Read by QxMD icon Read

TGF-beta AND fibrosis

Ya-Kun Li, Dong-Xia Ma, Zhi-Min Wang, Xiao-Fan Hu, Shang-Lin Li, Hong-Zhe Tian, Meng-Jun Wang, Yan-Wen Shu, Jun Yang
Renal fibrosis is recognized as the common route of all chronic kidney disease (CKD) progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Additionally, accumulating evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in the process of renal fibrogenesis. Liraglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog that has been widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that the GLP-1 analogs could also exert protective effects in cardiac fibrosis models...
March 9, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Gaia Favero, Anna Paini, Carolina De Ciuceis, Luigi F Rodella, Enrico Moretti, Enzo Porteri, Claudia Rossini, Silvia Ministrini, Leonardo Solaini, Caletti Stefano, Maria Antonietta Coschignano, Valeria Brami, Alina Petelca, Matteo Nardin, Ilenia Valli, Guido A M Tiberio, Francesca Bonomini, Claudia Agabiti Rosei, Nazario Portolani, Damiano Rizzoni, Rita Rezzani
BACKGROUND: In the development of hypertensive microvascular remodeling, a relevant role may be played by changes in extracellular matrix proteins. Aim of this study was the to evaluate some extracellular matrix components within the tunica media of subcutaneous small arteries in 9 normotensive subjects and 12 essential hypertensive patients, submitted to a biopsy of subcutaneous fat from the gluteal or the anterior abdominal region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Subcutaneous small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on an isometric myograph, and the tunica media to internal lumen ratio was measured...
March 9, 2018: Blood Pressure
Nathan Cho, Shadi E Razipour, Megan L McCain
Cardiac fibroblasts and their activated derivatives, myofibroblasts, play a critical role in wound healing after myocardial injury and often contribute to long-term pathological outcomes, such as excessive fibrosis. Thus, defining the microenvironmental factors that regulate the phenotype of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts could lead to new therapeutic strategies. Both chemical and biomechanical cues have previously been shown to induce myofibroblast differentiation in many organs and species. For example, transforming growth factor beta 1, a cytokine secreted by neutrophils, and rigid extracellular matrix environments have both been shown to promote differentiation...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ya-Yu Chen, Chia-Fang Tsai, Ming-Chu Tsai, Wen-Kang Chen, Yu-Wen Hsu, Fung-Jou Lu
AIM: To investigate the anti-fibrosis effect of rosmarinic acid (RA) in pterygium epithelial cells (PECs) to determine if RA is a potent agent for treating pterygium. METHODS: The PECs (1×104 cells/mL) were treated with 100 µmol/L of RA for 1, 3 and 6h. After RA treatment, the cell viability was determined by staining with acridine orange/DAPI and analysis via a NucleoCounter NC-3000. The protein expression levels of type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), TGF-β type II receptor (TGF-βRII), p-Smad1/5, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, and Smad4 of the cell lysates were measured by Western blot analysis...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Kevin J Morine, Xiaoying Qiao, Sam York, Peter S Natov, Vikram Paruchuri, Yali Zhang, Mark J Aronovitz, Richard H Karas, Navin K Kapur
Background -Heart failure is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) promotes cardiac fibrosis, but also activates counter-regulatory pathways that serve to regulate TGF-β1 activity in heart failure. Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) is a member of the TGFβ family of cytokines and signals via the downstream effector protein Smad1. Endoglin is a TGFβ co-receptor that promotes TGF-β1 signaling via Smad3 and binds BMP9 with high affinity. We hypothesized that BMP9 limits cardiac fibrosis by activating Smad1 and attenuating Smad3 and further that neutralizing endoglin activity promotes BMP9 activity...
February 27, 2018: Circulation
Andreas Stylianou, Vasiliki Gkretsi, Triantafyllos Stylianopoulos
BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment consists of the extracellular matrix (ECM), stromal cells, such as fibroblasts-FBs and cancer associated fibroblasts-CAFs, and a myriad of soluble factors. In many tumor types, including pancreatic tumors, the interplay between stromal cells and the other tumor microenvironment components leads to desmoplasia, a cancer-specific type of fibrosis that hinders treatment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and CAFs are thought to play a crucial role in this tumor desmoplastic reaction, although the involved mechanisms are unknown...
February 22, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Salma M Eraky, Mohamed El-Mesery, Amro El-Karef, Laila A Eissa, Amal M El-Gayar
AIMS: Lysophosphatidic acid is a lipid mediator that is supposed to be implicated in hepatic fibrosis. Silymarin and caffeine are natural compounds known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our study aimed to explore the effect of silymarin, caffeine, and their combination on lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1) pathway in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 200 mg/kg of TAA twice a week for 8 weeks...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mi-Yeon Jung, Jeong-Han Kang, Danielle M Hernandez, Xueqian Yin, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Youli Wang, Anatilde Gonzalez-Guerrico, Andrew H Limper, Ruth Lupu, Edward B Leof
Evidence is provided that the fibroproliferative actions of TGF-β are dependent on a metabolic adaptation that sustains pathologic growth. Specifically, profibrotic TGF-β signaling is shown to require fatty acid synthase (FASN), an essential anabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. With the use of pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that TGF-β-stimulated FASN expression is independent of Smad2/3 and is mediated via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. In the absence of FASN activity or protein, TGF-β-driven fibrogenic processes are reduced with no apparent toxicity...
February 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jos L van der Velden, Darcy E Wagner, Karolyn G Lahue, Sarah T Abdalla, Ying W Lam, Daniel J Weiss, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger
Epithelial cells have been suggested as potential drivers of lung fibrosis, although the epithelial-dependent pathways that promote fibrogenesis remain unknown. Extracellular matrix is increasingly recognized as an environment that can drive cellular responses in various pulmonary diseases. In this study, we demonstrate that transforming growth factor- beta (TGF-β1)-stimulated mouse tracheal basal (MTB) cells produce provisional matrix proteins in vitro, which initiate mesenchymal changes in subsequently freshly plated MTB cells via Rho kinase- and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK1)-dependent processes...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Ching Huang, Yi-Yuan Lin, Ai-Lun Yang, Tang-Wei Kuo, Chia-Hua Kuo, Shin-Da Lee
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on renal fibrosis in hypertensive rats. Masson's trichrome staining and Western blotting were performed on the excised renal cortex from sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which were randomly divided into either a sedentary hypertensive group (SHR) or exercise hypertensive group (SHR-EX, running on an exercise treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 sessions/week, for 12 weeks), and from eight male Wistar-Kyoto rats which served as a sedentary normotensive group (WKY)...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jianmei Wu, Yulin Ding, Jinling Wang, Fenglong Wang
Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) are important parenchymal cells of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of BMEC and the roles of the TLR-NF-κBand TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibrosis, BMEC cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression and production of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Chiara Giacomelli, Simona Daniele, Chiara Romei, Laura Tavanti, Tommaso Neri, Ilaria Piano, Alessandro Celi, Claudia Martini, Maria L Trincavelli
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which cell phenotype switches from the epithelial to mesenchymal one. The deregulations of this process have been related with the occurrence of different diseases such as lung cancer and fibrosis. In the last decade, several efforts have been devoted in understanding the mechanisms that trigger and sustain this transition process. Adenosine is a purinergic signaling molecule that has been involved in the onset and progression of chronic lung diseases and cancer through the A2B adenosine receptor subtype activation, too...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Mercedes N Munkonda, Shareef Akbari, Chloe Landry, Suzy Sun, Fengxia Xiao, Maddison Turner, Chet E Holterman, Rania Nasrallah, Richard L Hébert, Christopher R J Kennedy, Dylan Burger
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of advanced diabetic kidney disease that is linked to a decline in renal function, however the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Microparticles (MPs) are 100-1000 nm vesicles shed from injured cells that are implicated in intercellular signalling. Our lab recently observed the formation of MPs from podocytes and their release into urine of animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and in humans with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of podocyte MPs in tubular epithelial cell fibrotic responses...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Paola da Costa Souza, Patrícia Suemi Dondo, Gabriela Souza, Deborah Lopes, Marcel Moscardi, Vinicius de Miranda Martinho, Rodolfo Daniel de Mattos Lourenço, Tabatha Prieto, Marcelo Luiz Balancin, Aline Kawassaki Assato, Walcy Rosolia Teodoro, Silvia Rodrigues, Mariana Lima, Maria Vera Castellano, Ester Coletta, Edwin Roger Parra, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
This study analyzed the Type 1 and Type 2T helper (Th-1/Th-2) cytokines (including interleukins), immune cellular, matrix profile and pathogens in granulomas with unexplained etiology and compared to infectious and non-infectious etiology. Surgical lung biopsies from 108 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, morphometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed, respectively, to evaluate total collagen and elastin fibers, collagen I and III, immune cells, cytokines, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), myofibroblasts and multiple usual and unusual pathogens...
February 2, 2018: Human Pathology
Kosha J Mehta, Jason D Coombes, Marco Briones-Orta, Paul P Manka, Roger Williams, Vinood B Patel, Wing-Kin Syn
BACKGROUND: Although excess iron induces oxidative stress in the liver, it is unclear whether it directly activates the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of excess iron on fibrogenesis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in murine HSC. Cells were treated with holotransferrin (0.005-5g/L) for 24 hours, with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine (10µM). Gene expressions (α-SMA, Col1-α1, Serpine-1, TGF-β, Hif1-α, Tfrc and Slc40a1) were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, whereas TfR1, ferroportin, ferritin, vimentin, collagen, TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 proteins were evaluated by immunofluorescence, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
February 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Mona A Abu El Makarem, Ghada M El-Sagheer, Moustafa A Abu El-Ella
<br>To investigate the possible role of STAT5 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection and its relation to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). <br> Materials (Subjects) and Methods<br>Sixty-five patients (46/19 male/ female ratio) were divided into 4 groups based on the severity of fibrosis as detected by fibroscan, (15 F1, 21 F2, 13 F3, and 16 F4). Twenty, age- and gender-matched, healthy persons volunteered as a control. The serum levels of STAT5, TGF-β1, α-SMA, fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessments of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were determined and compared for all groups...
January 31, 2018: Medical Principles and Practice: International Journal of the Kuwait University, Health Science Centre
Christin Fischer, Natalie Deininger, Gunter Wolf, Ivonne Loeffler
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a pivotal pathophysiological process in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Multiple profibrotic factors and cell types, including transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interstitial myofibroblasts, respectively, are responsible for the accumulation of extracellular matrix in the kidney. Matrix-producing myofibroblasts can originate from different sources and different mechanisms are involved in the activation process of the myofibroblasts in the fibrotic kidney...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Alba Santos, David Lagares
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ fibrosis is a lethal component of scleroderma. The hallmark of scleroderma fibrosis is extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition by activated myofibroblasts, specialized hyper-contractile cells that promote ECM remodeling and matrix stiffening. The purpose of this review is to discuss novel mechanistic insight into myofibroblast activation in scleroderma. RECENT FINDINGS: Matrix stiffness, traditionally viewed as an end point of organ fibrosis, is now recognized as a critical regulator of tissue fibrogenesis that hijacks the normal physiologic wound-healing program to promote organ fibrosis...
January 19, 2018: Current Rheumatology Reports
Xing Zhao, Gang Luo, Yan Fan, Xiaoxue Ma, Jieqing Zhou, Hong Jiang
Renal interstitial fibrosis is the most common process by which chronic kidney diseases progress to end-stage renal failure. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play a crucial role in the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. A newly identified cytokine, interleukin-like EMT inducer (ILEI), has been linked to EMT in some diseases. However, the effects of ILEI on renal tubular EMT have not yet been well established. Here, we characterize the expression of ILEI in tubular EMT and describe the role and mechanism of ILEI in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced renal tubular EMT...
January 15, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Maysa Mohamed Kamel Sobhy, Soheir Sayed Mahmoud, Shaimaa Helmy El-Sayed, Enas Mohamed Ali Rizk, Amira Raafat, Mohamed Sherif Ismail Negm
Schistosomiasis mansoni is considered one of the most common fibrotic diseases resulting from inflammation and deposition of fibrous tissue around parasitic eggs trapped in the liver, causing morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy against schistosomiasis is largely dependent on Praziquantel (PZQ). Yet, the huge administration of it in endemic areas and its incompetence towards the immature stages have raised serious alarms against the development of drug resistance. Few drugs are directed to reverse schistosomal liver fibrosis, particularly at the chronic and advanced stages of the disease...
January 10, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"