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Saphenous nerve

Tom Esparon, Callum M Thomson, Paul M Rea, Bilal Jamal
AIM: There is a risk of iatrogenic injury to the soft tissues of the calcaneus and this study assesses the risk of injury to these structures in circular frame calcaneal fracture fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After olive tip wires were inserted, an L-shaped incision on the lateral and medial aspects of 5 formalin fixed cadaveric feet was performed to expose the underlying soft tissues. The calcaneus was divided into zones corresponding to high, medium and low risk using a grading system...
October 14, 2016: Injury
Robert Petretta, Vipul Mandalia
The use of an accessory posteromedial portal for posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in bicruciate knee ligament reconstruction has often been described. However, the use of a posteromedial portal can be time consuming and has some inherent risks including injury to the saphenous vein or nerve. We describe our bicruciate knee ligament reconstruction using 4 exclusively anterior portals including a high anteromedial, high anterolateral, low anteromedial, and low anterolateral portals. Arthroscopy is performed using a combination of 30° and 70° arthroscopes...
August 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
Omar Rodriguez-Acevedo, Kristen E Elstner, Kui Martinic, Aaron Zea, Jenny Diaz, Rodrigo T Martins, Fernando Arduini, Alexandra Hodgkinson, Nabeel Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Endovenous radio frequency ablation for small saphenous vein incompetence by and large appears to be superior and safer than conventional open surgery. Small saphenous vein ablation from approximately mid-calf to the point proximally where the small saphenous vein dives into the popliteal fossa is considered to be safe, as the sural nerve is in most cases separated from this segment of the small saphenous vein by the deep fascia. The outcome of the distal incompetent small saphenous vein remains unclear...
September 29, 2016: Phlebology
L Baverel, T Cucurulo, C Lutz, Colombet, J Cournapeau, F Dalmay, N Lefevre, R Letartre, J-F Potel, X Roussignol, L Surdeau, E Servien
INTRODUCTION: More and more anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are being performed as outpatient surgery in France, because of economic considerations. Postoperative pain is the most common reason for delayed discharge that could require hospitalization, and the main reason for unanticipated hospital admission. The purpose of this study was to define the best anesthesia and analgesia methods for ACL reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, comparative study performed between January 2014 and April 2015...
September 26, 2016: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
J J McDougall, S Albacete, N Schuelert, P G Mitchell, C Lin, J L Oskins, H H Bui, M G Chambers
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that osteoarthritis (OA) has a neuropathic component; however, the identity of the molecules responsible for this peripheral neuropathy is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to joint neuropathy and pain. DESIGN: Male Lewis rats received an intra-articular injection of 50 μg of LPA into the knee and allowed to recover for up to 21 days. Saphenous nerve myelination was assessed by g-ratio calculation from electron micrographs and afferent nerve damage visualised by activation transcription factor-3 (ATF-3) expression...
September 17, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Richard P Hulse, Robert A R Drake, David O Bates, Lucy F Donaldson
Neuropathic pain results from neuroplasticity in nociceptive neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate that control of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, through the splice factor serine-arginine splice factor 1 (SRSF1), is integral to the processing of nociceptive information in the spinal cord. Neuropathic pain develops following a partial saphenous nerve ligation injury, at which time SRSF1 is activated in damaged myelinated primary afferent neurons, with minimal found in small diameter (IB4 positive) dorsal root ganglia neurons...
September 9, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Barry Rose, Kumar Kunasingam, Tristan Barton, James Walsh, Karen Fogarty, Andrew Wines
: Local anesthetic use for wound infusions, single injection, and continuous nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia is well established. No study has investigated the effect of a continuous block of the saphenous and superficial peroneal nerves at the level of the ankle joint following first ray surgery. A double blind randomized controlled trial was designed. One hundred patients with hallux valgus and rigidus requiring surgical correction were recruited and randomized to receive a postoperative continuous infusion at the ankle of normal saline or ropivacaine for 24 hours...
September 9, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
Eugene Krustev, Milind M Muley, Jason J McDougall
Neurogenic inflammation is a local inflammatory response that is driven by the peripheral release of neuropeptides from small diameter afferents which occurs in many organs including joints. The knee joint has a rich endocannabinoid system which has been shown to decrease acute synovitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of joint afferents on leukocyte-endothelial interactions within the synovial microcirculation of mice and determine the role of endocannabinoids on this inflammatory response...
August 22, 2016: Neuropeptides
Kenta Kagaya, Atsushi Sasaki, Yurika Kino, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Yasushi Kuraishi, Tsugunobu Andoh
Transient ischemia-reperfusion in the hand and foot elicits spontaneous dysesthesia. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to examine peripheral neural activity related to spontaneous dysesthesia in a mouse model of hind-paw transient ischemic-reperfusion and to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress in this neural activity. The femoral artery and vein were interrupted for 10min using tourniquet pressure, before the tourniquet was removed to allow reperfusion of the hind paw...
September 19, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Pia Jæger, Zbigniew J Koscielniak-Nielsen, Karen Lisa Hilsted, Ulrik Grevstad, Volkert Siersma, Maria Louise Fabritius, Jørgen Berg Dahl
BACKGROUND: The binary aims of this study were to investigate the effect of total dose of lidocaine on duration of an adductor canal block (ACB) and to validate different methods used to assess nerve blocks. METHODS: We performed 2 blinded, randomized, controlled crossover trials, including healthy, young men. In study 1, 14 subjects received 4 ACBs with saline and 40, 80, and 160 mg lidocaine. In study 2, 14 new subjects received 2 ACBs with 100 and 300 mg lidocaine...
October 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
K Nagasaki, H Obara, K Tanaka, K Koyano, A Asamia, Y Kitagawa
OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of peripheral nerve crushing (Smithwick operation) in relieving intractable chronic pain associated with foot ulcers caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) or atherosclerosis. METHOD: From April 2009 to April 2012, patients underwent peripheral nerve crushing in the leg affected by foot ulceration. The cause of ulceration was either DM alone, atherosclerosis alone, or both DM and atherosclerosis. Because sensation in the foot is associated with five nerves: the tibial, deep peroneal, superficial peroneal, sural, and saphenous, one or more of these nerves were crushed over a length of 1...
August 2016: Journal of Wound Care
Gabriel Xavier, Xavier Martin Oliva, Mauri Rotinen, Mariano Monzo
BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to evaluate the safety of hypothetical arthroscopic portals from talonavicular joint and to evaluate their reproducibility and enforceability. METHODS: 19 cadaveric feet were marked and four arthroscopic portals were made (medial, dorsomedial, dorsolateral and lateral). The specimens were dissected in layers and the distances between neurovascular structures and the trocars were measured. RESULTS: Medial and dorsomedial portals were in average 8...
September 2016: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Callum M Thomson, Tom Esparon, Paul M Rea, Bilal Jamal
The use of external fixation for intra-articular calcaneal fractures is increasing in popularity. Studies have shown fine wire and monoaxial external fixation to be a viable surgical alternative to more invasive methods of open reduction and internal fixation of the calcaneus. However, there is an absence of literature that quantifies the risk of pin insertion for monoaxial fixation. This study aimed to determine the safety of inserting monoaxial pins within the calcaneus to house the Orthofix Calcaneal Mini-Fixator...
October 2016: Injury
Derek C Molliver, Kristofer K Rau, Michael P Jankowski, Deepak J Soneji, Kyle M Baumbauer, H Richard Koerber
P2Y2 is a member of the P2Y family of G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors that is widely co-expressed with TRPV1 in peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. To characterize P2Y2 function in cutaneous afferents, intracellular recordings from mouse sensory neurons were made using an ex vivo preparation in which hindlimb skin, saphenous nerve, dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord are dissected intact. The peripheral response properties of individual cutaneous C-fibers were analyzed using digitally controlled mechanical and thermal stimuli in male P2Y2(+/+) and P2Y2(-/-) mice...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
Natalie A Duggett, Lisa A Griffiths, Olivia E McKenna, Vittorio de Santis, Nutcha Yongsanguanchai, Esther B Mokori, Sarah J L Flatters
Paclitaxel is a first-line chemotherapeutic with the major dose-limiting side effect of painful neuropathy. Previous preclinical studies indicate mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are associated with this disorder; however no direct assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in sensory neurons following paclitaxel has been undertaken. As expected, repeated low doses of systemic paclitaxel in rats induced long-lasting pain behaviour with a delayed onset, akin to the clinical scenario...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Mustafa Cuneyt Cicek, Omer Faruk Cicek, Gokhan Lafci, Alper Uzun
OBJECTIVE: To compare the nerve injury and vessel disruption complicaitons in patients undergoing saphenous vein stripping using olive heads of different sizes. METHODS: Big olive heads were used in group A (n=50) and small olive heads were used in group B (n=50) from the ankle to the groin; in group C (n=50), the vein was stripped in two sections; in an upward fashion by stripping the distal portion from the ankle to the level of the knee using small olive heads and by stripping the proximal portion from the knee to the level of the groin using big olive heads...
May 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
T P Crotty
The noradrenaline stimulus has two components, one excitor, the other inhibitory. Neuronal noradrenaline is the excitor component and plasma noradrenaline is the inhibitory. The balance of effect between the two, the noradrenergic balance, is the controlled variable of the sympathetic system and determines the effect of noradrenaline. Neuronal noradrenaline stimulates tissues by diffusion from their sympathetic nerve endings, plasma noradrenaline does so by diffusion from their microcirculations. Changes in microcirculatory flow, by altering the flow mediated effect of plasma noradrenaline, are mainly responsible for altering the noradrenergic balance in the peripheral tissues; changes in CSF flow are speculated to be mainly responsible for doing the same in the brain, by altering the balance between synaptic noradrenaline in the brain and nonsynaptic noradrenaline in the subarachnoid CSF...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Thomas A Trein, Beatriz P Floriano, Juliana T Wagatsuma, Joana Z Ferreira, Guilherme L da Silva, Paulo Sp Dos Santos, Sílvia Hv Perri, Valéria Nls Oliva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate motor and sensory blockade of combining dexmedetomidine with ropivacaine, administered perineurally or systemically, for femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in conscious dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, experimental study. ANIMALS: Seven healthy Beagle dogs, aged 3.3 ± 0.1 years and weighing 11.0 ± 2.4 kg. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane on three separate occasions for unilateral femoral and sciatic nerve blocks and were administered the following treatments in random order: perineural ropivacaine 0...
June 28, 2016: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
N Paniagua, R Girón, C Goicoechea, V López-Miranda, J M Vela, M Merlos, M I Martín Fontelles
BACKGROUND: E-52862 (S1RA, 4-[2-[[5-methyl-1-(2-naphthalenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]ethyl]-morpholine), a novel selective sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) antagonist, has demonstrated efficacy in nociceptive and neuropathic pain models. Our aim was to test if σ1R blockade with E-52862 may modify the signs of neuropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a type 2 diabetes model. METHODS: Mechanical and thermal response thresholds were tested on 7-, 13-, 14- and 15-week-old ZDF rats treated with saline or with E-52862 acutely administered on week 13, followed by sub-chronic administration (14 days)...
June 24, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A Ruffilli, M De Fine, F Traina, F Pilla, D Fenga, C Faldini
PURPOSE: Infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve injury is a common complication following hamstring graft harvest during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The direction of skin incision performed at proximal tibial metaphysis may affect the rate of iatrogenic nerve damage. Aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate evidence that would substantiate the adoption of one incision over another for hamstring graft harvesting. METHODS: The available literature was systematically screened searching studies dealing with iatrogenic injury to the saphenous nerve after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendons...
June 23, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
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