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Flavio Nobili, Javier Arbizu, Femke Bouwman, Alexander Drzezga, Federica Agosta, Peter Nestor, Zuzana Walker, Marina Boccardi
BACKGROUND: Recommendations for using FDG-PET to support the diagnosis of dementing neurodegenerative disorders are sparse and poorly structured. METHODS: We defined 21 questions on diagnostic issues and on semi-automated analysis to assist visual reading. Literature was reviewed to assess study design, risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness and effect size. Critical outcomes were sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive/negative predictive value, area under the receiving operating characteristic curve, and positive/negative likelihood ratio of FDG-PET in detecting the target conditions...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Koh Iwasaki, Shin Takayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Diana Furcila, Javier DeFelipe, Lidia Alonso-Nanclares
The main pathological hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques, primarily consisting of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, and the accumulation of paired helical filaments of hyperphosphorylated tau protein (PHF - Tau) within neurons. Since CA1 is one of the most affected regions in AD, mainly at early stages, we have performed a detailed analysis of the CA1 region from 11 AD patients (demented and clinically homogeneous; Braak stages IV-VI) to better understand the possible relationship between the presence and distribution of different neurochemical types of Aβ plaques and PHF - Tau immunoreactive  (- ir)  neurons...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kristen L Kucera, Hester J Lipscomb, Karen G Roos, John M Dement, Jennifer M Hootman
CONTEXT:   Health care workers have high rates of musculoskeletal injuries, but many of these injuries go unreported to workers' compensation and national surveillance systems. Little is known regarding the work-related injuries of certified athletic trainers (ATs). OBJECTIVE:   To determine the 12-month incidence and prevalence of work-related injuries and describe injury-reporting and -management strategies. DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Jie Zhen, Tong Lin, Xiaochen Huang, Huiqiang Zhang, Shengqi Dong, Yifan Wu, Linlin Song, Rong Xiao, Linhong Yuan
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism has been implicated in predisposition to diabetes and dementia in old population, but the results from the different studies were inconclusive. A cross-sectional study was carried out to explore the relationship among ApoE gene polymorphism, diabetes and cognition in non-demented aging Chinese adults. A total number of 1000 community dwellers aged 55 years and above were randomly recruited. Demographic information of the participants was collected using well designed self-administered questionnaires...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Masayo Shamoto-Nagai, Shinsuke Hisaka, Makoto Naoi, Wakako Maruyama
Recently, toxic α-synuclein oligomer, which can mediate cell-to-cell propagation is suggested to cause sporadic Parkinson disease. α-Synuclein interacts with membrane lipids especially polyunsaturated fatty acids to stabilize its three-dementional structure. Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce their affinity to α-synuclein and peroxidation byproducts might modify α-synuclein. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal derived from n -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids was reported to modify α-synuclein to produce a toxic oligomer...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Merlin Bittlinger, Sabine Müller
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) as investigational intervention for symptomatic relief from Alzheimer disease (AD) has generated big expectations. Our aim is to discuss the ethical justification of this research agenda by examining the underlying research rationale as well as potential methodological pitfalls. The shortcomings we address are of high ethical importance because only scientifically valid research has the potential to be ethical. METHOD: We performed a systematic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE...
June 11, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
József Tollár, Ferenc Nagy, Norbert Kovács, Tibor Hortobágyi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a high-intensity exercise therapy using sensorimotor and visual stimuli on non-demented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' clinical symptoms, mobility, and standing balance DESIGN: Randomized clinical intervention, using a before-after trial design. SETTING: University hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 72 PD patients with Hoehn-Yahr stage of 2 to 3, of whom 64 were randomized, and 55 completed the study...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Peter A Lichtenberg, Evan Gross, Lisa J Ficker
OBJECTIVES: This work examines the clinical utility of the scoring system for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS) and its usefulness for decision making capacity and financial exploitation. Objective 1 was to examine the clinical utility of a person centered, empirically supported, financial decision making scale. Objective 2 was to determine whether the risk-scoring system created for this rating scale is sufficiently accurate for the use of cutoff scores in cases of decisional capacity and cases of suspected financial exploitation...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Tadashi Umehara, Hisayoshi Oka, Atsuo Nakahara, Hiromasa Matsuno, Chizuko Toyoda
INTRODUCTION: Plasma norepinephrine concentration reflects lesions causing OH. We investigate whether patients with high norepinephrinergic orthostatic hypotension (OH) whose supine plasma norepinephrine concentration (NEsupine ) is above the mean value in all patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have central sympathetic denervation. METHODS: We analyzed data from 110 non-demented patients with early de novo PD who underwent cardiovascular examinations. We divided the patients into three groups according to the presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension and NEsupine : patients without OH, patients with OH+high NEsupine , and patients with OH+low NEsupine ...
May 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Yelland, E., Stanfield, H. (2018). Public perspectives toward long-term care staff intervention in demented resident's sexual relationships, Dementia. DOI: 10.1177/1471301218772915 The authors regret that the title of the above mentioned article was incorrect. The title should be "Public perspectives toward long-term care staff's interventions in the sexual relationships of residents with dementia" The article has been corrected online.
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Olivier Bousiges, Frédéric Blanc
Dementia with Lewy body (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD), accounting for 15% to 20% of neuropathologically defined cases. Two-thirds of the patients affected are not or misdiagnosed. In this review, we evaluate the discriminatory power of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers by focusing more specifically on differential diagnosis between DLB and AD. Thus, among the AD biomarkers (t-Tau, phospho-Tau181 , Aβ42 and Aβ40) used routinely, t-Tau and phospho-Tau181 have shown excellent discrimination whatever the clinical stages severity...
June 1, 2018: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
Ahmet Turan Isik, Pinar Soysal, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Cristina Basso, Stefania Maggi, Patricia Schofield, Nicola Veronese, Christoph Mueller
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) in individuals with dementia DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Two authors independently searched major electronic databases from inception until June 17, 2017, for longitudinal (without a control group) and cohort (with a control group) studies reporting CV outcomes in relation to AChEIs. Randomized controlled trials were excluded because they included relatively healthy subjects...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Gilles Allali, Maxime Montembeault, Simona M Brambati, Louis Bherer, Helena M Blumen, Cyrille P Launay, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Jorunn L Helbostad, Joe Verghese, Olivier Beauchet
Background: Structural and functional brain imaging methods have identified age-related changes in brain structures involved in gait control. This cross-sectional study aims to investigate gray matter networks associated with gait control in aging using structural covariance analysis. Methods: Walking speed were measured in 326 non-demented older community-dwellers (age 71.3±4.5; 41.7% female) under three different walking conditions: normal walking and two challenging tasks: motor (i...
May 26, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jessyka Maria de França Bram, Leda Leme Talib, Helena Passarelli Giroud Joaquim, Tamires Alves Sarno, Wagner Farid Gattaz, Orestes Vicente Forlenza
The clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a probabilistic formulation that may lack accuracy particularly at early stages of the dementing process. Abnormalities in amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) metabolism and in the level of APP secretases have been demonstrated in platelets, and to a lesser extent in leukocytes, of AD patients, with conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein level of the APP secretases A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10), Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and presenilin-1 (PSEN1) in platelets and leukocytes from 20 non-medicated older adults with AD and 20 healthy elders, and to determine the potential use of these biomarkers to discriminate cases of AD from controls...
May 29, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Stuart W S MacDonald, Connor J C Keller, Paul W H Brewster, Roger A Dixon
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relative utility of a particular class of noninvasive functional biomarkers-sensory functions-for detecting those at risk of cognitive decline and impairment. Three central research objectives were examined including whether (a) olfactory function, vision, and audition exhibited significant longitudinal declines in nondemented older adults; (b) multiwave change for these sensory function indicators predicted risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and (c) change within persons for each sensory measure shared dynamic time-varying associations with within-person change in cognitive functioning...
May 2018: Neuropsychology
Matt Paradise, Adam Seruga, John D Crawford, Joga Chaganti, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Nicole A Kochan, Henry Brodaty, Wei Wen, Perminder S Sachdev
Cerebral microbleeds (CMB), suspected markers of hemorrhage-prone microangiopathy, are common in patients with cerebrovascular disease and in those with cognitive impairment. Their longitudinal relationship with cognitive decline and incident dementia in non-demented community-dwelling older individuals has been insufficiently examined. 302 adults aged 70-90 participating in the population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study underwent a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) MRI sequence. The relationship of CMB with performance on neuropsychological tests was examined both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, over a mean of 4 years...
May 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
M Clare O'Donoghue, Susannah E Murphy, Giovanna Zamboni, Anna C Nobre, Clare E Mackay
APOE-ε4 is best known as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, there is considerable research interest in understanding whether APOE-ε4 influences cognition in healthy adults. Despite a substantial literature reporting effects of APOE genotype on cognition, findings are inconsistent. In particular, it is challenging to separate whether cognitive deficits in APOE-ε4 carriers reflect the influence of prodromal dementia pathology ("prodromal hypothesis"), or a direct contribution of APOE genotype to individual differences ("phenotype hypothesis")...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Zhonghua Pei, Rohan Mendonca, Lewis Gazzard, Richard Pastor, Leanne Goon, Amy Gustafson, Erica VanderPorten, Georgia Hatzivassiliou, Kevin Dement, Robert Cass, Po-Wai Yuen, Yamin Zhang, Guosheng Wu, Xingyu Lin, Yichin Liu, Benjamin D Sellers
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (TDO2) catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to the immunosuppressive metabolite kynurenine. TDO2 overexpression has been observed in a number of cancers; therefore, TDO inhibition may be a useful therapeutic intervention for cancers. We identified an aminoisoxazole series as potent TDO2 inhibitors from a high-throughput screen (HTS). An extensive medicinal chemistry effort revealed that both the amino group and the isoxazole moiety are important for TDO2 inhibitory activity. Computational modeling yielded a binding hypothesis and provided insight into the observed structure-activity relationships...
May 10, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Theresia Volhard, Frank Jessen, Luca Kleineidam, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Dirk Lanzerath, Michael Wagner, Wolfgang Maier
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether life-sustaining measures in medical emergency situations are less accepted for an anticipated own future of living with dementia, and to test whether a resource-oriented, in contrast to a deficit-oriented video about the same demented person, would increase the acceptance of such life-saving measures. DESIGN: Experimental study conducted between September 2012 and February 2013. SETTING: Community dwelling female volunteers living in the region of Bonn, Germany...
2018: PloS One
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