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Amy Chinner, Jasmine Blane, Claire Lancaster, Chris Hinds, Ivan Koychev
Dementia is the most widespread form of neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with an immense societal and personal cost. Prevalence of this disorder is projected to triple worldwide by 2050 leading to an urgent need to make advances in the efficiency of both its care and therapy research. Digital technologies are a rapidly advancing field that provide a previously unavailable opportunity to alleviate challenges faced by clinicians and researchers working in this area. This clinical review aimed to summarise currently available evidence on digital technologies that can be used to monitor cognition...
April 20, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
Hilda Ferrero, Ignacio M Larrayoz, Maite Solas, Alfredo Martínez, María J Ramírez, Francisco J Gil-Bea
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein highly expressed in neurons with a chief role in microtubule dynamics and axonal maintenance. Adrenomedullin gene (ADM) codifies for various peptides that exert broad range of actions in the body. Previous works in our groups have shown that increased ADM products are positively correlated to microtubule disruption and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease brains. In the present study, we explore the involvement of ADM in the neuropathology of frontotemporal lobar degeneration that presents with primary tauopathy (FTLD-tau)...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ismaïl Bensassi, Jorge Lopez-Castroman, Jerome J Maller, Chantal Meslin, Marilyn Wyart, Karen Ritchie, Philippe Courtet, Sylvaine Artero, Raffaella Calati
BACKGROUND: Structural neuroimaging studies revealed a consistent pattern of volumetric reductions in both hippocampus (HC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of individuals with major depressive episode(s) (MDE). This study investigated HC and ACC volume differences in currently depressed individuals (n = 150), individuals with a past lifetime MDE history (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 287). METHODS: Non-demented individuals were recruited from a cohort of community-dwelling older adults (ESPRIT study)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Sevil Yasar, Vijay R Varma, Gregory C Harris, Michelle C Carlson
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests a possible role of the renin angiotensin system in the pathophysiologic process of Alzheimer's disease, of which angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (ANGII) are important proteins. Few studies evaluated associations between blood ACE-1 and none between ANGII levels, and cognition. OBJECTIVE: Our pilot study was aimed to examine associations between blood ACE-1 and ANG II levels and cognitive function in non-demented participants at baseline and over a 1-year period...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Pierre-François Meyer, Melissa Savard, Judes Poirier, Anne Labonté, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Tara M Weitz, Terrence Town, John Breitner
Immune mechanisms may be important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, studies comparing healthy and demented individuals' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma immune marker levels have yielded conflicting results. We analyzed CSF from 101 members of the parental history-positive PREVENT-AD cohort of healthy aging adults, and 237 participants in the initial cohort of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-1). Following recent practice, we used the biomarkers total-tau and amyloid-β1 - 42 to allocate participants from each study into four stages of AD pathogenesis: Stage 0 (no abnormality), Stage 1 (reduced amyloid-β1 - 42), Stage 2 (reduced amyloid-β1 - 42 and increased total-tau), or "Suspected Non-Alzheimer Pathology" (elevated total-tau only)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Prabha Siddarth, Alison C Burggren, Harris A Eyre, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
Atrophy of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) occurs with aging, resulting in impaired episodic memory. Aerobic fitness is positively correlated with total hippocampal volume, a heavily studied memory-critical region within the MTL. However, research on associations between sedentary behavior and MTL subregion integrity is limited. Here we explore associations between thickness of the MTL and its subregions (namely CA1, CA23DG, fusiform gyrus, subiculum, parahippocampal, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex,), physical activity, and sedentary behavior...
2018: PloS One
Helena M Blumen, Lucy L Brown, Christian Habeck, Gilles Allali, Emmeline Ayers, Olivier Beauchet, Michele Callisaya, Richard B Lipton, P S Mathuranath, Thanh G Phan, V G Pradeep Kumar, Velandai Srikanth, Joe Verghese
Accelerated gait decline in aging is associated with many adverse outcomes, including an increased risk for falls, cognitive decline, and dementia. Yet, the brain structures associated with gait speed, and how they relate to specific cognitive domains, are not well-understood. We examined structural brain correlates of gait speed, and how they relate to processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory in three non-demented and community-dwelling older adult cohorts (Overall N = 352), using voxel-based morphometry and multivariate covariance-based statistics...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Maria Chondrogiorgi, Loukas G Astrakas, Anastasia K Zikou, Luca Weis, Vassilios G Xydis, Angelo Antonini, Maria I Argyropoulou, Spiridon Konitsiotis
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of white matter (WM) changes associated with Parkinson's disease (PD)-related cognitive impairment by using fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD) measures. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was performed in 21 PD-patients with dementia (PDD) and in an age-matched control group including 40 PD-patients without dementia (PD-CTRL). The Parkinson's disease-Cognitive Rating Scale (PD-CRS) was used for patients' neuropsychological assessment...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
M E Di Battista, I Cova, A Rubino, C P Papi, G Alampi, C Purcaro, N Vanacore, E Pascale, N Locuratolo, F Fattapposta, C Mariani, S Pomati, G Meco
The construct of non-motor symptoms (NMS) subtyping in Parkinson Disease (PD) is emerging as a line of research in the light of its potential role in etiopathological interpretation of PD heterogeneity. Different approaches of NMS subtyping have been proposed: an anatomical model suggests that NMS aggregate according to the underpinning pathology; other researchers find aggregation of NMS according to the motor phenotype; the contribution of genetic background to NMS has also been assessed, primarily focusing on cognitive impairment...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Kang Ko, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Jun Ho Lee, Chan Hyung Kim, Dong Young Lee
Background: Although increased cognitive activity (CA), both current and past, is known to be associated with a decreased occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia in older adults, the exact neural mechanisms underlying the association between CA during different stages of life and human dementia remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether CA during different life stages is associated with cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology and AD-related neurodegeneration in non-demented older adults. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of data collected between April 2014 and March 2016 from the Korean Brain Aging Study for Early Diagnosis and Prediction of Alzheimer's Disease (KBASE), an ongoing prospective cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
L Chye, K Wei, M S Z Nyunt, Q Gao, S L Wee, T P Ng
BACKGROUND: Physical frailty is well known to be strongly associated with malnutrition, but the combined impact of physical frailty and cognitive impairment among non-demented older persons (cognitive frailty) on malnutrition prevalence is not well documented. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling older Singaporeans aged ≥55y (n=5414) without dementia in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS-1 and SLAS-2)...
2018: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Sohshi Yuki-Nozaki, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Chiaki Domoto, Yoshihisa Ikeda, Miharu Samuraki, Kazuo Iwasa, Masami Yokogawa, Kimiko Asai, Kiyonobu Komai, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Masahito Yamada
In many cohort studies of dementia, while differences in sociodemographic characters between responders and non-responders of dementia screening have been reported, differences in dementia beliefs have been relatively less known. The aims of this study were to clarify dementia beliefs and to explore potential impacts on an intention to attend a future dementia screening in public screeners and in-home screeners, respectively. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study using a question about an intention to attend a future dementia screening and a questionnaire on dementia beliefs...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Laura Bonanni, Raffaella Franciotti, Giovanni Martinotti, Federica Vellante, Maria Elena Flacco, Massimo Di Giannantonio, Astrid Thomas, Marco Onofrj
BACKGROUND: Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive decline. The dementia type following PTSD is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether PTSD is associated with a specific dementia. METHODS: Prospective study: 46 PTSD patients (DSM-IV-TR) were followed for 6-10 years with clinical, neuropsychological, imaging evaluations for possible development of dementia.Retrospective study:849 dementia patients followed during 1999-2014 (509 Alzheimer's disease, AD; 207 dementia with Lewy bodies, DLB; 90 vascular dementia, VaD; 43 frontotemporal dementia, FTD) and 287 patients with any neurological condition (including patients with/without dementia) were evaluated for the presence of PTSD in their history...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Lijun Zhang, Ming Wang, Nicholas W Sterling, Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Young Truong, F DuBois Bowman, Xuemei Huang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by motor dysfunction (bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and postural instability), and pathologically by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the basal ganglia. Growing literature supports that cognitive deficits may also be present in PD, even in non-demented patients. Gray matter (GM) atrophy has been reported in PD and may be related to cognitive decline. This study investigated cortical thickness in non-demented PD subjects and elucidated its relationship to cognitive impairment using high-resolution T1-weighted brain MRI and comprehensive cognitive function scores from 71 non-demented PD and 48 control subjects matched for age, gender, and education...
March 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Lorraine Hamelin, Julien Lagarde, Guillaume Dorothée, Marie Claude Potier, Fabian Corlier, Bertrand Kuhnast, Fabien Caillé, Bruno Dubois, Ludovic Fillon, Marie Chupin, Michel Bottlaender, Marie Sarazin
Although brain neuroinflammation may play an instrumental role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, its actual impact on disease progression remains controversial, being reported as either detrimental or protective. This work aimed at investigating the temporal relationship between microglial activation and clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease. First, in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease we analysed the predictive value of microglial activation assessed by 18F-DPA-714 PET imaging on functional, cognitive and MRI biomarkers outcomes after a 2-year follow-up...
March 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
V Cochen De Cock, D G Dotov, P Ihalainen, V Bégel, F Galtier, C Lebrun, M C Picot, V Driss, N Landragin, C Geny, B Bardy, S Dalla Bella
Rhythmic auditory cues can immediately improve gait in Parkinson's disease. However, this effect varies considerably across patients. The factors associated with this individual variability are not known to date. Patients' rhythmic abilities and musicality (e.g., perceptual and singing abilities, emotional response to music, and musical training) may foster a positive response to rhythmic cues. To examine this hypothesis, we measured gait at baseline and with rhythmic cues in 39 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and 39 matched healthy controls...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Moritz Hecht, Lara Maria Krämer, Christine A F von Arnim, Markus Otto, Dietmar Rudolf Thal
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is caused by the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the wall of cerebral and leptomeningeal blood vessels and is related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Capillary Aβ deposition is observed in a subset of CAA cases and represents a distinct type of CAA named capillary CAA or CAA type 1. This type of CAA is strongly associated with the presence of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele. CAA type 1-associated AD cases often exhibit a more severe Aβ plaque pathology but less widespread neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology...
March 24, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
David B Richardson, Alexander P Keil, Stephen R Cole, John Dement
BACKGROUND: Current regulations require that asbestos fibers are collected and examined using a light microscope. This method fails to enumerate fibers that are too short or thin to reliably count using a light microscope under normal conditions. METHODS: A cohort of 3054 workers employed at an asbestos textile plant was followed to ascertain causes of death. Exposure was almost entirely chrysotile. Fiber counts were quantified using light microscopy and electron microscopy...
March 24, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Zhen Liu, Xiangwei Dai, Wuhai Tao, Huilan Liu, He Li, Caishui Yang, Junying Zhang, Xin Li, Yaojing Chen, Chao Ma, Jing Pei, Haohao Mao, Kewei Chen, Zhanjun Zhang
Exploring how risk genes cumulatively impair brain function in preclinical phase (i.e., in cognitively normal elderly) could provide critical insights into the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Working memory impairment has always been a considerable cognitive deficit in AD, which is likely under complex genetic control. Though, the APOE ɛ4 allele could damage the working memory performance in normal elderly, dissociable results have been reported. This allele may exert specific effects in contexts with other genetic variants...
March 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Tobías E Rivas-García, Marta Marcelo-Pons, Francisco Martínez-Arnau, Nuria Serra-Catalá, Y Santamaría-Carrillo, Omar Cauli
A complete battery of geriatric and psychometric tests was used to determine whether plasma-borne zinc (Zn), a key ion in neuroplasticity, can be associated with the severity of functional, psychological and cognitive impairment in non-demented older individuals. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma Zn levels and the concentration subcategory measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test (p < 0.001), but not the total MMSE score, and the levels were significantly reduced in polymedicated patients (defined as concurrent administration of >5 drugs)...
March 20, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
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