as long as the scanning speed matches the phase velocity of the mode. Moreover, the dispersion curves of the Lamb wave can be obtained directly from the power spectrum of the time-domain signal recorded at each laser's moving speed...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Diego Antunes, Mateus Rossato, Rafael Lima Kons, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Gabriela Fischer
Despite the evolution of runner performance in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about neuromuscular parameters of sprinters from different classes, especially related to power output, muscular imbalances and asymmetry indexes in lower limbs. The aim of this study was to assess muscle power, muscular imbalance and asymmetry in sprinters with CP. Four male sprinters with CP (age, 18 to 27 years; body mass, 58.5 to 72.8 kg; height, 161.5 to 174 cm) classified as T38, T37, T36, T35 according to International Paralympic Committee functional classification, performed vertical counter movement jump and squat jump on force plate and isokinetic torque evaluations in both limbs...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Matthew J Hayes, Dirk R Spits, David G Watts, Vincent G Kelly
The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between tennis serve speed and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) kinetic variables; countermovement jump height (CMJ Height), shoulder internal and external rotation strength and anthropometric measures in elite adolescent tennis players. Twenty-one elite junior tennis players from the Tennis Australia National Academy were recruited for this study (male, n = 12, female, n = 9). Correlations between the performance variables and peak tennis serve speed were calculated using a Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Aminata Kilungo, Linda Powers, Nathan Arnold, Kelli Whelan, Kurt Paterson, Dale Young
The objective of this study was to examine three well designs: drilled wells (20-30 m deep), closed dug wells (>5 m deep), and hand-dug open wells (<5 m deep), to determine the water quality for improving access to safe and clean water in rural communities. Heterotrophic plate count (HPC), total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and turbidity, were used to assess the water quality of 97 wells. Additionally, the study looked at the microflora diversity of the water, focusing on potential pathogens using outgrowth, PCR, and genome sequencing for 10 wells...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shimrit Adutler-Lieber, Irina Zaretsky, Helena Sabany, Elena Kartvelishvily, Ofra Golani, Benjamin Geiger, Nir Friedman
Immune processes within the complex microenvironment of the lymph node involve multiple intercellular, cell-matrix, and paracrine interactions, resulting in the expansion of antigen-specific T cells. Inspired by the lymph node microenvironment, we aimed to develop an ex vivo "synthetic immune niche" (SIN), which could effectively stimulate the proliferation of antigen-activated CD4+ T cells. This engineered SIN consisted of surfaces coated with the chemokine C-C motif ligand 21 (CCL21) and with the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), coupled with the soluble cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) added to the culture medium...
June 27, 2017: Blood Advances
Thomas D Duensing, Susan R Watson
Because molecular targets addressable with antibody therapeutics are present on the surface of cells or in circulation, they are ideal for screening by cell- or bead-based assays using flow cytometry, a powerful, high-content analysis technique for cells, beads, and other particles in suspension. The ability to analyze thousands of cells per second, combined with multiplexing capabilities, has made this technology indispensable for laboratories performing antibody development work. Advances in this field, particularly in the areas of plate-based sampling and high-throughput flow cytometry, are enabling the use of this technology earlier in the antibody development and discovery process...
January 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Thomas D Duensing, Susan R Watson
This simple protocol tests antibody binding to target antigens on the surface of cells. This assay is powerful because negative controls are built into each well of the screening plates. It can be used to screen crude supernatants from hybridomas, as well as bacterial periplasmic extracts when screening phage libraries. Using cell-permeant dyes allows the negative and positive cell lines to be color-coded and screened in the same well. A variant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be performed where the target antigen is presented on beads...
January 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Takayuki Muro, Takuo Ohkochi, Yukako Kato, Yudai Izumi, Shun Fukami, Hidenori Fujiwara, Tomohiro Matsushita
Deployments of spherical grids to obtain high energy and angular resolutions for retarding field analyzers (RFAs) having acceptance angles as large as or larger than ±45° were explored under the condition of using commercially available microchannel plates with effective diameters of approximately 100 mm. As a result of electron trajectory simulations, a deployment of three spherical grids with significantly different grid separations instead of conventional equidistant separations showed an energy resolving power (E/ΔE) of 3200 and an angular resolution of 0...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Pedro Aleixo, José Vaz-Patto, Helena Moreira, João Abrantes
The purpose of this study was to compare rheumatoid arthritis post-menopausal women (RAPW) with pathological involvement of the lower limb joints and age-matched healthy post-menopausal women (AHPW) in regard to the dynamic joint stiffness of the ankle (DJSankle) during the stance phase of gait. Data were collected from 18 RAPW and 18 AHPW. Gait was assessed by a three-dimensional motion analysis system synchronised with a force plate. Subjects walked barefoot at natural and self-selected speed, performing 14 valid trials (comprising 7 left and 7 right foot-steps on a force plate)...
December 13, 2017: Gait & Posture
Junhui Shen, Jianfeng He, Fang Wang
BACKGROUND Primary RPE cells could be a reliable model for representing in vivo status of RPE compared with cell lines. We present a protocol for in vitro isolation and culture of primary RPE cells from C57BL mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used C57BL mice ages 7 days to 4 months. The RPE layer was separated from the neural retina layer by digestion with 2% Dispase for 45 min and scraped off from the choroid after 25-min incubation in 37°C. Collected RPE sheets were gently pipetted up into smaller sheets. RPE sheets were transferred into well plates and cultured in vitro for 2 weeks...
December 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Matt Howard, J Bakker-Dyos, L Gallagher, J P O'Hara, D Woods, A Mellor
INTRODUCTION: The British Service Dhaulagiri Research Expedition (BSDMRE) took place from 27 March to 31 May 2016. The expedition involved 129 personnel, with voluntary participation in nine different study protocols. Studies were conducted in three research camps established at 3600, 4600 and 5140 m and involved taking and storing blood samples, cardiac echocardiography and investigations involving a balance plate. Research in this remote environment requires careful planning in order to provide a robust and resilient power plan...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Masanobu Sagisaka, Shinji Ono, Craig James, Atsushi Yoshizawa, Azmi Mohamed, Frédéric Guittard, Robert M Enick, Sarah E Rogers, Adam Czajka, Christopher Hill, Julian Eastoe
Previous work (M. Sagisaka, et al. Langmuir 31 (2015) 7479-7487), showed the most effective fluorocarbon (FC) and hydrocarbon (HC) chain lengths in the hybrid surfactants FCm-HCn (sodium 1-oxo-1-[4-(perfluoroalkyl)phenyl]alkane-2-sulfonates, where m = FC length and n = HC length) were m and n = 6 and 4 for water solubilization, whereas m 6 and n 6, or m 6 and n 5, were optimal chain lengths for reversed micelle elongation in supercritical CO2. To clarify why this difference of only a few methylene chain units is so effective at tuning the solubilizing power and reversed micelle morphology, nanostructures of water-in-CO2 (W/CO2) microemulsions were investigated by high-pressure small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements at different water-to-surfactant molar ratios (W0) and surfactant concentrations...
December 15, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Ebrahim Azadniya, Gertrud E Morlock
An affordable bioanalytical workflow supports the collection of data on active ingredients, required for the understanding of health-related food, superfood and traditional medicines. Targeted effect-directed responses of single compounds in a complex sample highlight this powerful bioanalytical hyphenation of planar chromatography with (bio)assays. Among many reports about biological properties of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge root (Danshen) and their analytical methods, the highly efficient direct bioautography (DB) workflow has not been considered so far...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
P S Harenberg, M F Langer, J Sproedt, J G Grünert
Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ1) is a common, painful condition with positive radiological findings in up to 32% of people over 50 years of age and up to 91% of people over 80 years of age. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to recommend one surgical treatment option over the others. We conducted a retrospective review of 77 patients treated for CMCJ1 osteoarthritis with plate arthrodesis between 1979 and 1996. The review included physical examination, including range of motion (ROM) of the thumb interphalangeal joint, metacarpophalangeal joint and CMCJ1, pinch grip, key grip and power grip strength, and a questionnaire on subjective outcomes (appearance, dexterity, load bearing, pain, strength, subjective overall result and if patients would choose the procedure again)...
December 14, 2017: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
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