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TGF-beta AND fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787429/first-insights-into-the-m2-inflammatory-response-after-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cell-injections-in-radiation-injured-muscles
#1
Diane Riccobono, Krisztina Nikovics, Sabine François, Anne-Laure Favier, Nicolas Jullien, Gerrit Schrock, Harry Scherthan, Michel Drouet
The cutaneous radiation syndrome is the clinical consequence of local high-dose irradiation. It is characterized by extensive inflammation, necrosis, and poor revascularization of the skin, resulting in muscle inflammation and fibrosis. Based on these physiopathological processes, subcutaneous injections of adipose-tissue-derived stem/stromal cells have shown favorable effects on skin-wound healing in a minipig model of cutaneous radiation syndrome, in which muscle fibrosis persisted. Since fibrosis is mainly due to the inflammatory processes that often affect underlying tissues as well, the beneficial effects of intramuscular injections of adipose-tissue-derived stem/stromal cells on tissue recovery were evaluated...
July 2018: Health Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777737/type-i-collagen-induces-mesenchymal-cell-differentiation-into-myofibroblasts-through-yap-induced-tgf-%C3%AE-1-activation
#2
Xiaoling Liu, Xinyu Long, Weiwei Liu, Yeli Zhao, Toshihiko Hayashi, Masayuki Yamato, Kazunori Mizuno, Hitomi Fujisaki, Shunji Hattori, Shin-Ichi Tashiro, Takaaki Ogura, Yuji Atsuzawa, Takashi Ikejima
In organ fibrosis, mechanical stress and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) promote differentiation into myofibroblast from mesenchymal cells, leading to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling or active synthesis, deposition or degradation of ECM components. A major component of ECM, type I collagen (col I) triple helical molecules assemble into fibrils or are denatured to gelatin without triple-helicity in remodeling. However, whether changes of ECM components in remodeling have influence on mesenchymal cell differentiation remains elusive...
May 16, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742489/renal-denervation-effects-on-myocardial-fibrosis-and-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-rats-with-ischemic-cardiomyopathy
#3
Bin Zhang, Xiaorong Li, Chu Chen, Wanying Jiang, Dasheng Lu, Qian Liu, Kai Wang, Yuhao Yan, Zhixin Jiang, Jie Geng, Hai Xu, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the impact of renal denervation (RDN) on myocardial fibrosis and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: An ischemic cardiomyopathy model was reproduced with myocardial infarction (MI) in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. The RDN/Sham-RDN procedure was performed at 2 weeks after MI. Sham-MI and sham-RDN rats served as the control group. At 4 weeks after RDN, programmed electrical stimulation (PES) was used to induce VAs, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, in all 3 groups (MI+RDN, MI, and control groups)...
May 5, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739329/thrombin-and-factor-xa-link-the-coagulation-system-with-liver-fibrosis
#4
Ameet Dhar, Fouzia Sadiq, Quentin M Anstee, Adam P Levene, Robert D Goldin, Mark R Thursz
BACKGROUND: Thrombin activates hepatic stellate cells via protease-activated receptor-1. The role of Factor Xa (FXa) in hepatic fibrosis has not been elucidated. We aimed to evaluate the impact of FXa and thrombin in vitro on stellate cells and their respective inhibition in vivo using a rodent model of hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: HSC-LX2 cells were incubated with FXa and/or thrombin in cell culture, stained for αSMA and relative gene expression and gel contraction calculated...
May 8, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726981/dickkopf-3-in-aberrant-endothelial-secretome-triggers-renal-fibroblast-activation-and-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Mark Lipphardt, Hassan Dihazi, Noo Li Jeon, Sina Dadafarin, Brian B Ratliff, David W Rowe, Gerhard A Müller, Michael S Goligorsky
Background: Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that Sirt1endo-/- mice show endothelial dysfunction and exaggerated renal fibrosis, whereas mice with silenced endothelial transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling are resistant to fibrogenic signals. Considering the fact that the only difference between these mutant mice is confined to the vascular endothelium, this indicates that secreted substances contribute to these contrasting responses. Methods: We performed an unbiased proteomic analysis of the secretome of renal microvascular endothelial cells (RMVECs) isolated from these two mutants...
May 3, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704139/anti-fibrogenic-potential-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-treating-fibrosis-in-crohn-s-disease
#6
Lei Lian, Qunsheng Huang, Longjuan Zhang, Huabo Qin, Xiaosheng He, Xin He, Jia Ke, Minghao Xie, Ping Lan
BACKGROUND: Intestinal fibrosis is a major complication of CD and may result in stricture formation leading to intestinal obstruction. MSCs play multiple roles in active CD and fibrosis-associated diseases. AIMS: This study was designed to investigate the role of MSCs in CD-associated intestinal fibrosis. METHODS: Intestinal fibrosis was induced over 7 weeks of enema with increasing doses of TNBS and assessed by Masson's trichrome staining...
April 27, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701666/tgf-%C3%AE-and-the-tissue-microenvironment-relevance-in-fibrosis-and-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Laia Caja, Francesco Dituri, Serena Mancarella, Daniel Caballero-Diaz, Aristidis Moustakas, Gianluigi Giannelli, Isabel Fabregat
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine essential for the induction of the fibrotic response and for the activation of the cancer stroma. Strong evidence suggests that a strong cross-talk exists among TGF-β and the tissue extracellular matrix components. TGF-β is stored in the matrix as part of a large latent complex bound to the latent TGF-β binding protein (LTBP) and matrix binding of latent TGF-β complexes, which is required for an adequate TGF-β function...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700311/increased-transforming-growth-factor-beta-tgf-%C3%AE-and-psmad3-signaling-in-a-murine-model-for-contrast-induced-kidney-injury
#8
Sreenivasulu Kilari, Binxia Yang, Amit Sharma, Deborah L McCall, Sanjay Misra
We tested the hypothesis that post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) occurs due to increase in transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β) and pSMAD3 signaling in a murine model of PC-AKI. Mice had nephrectomy performed and twenty-eight days later, 100-μL of radio-contrast (Vispaque 320) or saline was administered via the jugular vein. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, and 28 days later and the serum BUN, creatinine, urine protein levels, and kidney weights were assessed. In human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells, gene and protein expression with cellular function was assessed following inhibition of TGFβR-1 plus contrast exposure...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696080/therapeutic-effects-of-serum-extracellular-vesicles-in-liver-fibrosis
#9
Li Chen, Ruju Chen, Sherri Kemper, Min Cong, Hong You, David R Brigstock
The lack of approved therapies for hepatic fibrosis seriously limits medical management of patients with chronic liver disease. Since extracellular vesicles (EVs) function as conduits for intercellular molecular transfer, we investigated if EVs from healthy individuals have anti-fibrotic properties. Hepatic fibrogenesis or fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )- or thioacetic acid-induced liver injury models in male or female mice were suppressed by serum EVs from normal mice (EVN) but not from fibrotic mice (EVF)...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671258/atrial-overexpression-of-microrna-27b-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation-by-targeting-alk5
#10
Yanshan Wang, Heng Cai, Hongmei Li, Zhisheng Gao, Kunqing Song
Atrial fibrosis influences atrial fibrillation (AF) development by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smad pathway. Although microRNAs are implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, information regarding the functional role of microRNAs in atrial dysfunction is limited. In the present study, we found that microRNA-27b (miR-27b) was the dominant member of miR-27 family expressed in left atrium. Moreover, the expression of miR-27b was significantly reduced after angiotensin II (AngII) infusion...
April 18, 2018: Human Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659324/montelukast-attenuates-radioactive-i131-induced-pulmonary-damage-on-rats
#11
Arif Osman Tokat, Aylin Akbulut, Deniz Billur, Gokhan Koca, Pinar Bayram, Serdar Kuru, Sezgin Karasu, Suheyla Aydogmus, Hüseyin Cakmak, Sengul Ozmert, Meliha Korkmaz
PURPOSE: Radioactive I131 (RAI) therapy is a standard method to ablate the remnant thyroidal tissue after total thyroidectomy and its metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinomas, however, I131 also accumulates in non-thyroidal tissue, which may cause adverse effects and limit the I131 dose required for treatment. We hypothesized that montelukast, a known agent with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties, would ameliorate the radiation-induced histopathological characteristics such as pneumonitis and fibrosis in rat lungs after RAI...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622010/mechanical-barriers-and-transforming-growth-factor-beta-inhibitor-on-epidural-fibrosis-in-a-rabbit-laminectomy-model
#12
Juan N Albiñana-Cunningham, Purificación Ripalda-Cemboráin, Tania Labiano, José I Echeveste, Froilán Granero-Moltó, Matías Alfonso-Olmos
BACKGROUND: TGF-β has been described as a mediator of fibrosis and scarring. Several studies achieved reduction in experimental scarring through the inhibition of TGF-β. Fibroblasts have been defined as the cell population originating fibrosis, blocking fibroblast invasion may impair epidural fibrosis appearance. For this purpose, biocompatible materials used as mechanical barriers and a TGF-β inhibitor peptide were evaluated in the reduction of epidural fibrosis. METHODS: A L6 laminectomy was performed in 40 New Zealand white rabbits...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621130/astaxanthin-promotes-nrf2-are-signaling-to-inhibit-hg-induced-renal-fibrosis-in-gmcs
#13
Xi Xie, Qing Chen, Jun Tao
Oxidative stress is the main cause of diabetic nephropathy (DN) progression. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is a crucial cellular defense system to cope with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST) is a fat-soluble xanthophyll carotenoid with remarkable antioxidative capacity. AST exerted renal protective in diabetic rats. This study aimed to determine whether AST could alleviate the pathological progress of DN by activating Nrf2/ARE signaling and diminishing the excessive oxidative stress and fibronectin (FN) accumulation in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) challenged with high glucose (HG)...
April 5, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587265/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-drives-a-switch-in-connexin-mediated-cell-to-cell-communication-in-tubular-cells-of-the-diabetic-kidney
#14
Claire Hills, Gareth William Price, Mark John Wall, Timothy John Kaufmann, Sidney Chi-Wai Tang, Wai Han Yiu, Paul Edward Squires
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Changes in cell-to-cell communication have been linked to several secondary complications of diabetes, but the mechanism by which connexins affect disease progression in the kidney is poorly understood. This study examines a role for glucose-evoked changes in the beta1 isoform of transforming growth factor (TGFβ1), on connexin expression, gap-junction mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) and hemi-channel ATP release from tubular epithelial cells of the proximal renal nephron...
March 26, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530599/the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-analog-liraglutide-attenuates-renal-fibrosis
#15
Ya-Kun Li, Dong-Xia Ma, Zhi-Min Wang, Xiao-Fan Hu, Shang-Lin Li, Hong-Zhe Tian, Meng-Jun Wang, Yan-Wen Shu, Jun Yang
Renal fibrosis is recognized as the common route of all chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Additionally, accumulating evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in the process of renal fibrogenesis. Liraglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that has been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the GLP-1 analogs could also exert protective effects in cardiac fibrosis models...
May 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523048/changes-in-extracellular-matrix-in-subcutaneous-small-resistance-arteries-of-patients-with-essential-hypertension
#16
Gaia Favero, Anna Paini, Carolina De Ciuceis, Luigi F Rodella, Enrico Moretti, Enzo Porteri, Claudia Rossini, Silvia Ministrini, Leonardo Solaini, Caletti Stefano, Maria Antonietta Coschignano, Valeria Brami, Alina Petelca, Matteo Nardin, Ilenia Valli, Guido A M Tiberio, Francesca Bonomini, Claudia Agabiti Rosei, Nazario Portolani, Damiano Rizzoni, Rita Rezzani
BACKGROUND: In the development of hypertensive microvascular remodeling, a relevant role may be played by changes in extracellular matrix proteins. Aim of this study was the to evaluate some extracellular matrix components within the tunica media of subcutaneous small arteries in 9 normotensive subjects and 12 essential hypertensive patients, submitted to a biopsy of subcutaneous fat from the gluteal or the anterior abdominal region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on an isometric myograph, and the tunica media to internal lumen ratio was measured...
March 9, 2018: Blood Pressure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504479/featured-article-tgf-%C3%AE-1-dominates-extracellular-matrix-rigidity-for-inducing-differentiation-of-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-to-myofibroblasts
#17
Nathan Cho, Shadi E Razipour, Megan L McCain
Cardiac fibroblasts and their activated derivatives, myofibroblasts, play a critical role in wound healing after myocardial injury and often contribute to long-term pathological outcomes, such as excessive fibrosis. Thus, defining the microenvironmental factors that regulate the phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts could lead to new therapeutic strategies. Both chemical and biomechanical cues have previously been shown to induce myofibroblast differentiation in many organs and species. For example, transforming growth factor beta 1, a cytokine secreted by neutrophils, and rigid extracellular matrix environments have both been shown to promote differentiation...
April 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487805/anti-fibrotic-effect-of-rosmarinic-acid-on-inhibition-of-pterygium-epithelial-cells
#18
Ya-Yu Chen, Chia-Fang Tsai, Ming-Chu Tsai, Wen-Kang Chen, Yu-Wen Hsu, Fung-Jou Lu
AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) in pterygium epithelial cells (PECs) to determine if RA is a potent agent for treating pterygium. METHODS: The PECs (1×104 cells/mL) were treated with 100 µmol/L of RA for 1, 3 and 6h. After RA treatment, the cell viability was determined by staining with acridine orange/DAPI and analysis via a NucleoCounter NC-3000. The protein expression levels of type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII), p-Smad1/5, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4 of the cell lysates were measured by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487140/bone-morphogenetic-protein-9-reduces-cardiac-fibrosis-and-improves-cardiac-function-in-heart-failure
#19
Kevin J Morine, Xiaoying Qiao, Sam York, Peter S Natov, Vikram Paruchuri, Yali Zhang, Mark J Aronovitz, Richard H Karas, Navin K Kapur
Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity...
February 27, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477748/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-modulates-pancreatic-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-cell-shape-stiffness-and-invasion
#20
Andreas Stylianou, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment consists of the extracellular matrix (ECM), stromal cells, such as fibroblasts (FBs) and cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and a myriad of soluble factors. In many tumor types, including pancreatic tumors, the interplay between stromal cells and the other tumor microenvironment components leads to desmoplasia, a cancer-specific type of fibrosis that hinders treatment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and CAFs are thought to play a crucial role in this tumor desmoplastic reaction, although the involved mechanisms are unknown...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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