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Min Li, Stephanie C Tjen-A-Looi, Zhi-Ling Guo, John C Longhurst
Acupuncture lowers blood pressure (BP) in hypertension, but mechanisms underlying its action are unclear. To simulate clinical studies, we performed electroacupuncture (EA) in unanesthetized rats with cold-induced hypertension (CIH) induced by six weeks of cold exposure (6 °C). EA (0.1 - 0.4 mA, 2 Hz) was applied at ST36-37 acupoints overlying the deep peroneal nerve for 30 min twice weekly for five weeks while sham-EA was conducted with the same procedures as EA except for no electrical stimulation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Michele De Benedetto, Luana Conte, Francesco De Nuccio
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive interruptions of breathing, causing a Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) that can be a key step in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, in fact, there is scientific evidence showing the close relationship between OSA and atherosclerosis, even in those patients who do not show co-morbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cigarette smoking and obesity, which normally are able to activate the endothelium...
October 7, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
Peter Gin-Fu Chen, Zhongjie Sun
Cold temperatures are associated with increased prevalence of hypertension. Cold exposure increases endothelin-1 (ET1) production. The purpose of this study is to determine if upregulation of ET1 contributes to cold-induced hypertension (CIH). In vivo RNAi silencing of the ET1 gene was achieved by AAV2 delivery of ET1 short-hairpin siRNA (ET1-shRNA). Four groups of male rats were used. Three groups were given AAV.ET1-shRNA, AAV.SC-shRNA (scrambled shRNA), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), respectively, before exposure to a moderately cold environment (6...
October 12, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
Daniela Accorsi-Mendonça, Melina P da Silva, George M P R Souza, Ludmila Lima-Silveira, Marlusa Karlen-Amarante, Mateus R Amorim, Carlos E L Almado, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
Despite several studies describing the electrophysiological properties of RVLM presympathetic neurons, there is no consensus in the literature about their pacemaking property, mainly due to different experimental approaches used for recordings of neuronal intrinsic properties. In this review we are presenting a historical retrospective about the pioneering studies and their controversies on the intrinsic electrophysiological property of auto-depolarization of these cells in conjunction with recent studies from our laboratory documenting that RVLM presympathetic neurons present pacemaking capacity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Jinrong Fu, Furong Guo, Cheng Chen, Xiaoman Yu, Ke Hu, Mingjiang Li
The optimal treatment for chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH)-induced cardiovascular injuries has yet to be determined. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential protective effect and mechanism of a C1 inhibitor in CIH in the myocardium. The present study used a rat model of CIH in which complement regulatory protein, known as C1 inhibitor (C1INH), was administered to the rats in the intervention groups. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xu Wu, Wenyu Gu, Huan Lu, Chengying Liu, Biyun Yu, Hui Xu, Yaodong Tang, Shanqun Li, Jian Zhou, Chuan Shao
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) associated chronic kidney disease is mainly caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) triggered tissue damage. Receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) and its ligand high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) are expressed on renal cells and mediate inflammatory responses in OSA-related diseases. To determine their roles in CIH-induced renal injury, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), the RAGE neutralizing antibody, was intravenously administered in a CIH model. We also evaluated the effect of sRAGE on inflammation and apoptosis...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Petra Micova, Klara Hahnova, Marketa Hlavackova, Barbara Elsnicova, Anna Chytilova, Kristyna Holzerova, Jitka Zurmanova, Jan Neckar, Frantisek Kolar, Olga Novakova, Jiri Novotny
Cardiac resistance against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury can be enhanced by adaptation to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), but the changes at the molecular level associated with this adaptation are still not fully explored. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) plays an important role in phospholipid metabolism and may contribute to membrane destruction under conditions of energy deprivation during I/R. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of CIH (7000 m, 8 h/day, 5 weeks) on the expression of cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) and its phosphorylated form (p-cPLA2α), as well as other related signaling proteins in the left ventricular myocardium of adult male Wistar rats...
September 30, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Wenxiao Ding, Qiang Zhang, Yanbin Dong, Ning Ding, Hanpeng Huang, Xianji Zhu, Sean Hutchinson, Xingya Gao, Xilong Zhang
This study was performed to assess the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on the liver, the associated mechanisms and the potential therapeutic roles of adiponectin (Ad). Sixty rats were randomly assigned to four groups: the normal control (NC), NC and Ad supplement (NC + Ad), CIH, and CIH and Ad supplement (CIH + Ad) groups. The rats in the CIH and CIH + Ad groups were exposed to a hypoxic environment for 4 months. Rats in the NC + Ad and CIH + Ad groups were also treated with an intravenous injection of Ad (10 ug), twice a week...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marisol Domínguez-Álvarez, Joaquim Gea, Esther Barreiro
We hypothesized that inflammatory events and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may be differentially expressed in respiratory and limb muscles, and blood of a chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) experimental model and that antioxidants and TNF-alpha blockade may influence those events. In blood, diaphragm, and gastrocnemius of rats non-invasively exposed to CIH (10% hypoxia, two hours/day, 14 consecutive days) with/without concomitant treatment with either anti-TNF-alpha antibody (infliximab) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), inflammatory cytokines, superoxide anion production, muscle structural abnormalities, and fiber-type composition were assessed...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
George Miguel P R Souza, Leni G H Bonagamba, Mateus R Amorim, Davi J A Moraes, Benedito H Machado
What is the central question of the study? There are sex differences in the respiratory network and in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Female rats develop hypertension after chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). In this context, we evaluated the respiratory-related mechanism underlying the development of hypertension in CIH-exposed female rats. What is the main finding and its importance? Female rats exposed to CIH develop changes in the respiratory pattern related to inspiration and sympathetic overactivity phase locked to the inspiratory phase of the respiratory cycle, which is different from CIH-exposed male rats...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Jag Sunderram, John Semmlow, Pranav Patel, Harshit Rao, Glen Chun, Priya Agarwala, Mantu Bhaumik, Oanh Le-Hoang, Shou-En Lu, Judith A Neubauer
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases sympathetic tone, and respiratory instability. Our previous work showed that chronic hypoxia induces the oxygen sensing enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) within the C1 sympathoexcitatory region and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC). We therefore examined the effect of CIH on time course of induced expression of HO-1 within these regions and determined whether the induction of HO-1 correlated with changes in respiratory, sigh frequency, and sympathetic responses (spectral analysis of heart rate) to acute hypoxia (10%O2) during 10 days of exposure to CIH in chronically instrumented awake wild type (WT) and HO-1 null mice (HO-1(-/-))...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Bin Liu, Xiaoli Su, Yan Zhang, Li Huang, Pinhua Pan, Chengping Hu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on liver injury and to examine the expression of liver CXC chemokine ligand-10 (CXCL10) in the rats, and to explore the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC).
 METHODS: A total of 21 male SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a CIH group and a CIH+NAC group (n=7 in each group). The control group exposed to normal gaseous environment, the other 2 groups were exposed to CIH for 5 weeks (8 h/d); the control group and the CIH group were given daily saline lavage, the CIH+NAC group daily received NAC solution...
August 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
W Lu, J Kang, K Hu, S Tang, X Zhou, S Yu, Y Li, L Xu
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in lung tissues and can lead to metabolic abnormalities. We investigated the effects of angiotensin1-7 [Ang-(1-7)] on lung injury in rats induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). We randomly assigned 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) to normoxia control (NC), CIH-untreated (uCIH), Ang-(1-7)-treated normoxia control (N-A), and Ang-(1-7)-treated CIH (CIH-A) groups. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured in lung tissues, and expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) and Nox subunits (p22phox, and p47phox) was determined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
September 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Barbara J Morgan, Melissa L Bates, Rodrigo Del Rio, Zunyi Wang, John M Dopp
Chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) elicits plasticity of the carotid sinus and phrenic nerves via reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine whether CIH-induced alterations in ventilation, metabolism, and heart rate are also dependent on ROS, we measured responses to acute hypoxia in conscious rats after 14 and 21 d of either CIH or normoxia (NORM), with or without concomitant administration of allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), combined allopurinol plus losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist), or apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor)...
September 2, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Wei Zheng, Qilan Wang, Xiaohua Lu, Qiangqiang Shi, Junhui Zou, Yanduo Tao, Pu Wang
Dracocephalum heterophyllum (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in treating hepatitis. However, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of DH in hepatitis are unknown. In this study, we found that pretreatment with DH extract significantly ameliorated liver injury and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis (CIH). DH recruited more CD11b(+) Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the liver and suppressed infiltration of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Kai-Xiong Liu, Gong-Ping Chen, Ping-Li Lin, Jian-Chai Huang, Xin Lin, Jia-Chao Qi, Qi-Chang Lin
Endothelial dysfunction is the main pathogenic mechanism of cardiovascular complications induced by obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is the primary factor of OSAHS-associated endothelial dysfunction. The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway regulates the expression of downstream target genes and mediates cell apoptosis caused by CIH-induced endothelial injury. miRNAs play extensive and important negative regulatory roles in this process at the post-transcriptional level...
August 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Davi J A Moraes, Leni G H Bonagamba, Melina P da Silva, André S Mecawi, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Benedito H Machado
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) produces respiratory-related sympathetic overactivity and hypertension in rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity after CIH also decreases the sympathoinhibitory component of baroreflex of rats, which may contribute to the development of hypertension. Wistar rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia (control group) for 10 days. Phrenic nerve, thoracic sympathetic nerve, and neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and caudal ventrolateral medulla were recorded in in situ preparations of rats...
October 2016: Hypertension
Ya-Qian Feng, Ai-Chun Ju, Chun-Hua Liu, Ting Wang, Bo-Yang Yu, Jin Qi
Yi-Qi-Fu-Mai (YQFM) is extensively used clinically to treat cardiovascular diseases in China. To explore the anti-hypoxia effect of the extract of YQFM preparation (EYQFM), the EYQFM (1.4, 2.8, and 5.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) was assessed for its heart-protective effect in a chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) animal model (oxygen pressure 7%-8%, 20 min per day) for 28 days of treatment. Betaloc (0.151 6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) was used as a positive control. The histopathological analyses of heart in CIH mice were conducted...
June 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
M Dyrhonová, R Chlíbek
UNLABELLED: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that causes hepatitis, advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis (CIH), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Especially the chronic form of hepatitis C (HC), with 55-85% of acute cases progressing to it, is a serious problem worldwide. HCV is a cause of the significant morbidity and mortality that are only expected to peak. An ongoing research of new therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HCV infection is a promise for a better future...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Fiona B McDonald, Eugene M Dempsey, Ken D O'Halloran
Alterations to the supply of oxygen during early life presents a profound stressor to physiological systems with aberrant remodeling that is often long-lasting. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a feature of apnea of prematurity, chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. CIH affects respiratory control but there is a dearth of information concerning the effects of CIH on respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm-the major pump muscle of breathing. We investigated the effects of exposure to gestational CIH (gCIH) and postnatal CIH (pCIH) on diaphragm muscle function in male and female rats...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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