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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545561/sources-of-variability-in-the-measurement-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-infection-intensity-by-kato-katz-and-qpcr
#1
Alice V Easton, Rita G Oliveira, Martin Walker, Elise M O'Connell, Sammy M Njenga, Charles S Mwandawiro, Joanne P Webster, Thomas B Nutman, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Understanding and quantifying the sources and implications of error in the measurement of helminth egg intensity using Kato-Katz (KK) and the newly emerging "gold standard" quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique is necessary for the appropriate design of epidemiological studies, including impact assessments for deworming programs. METHODS: Repeated measurements of Ascaris lumbricoides infection intensity were made from samples collected in western Kenya using the qPCR and KK techniques...
May 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530478/validity-of-a-linear-velocity-transducer-for-testing-maximum-vertical-jumps
#2
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Belén Feriche, Slobodan Jaric, Paulino Padial, Amador García-Ramos
This study aimed to examine the validity of mechanical variables obtained by a linear velocity transducer from the unconstrained and constrained squat jump (SJ). Twenty-three men were tested on the unconstrained SJ and the SJ constrained by a Smith machine. Maximum values of force, velocity, and power were simultaneously recorded both by a linear velocity transducer attached to a bar of mass of 17, 30, 45, 60 and 75 kg and by a force plate. Linear velocity transducer generally overestimated the outcomes measured as compared to the force plate, particularly in unconstrained SJ...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525761/impact-of-bioactive-packaging-systems-based-on-evoh-films-and-essential-oils-in-the-control-of-aflatoxigenic-fungi-and-aflatoxin-production-in-maize
#3
Eva M Mateo, José V Gómez, Irene Domínguez, Jose V Gimeno-Adelantado, Rufino Mateo-Castro, Rafael Gavara, Misericordia Jiménez
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common fungal species associated with aflatoxin (AF) contamination of cereals, especially maize, and other agricultural commodities. AFB1, the most frequent and toxic metabolite, is a powerful hepatotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic compound. Effective strategies to control these fungal species and AFs in food and feed are required. Active packaging film containing essential oils (EO) is one of the most innovative food packaging concepts. In this study, ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) copolymer films incorporating EO from Origanum vulgare (ORE), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CIN) or their major active constituents, carvacrol (CAR) and cinnamaldehyde (CINHO), respectively, were developed and assayed to control growth of A...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509870/sound-power-estimation-for-beam-and-plate-structures-using-polyvinylidene-fluoride-films-as-sensors
#4
Qibo Mao, Haibing Zhong
The theory for calculation and/or measurement of sound power based on the classical velocity-based radiation mode (V-mode) approach is well established for planar structures. However, the current V-mode theory is limited in scope in that it can only be applied to conventional motion sensors (i.e., accelerometers). In this study, in order to estimate the sound power of vibrating beam and plate structure by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films as sensors, a PVDF-based radiation mode (C-mode) approach concept is introduced to determine the sound power radiation from the output signals of PVDF films of the vibrating structure...
May 16, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498811/the-generation-and-functional-characterization-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-human-intervertebral-disc-nucleus-pulposus-cells
#5
Yanxia Zhu, Yuhong Liang, Hongxia Zhu, Cuihong Lian, Liang Wang, Yiwei Wang, Hongsheng Gu, Guangqian Zhou, Xiaoping Yu
Disc degenerative disease (DDD) is believed to originate in the nucleus pulposus (NP) region therefore, it is important to obtain a greater number of active NP cells for the study and therapy of DDD. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a powerful tool for modeling the development of DDD in humans, and have the potential to be applied in regenerative medicine. NP cells were isolated from DDD patients following our improved method, and then the primary NP cells were reprogramed into iPSCs with Sendai virus vectors encoding 4 factors...
April 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497169/homogeneous-pancreatic-cancer-spheroids-mimic-growth-pattern-of-circulating-tumor-cell-clusters-and-macrometastases-displaying-heterogeneity-and-crater-like-structure-on-inner-layer
#6
Hao Feng, Bao-Chi Ou, Jing-Kun Zhao, Shuai Yin, Ai-Guo Lu, Eva Oechsle, Wolfgang E Thasler
PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer 3D in vitro models including multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), single cell-derived tumor spheroid (SCTS), tissue-derived tumor spheroid, and organotypic models provided powerful platforms to mimic in vivo tumor. Recent work supports that circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters are more efficient in metastasis seeding than single CTCs. The purpose of this study is to establish 3D culture models which can mimic single CTC, monoclonal CTC clusters, and the expansion of macrometastases...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490775/metasurface-freeform-nanophotonics
#7
Alan Zhan, Shane Colburn, Christopher M Dodson, Arka Majumdar
Freeform optics aims to expand the toolkit of optical elements by allowing for more complex phase geometries beyond rotational symmetry. Complex, asymmetric curvatures are employed to enhance the performance of optical components while minimizing their size. Unfortunately, these high curvatures and complex forms are often difficult to manufacture with current technologies, especially at the micron scale. Metasurfaces are planar sub-wavelength structures that can control the phase, amplitude, and polarization of incident light, and can thereby mimic complex geometric curvatures on a flat, wavelength-scale thick surface...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487820/recombinant-dna-technology-and-click-chemistry-a-powerful-combination-for-generating-a-hybrid-elastin-like-statherin-hydrogel-to-control-calcium-phosphate-mineralization
#8
Mohamed Hamed Misbah, Mercedes Santos, Luis Quintanilla, Christina Günter, Matilde Alonso, Andreas Taubert, José Carlos Rodríguez-Cabello
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for generating different phases and morphologies of calcium phosphate by elastin-like recombinamers is supreme for bioengineering of advanced multifunctional materials. The generation of such multifunctional hybrid materials depends on the properties of their counterparts and the way in which they are assembled. The success of this assembly depends on the different approaches used, such as recombinant DNA technology and click chemistry. In the present work, an elastin-like recombinamer bearing lysine amino acids distributed along the recombinamer chain has been cross-linked via Huisgen [2 + 3] cycloaddition...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484335/coupling-strength-assumption-in-statistical-energy-analysis
#9
T Lafont, N Totaro, A Le Bot
This paper is a discussion of the hypothesis of weak coupling in statistical energy analysis (SEA). The examples of coupled oscillators and statistical ensembles of coupled plates excited by broadband random forces are discussed. In each case, a reference calculation is compared with the SEA calculation. First, it is shown that the main SEA relation, the coupling power proportionality, is always valid for two oscillators irrespective of the coupling strength. But the case of three subsystems, consisting of oscillators or ensembles of plates, indicates that the coupling power proportionality fails when the coupling is strong...
April 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478702/sdf-1-accelerates-cartilage-defect-repairing-by-recruiting-bmscs-and-promoting-chondrolgenic-differentiation
#10
Yuze Wang, Xiaojuan Sun, Jia Lv, Lingyuan Zeng, Xiaochun Wei, Lei Wei
Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a powerful chemoattractant for the localization of CXCR4 positive bone marrow stem cell (BMSC) into the bone marrow. We studied the effects of SDF-1 on the cartilage defect repair by recruiting BMSCs and promoting its chondrolgenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Chemotaxis analysis with Transwell plate showed that SDF-1 could recruit BMSCs through SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blot results suggested that the levels of type II collagen and GAG were increased after incubation the BMSCs with SDF-1 compared with without SDF-1 group...
May 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476316/aberration-free-intraocular-lenses-what-does-this-really-mean
#11
Achim Langenbucher, Simon Schröder, Alan Cayless, Timo Eppig
BACKGROUND: So-called aberration-free intraocular lenses (IOLs) are well established in modern cataract surgery. Usually, they are designed to perfectly refract a collimated light beam onto the focal point. METHODS: We show how much aberration can be expected with such an IOL in a convergent light beam such as that found anterior to the human cornea. Additionally, the aberration in a collimated beam is estimated for an IOL that has no aberrations in the convergent beam...
May 3, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468346/simultaneous-wavelength-and-orbital-angular-momentum-demultiplexing-using-tunable-mems-based-fabry-perot-filter
#12
Vladimir S Lyubopytov, Alexey P Porfirev, Stanislav O Gurbatov, Sujoy Paul, Martin F Schumann, Julijan Cesar, Mohammadreza Malekizandi, Mohammad T Haidar, Martin Wegener, Arkadi Chipouline, Franko Küppers
In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing/demultiplexing of 10 Gbit/s data streams using a new on-chip micro-component-tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with a spiral phase plate. In the experiment, two wavelengths, each of them carrying two channels with zero and nonzero OAMs, form four independent information channels. In case of spacing between wavelength channels of 0.8 nm and intensity modulation, power penalties relative to the transmission of one channel do not exceed 1...
May 1, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466940/microfluidic-platform-with-spatiotemporally-controlled-micro-environment-for-studying-long-term-c-elegans-developmental-arrests
#13
Weipeng Zhuo, Hang Lu, Patrick T McGrath
Animals' long-term survival is dependent on their ability to sense, filter and respond to their environment at multiple timescales. For example, during development, animals integrate environmental information, which can then modulate adult behavior and developmental trajectory. The neural and molecular mechanisms that underlie these changes are poorly understood. C. elegans is a powerful model organism to study such mechanisms; however, conventional plate-based culturing techniques are limited in their ability to consistently control and modulate an animal's environmental conditions...
May 3, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466759/knee-ankle-foot-orthosis-with-powered-knee-for-support-in-the-elderly
#14
Peter Paul Pott, Sebastian Immanuel Wolf, Julia Block, Stefan van Drongelen, Markus Grün, Daniel Ww Heitzmann, Jürgen Hielscher, Andreas Horn, Roman Müller, Oliver Rettig, Ulrich Konigorski, Roland Werthschützky, Helmut Friedrich Schlaak, Thorsten Meiß
A prototype of a powered knee orthotic device was developed to determine whether fractional external torque and power support to the knee relieves the biomechanical loads and reduces the muscular demand for a subject performing sit-to-stand movements. With this demonstrator, consisting of the subsystems actuation, kinematics, sensors, and control, all relevant sensor data can be acquired and full control is maintained over actuator parameters. A series-elastic actuator based on a direct current motor provides up to 30 Nm torque to the knee via a hinge joint with an additional sliding degree of freedom...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459111/lubricant-flow-analysis-for-effective-lubrication-of-tractor-forward-reverse-clutch
#15
Daekyung Noh, Soochul Kim, Yongjoo Kim, Joosup Jang
Owing to the high power requirements of tractors, their low-power transmission gears often experience durability problems such as burning of the clutch. The operation of tractors under high load conditions also causes clutch slip, with the consequent longer operation duration exacerbating the burning of the friction plate. Solving this problem requires effective lubricant distribution. This was achieved in the present study by the development of an analysis model for predicting the lubricant flow rate. The reliability of the model was verified by comparing its predictions for various operation conditions with experimental measurements...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458472/plating-of-pilon-fractures-based-on-the-orientation-of-the-fibular-shaft-component-a-biomechanical-study-evaluating-plate-stiffness-in-a-cadaveric-fracture-model
#16
Gennadiy A Busel, J Tracy Watson
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate mechanically superior method of pilon fracture fixation by comparing axial stiffness between anterolateral and medial tibial locking plates in a cadaveric fracture model. METHODS: Eight matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaver specimens (lower limb after through-knee disarticulation) were used to eliminate confounder of bone quality. Simulated pilon fractures were created so that each pair represented either varus or valgus fracture pattern (AO 43-A2) with associated fibular fractures (transverse or comminuted)...
June 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456239/high-speed-microstrip-multi-anode-multichannel-plate-detector-system
#17
Andreas Riedo, Marek Tulej, Urs Rohner, Peter Wurz
High-speed detector systems with high dynamic range and pulse width characteristics in the sub-nanosecond regime are mandatory for high resolution and highly sensitive time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Typically, for a reasonable detector area, an impedance-matched anode design is necessary to transmit the registered signal fast and distortion-free from the anode to the signal acquisition system. In this report, a high-speed microstrip multi-anode multichannel plate detector is presented and discussed. The anode consists of four separate active concentric anode segments allowing a simultaneous readout of signal with a dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude...
April 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442856/functional-outcome-of-fixation-of-complex-intra-articular-distal-radius-fractures-with-a-variable-angle-distal-radius-volar-rim-plate
#18
M Spiteri, W Ng, J Matthews, D Power
Aim To evaluate the outcome of these complex fractures using a volar approach and the DePuy Synthes variable-angle 2.4-mm distal radius rim plate. This plate is precontoured to the volar rim for placement distal to the watershed line allowing purchase of the rim fragment of the lunate facet. Its low profile and smooth edges are designed to minimize flexor tendon irritation. Method We report on a consecutive series of far distal AO-23B3 and AO-23C3 fractures treated using this plate in a tertiary hand center between November 2011 and May 2014...
April 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438832/a-photoconversion-model-for-full-spectral-programming-and-multiplexing-of-optogenetic%C3%A2-systems
#19
Evan J Olson, Constantine N Tzouanas, Jeffrey J Tabor
Optogenetics combines externally applied light signals and genetically engineered photoreceptors to control cellular processes with unmatched precision. Here, we develop a mathematical model of wavelength- and intensity-dependent photoconversion, signaling, and output gene expression for our two previously engineered light-sensing Escherichia coli two-component systems. To parameterize the model, we develop a simple set of spectral and dynamical calibration experiments using our recent open-source "Light Plate Apparatus" device...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437735/detective-quantum-efficiency-dqe-in-pet-scanners-a-simulation-study
#20
George E Karpetas, Christos M Michail, George P Fountos, Nektarios I Kalyvas, Ioannis G Valais, Ioannis S Kandarakis, George S Panayiotakis
The aim of the present study is to introduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for the image quality assessment of positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. For this purpose, a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plane source was simulated using a previously validated, scanner and source geometry, Monte Carlo (MC) model. The model was developed with the Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) MC package and reconstructed images obtained with the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR), with cluster computing...
April 12, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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