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Raffy Mirzayan, Michael J Lim
BACKGROUND: Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the capitellum is a rare yet debilitating injury seen in young athletes. This is the first report in the literature describing fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation (FOCAT) to treat OCD of the capitellum. METHODS: Nine male baseball players (mean age, 15.3; range, 14-18 years), with OCD of the capitellum were treated with FOCAT. There were 6 pitchers and 3 position players. A ligament-sparing, mini-open approach was used...
November 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Many migratory traits are heritable, but there is a paucity of evidence identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation in alternative migratory tactics, or in linking variation in gene expression to migratory behaviors. To that end, we examined differential gene expression in the brain transcriptome between young steelhead trout that had undergone the smoltification process, and resident rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Sashin Creek, Alaska. Samples were sequenced from two time points: immediately before (at 20months of age) and during (2years of age) the presumed peak of smoltification...
September 4, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Divya Sharma, Wmc Sameera, Stefan Andersson, Gunnar Nyman, Martin J Paterson
Ground state geometries of benzene on crystalline ice cluster model surfaces (Ih) are investigated. It is found that the binding energies of benzene-bound ice complexes are sensitive to the dangling features of the binding sites. We used time-dependent DFT to study the UV spectroscopy of benzene, ice clusters, and benzene-ice complexes, employing the M06-2X functional. It is observed that the size of the ice cluster and the dangling features show minor effects on the UV spectral characteristics. Benzene-mediated electronic excitations of water towards longer wavelengths (above 170 nm) are noticed in benzene-bound ice clusters, where the cross-section of photon absorption water is negligible, in good agreement with recent experimental results (Thrower et al...
September 20, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Benjamin L Oshlag, Tracy R Ray
Baseball pitchers and other throwing athletes place their elbows under tremendous stresses, making them vulnerable to a number of unique injuries. Skeletally immature throwers in particular are at a greater risk for growth plate and other bony injuries, due to the relative strengths of these tissues and the kinematics involved in throwing. Care should be taken to fully evaluate these injuries based on the particular history and presentation to properly direct treatment and rehabilitation. Patients, as well as other athletes, coaches, and families, also should be made aware of the significant risk factors for these injuries, especially those regarding pitch limits, proper mechanics, and sufficient rest...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Ye Wang, Bingjun Wan, Hua Li, Gongbing Shan
Hammer-throw has a long-standing history in track and field, but unlike some other sports events, men's hammer throw has not seen a new world record since 1986. One of the possible reasons for this stagnation could be the lack of real-time biomechanical feedback training. In this study, we proposed to establish scientifically described training targets and routes, which in turn required tools that could measure and quantify characteristics of an effective hammer-throw. Towards this goal, we have developed a real-time biomechanical feedback device-a wireless sensor system-to help the training of hammer-throw...
2016: SpringerPlus
V Gineviciene, A Jakaitiene, M O Aksenov, A V Aksenova, A M Druzhevskaya, I V Astratenkova, E S Egorova, L J Gabdrakhmanova, L Tubelis, V Kucinskas, A Utkus
The performance of professional strength and power athletes is influenced, at least partly, by genetic components. The main aim of this study was to investigate individually and in combination the association of ACE (I/D), ACTN3 (R577X) and PPARGC1A (Gly482Ser) gene polymorphisms with strength/power-oriented athletes' status in two cohorts of European athletes. A cohort of European Caucasians from Russia and Lithuania (161 athletes: by groups - weightlifters (87), powerlifters (60), throwers (14); by elite status - 'elite' (104), 'sub-elite' (57); and 1,202 controls) were genotyped for ACE, ACTN3 and PPARGC1A polymorphisms...
September 2016: Biology of Sport
Casey J Meyer, J Craig Garrison, John E Conway
BACKGROUND: Previous work has suggested that an increase in the amount of developmentally acquired, dominant arm humeral retrotorsion (D HRT) in the thrower's shoulder may be a potentially protective mechanism. Although the relationship between HRT and shoulder injuries has been reported, the relationship between HRT and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in baseball players is not known. PURPOSE: To determine whether D HRT and nondominant arm HRT (ND HRT) measurements in baseball players with a UCL tear differ statistically from a matched healthy cohort...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Caleb D Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Alex P Harrison, Kimitake Sato, Ashley A Kavanaugh, Brad H DeWeese, Michael H Stone
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a one week overreach followed by a 3 week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kevin D Han, Jaehon M Kim, Michael V DeFazio, Ricardo J Bello, Ryan D Katz, Brent G Parks, Kenneth R Means
PURPOSE: A high incidence of nonunion and relatively poor outcomes with prior fixation techniques has precluded scapholunate (SL) arthrodesis as a standard treatment for SL instability. Our purpose was to determine the impact on range of motion (ROM) of simulated SL arthrodesis via headless screw fixation. METHODS: We performed baseline wrist ROM for 10 cadaveric wrists using a standardized mounting-and-weights system. Extension, flexion, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, dart-thrower's extension, and dart-thrower's flexion were assessed...
September 2016: Journal of Hand Surgery
Joshua S Dines, Phillip N Williams, Neal ElAttrache, Stan Conte, Todd Tomczyk, Daryl C Osbahr, David M Dines, James Bradley, Christopher S Ahmad
We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections on partial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in high-level throwing athletes. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 44 baseball players (6 professional, 14 college, 24 high school) treated with PRP injections for partial-thickness UCL tears. All tears were diagnosed by physical examination and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen patients had 1 injection, 6 had 2, and 22 had 3. Once patients became asymptomatic after injection, they were started on an interval throwing program...
July 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Cristy N Gustas, Kenneth S Lee
Elbow pain in overhead sport athletes is not uncommon. Repetitive throwing can lead to chronic overuse and/or acute injury to tendons, ligaments, bones, or nerves about the elbow. A thorough history and physical examination of the thrower's elbow frequently establishes the diagnosis for pain. Imaging can provide additional information when the clinical picture is unclear or further information is necessary for risk stratification and treatment planning. This article focuses on current imaging concepts and image-guided treatments for injuries commonly affecting the adult throwing athlete's elbow...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
I-Yuan Joseph Chang, Joshua M Polster
Repetitive, high-velocity overhead throwing can lead to several adaptive changes in the throwing shoulder, which over time lead to structural microtrauma and eventually overt injury. MR imaging is a useful imaging modality to evaluate these changes and to characterize their acuity and severity. Understanding the throwing motion and the effects of this motion on the structures of the shoulder can help radiologists to recognize these findings and provide useful information to referring physicians, which may affect the treatment of these athletes...
September 2016: Radiologic Clinics of North America
Robert Thorsness, Jeremy A Alland, Colin B McCulloch, Anthony Romeo
The throwing athlete's shoulder is a unique, complex entity with challenges in diagnosis and management. The shoulders in these athletes possess unique biomechanics and pathologic conditions. Unfortunately, return to play outcomes are often poor when specifically evaluating overhead athletes, especially with regard to SLAP repair. It is imperative for the surgeon to be cautious when indicating these athletes for surgery, because although they may demonstrate improvements in pain and general function, subtle changes in accuracy or velocity as a result of surgery can significantly affect the success of an overhead throwing athlete at the competitive level...
October 2016: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Kichul Yoon, Ali Rahnamoun, Jacob L Swett, Vighter Iberi, David A Cullen, Ivan V Vlassiouk, Alex Belianinov, Stephen Jesse, Xiahan Sang, Olga S Ovchinnikova, Adam J Rondinone, Raymond R Unocic, Adri C T van Duin
Despite the frequent use of noble gas ion irradiation of graphene, the atomistic-scale details, including the effects of dose, energy, and ion bombardment species on defect formation, and the associated dynamic processes involved in the irradiations and subsequent relaxation have not yet been thoroughly studied. Here, we simulated the irradiation of graphene with noble gas ions and the subsequent effects of annealing. Lattice defects, including nanopores, were generated after the annealing of the irradiated graphene, which was the result of structural relaxation that allowed the vacancy-type defects to coalesce into a larger defect...
September 27, 2016: ACS Nano
Deborah A Schwartz
To allow safe early wrist motion after wrist injury, this author has modified an earlier version of a dart thrower's motion orthotic device using material that is currently available on the market and an inexpensive paper fastener as the rivet. - KristinValdes, OTD, OT, CHT, Practice Forum Editor.
July 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Darshan S Shah, Angela E Kedgley
The presence of muscle redundancy and co-activation of agonist-antagonist pairs in vivo makes the optimization of the load distribution between muscles in physiologic joint simulators vital. This optimization is usually achieved by employing different control strategies based on position and/or force feedback. A muscle activated physiologic wrist simulator was developed to test and iteratively refine such control strategies on a functional replica of a human arm. Motions of the wrist were recreated by applying tensile loads using electromechanical actuators...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Elif Turgut, Gul Baltaci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Sara L Thrower, Simona F Shaitelman, Elizabeth Bloom, Mohammad Salehpour, Kent Gifford
PURPOSE: To compare the treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation calculated by the new commercially available collapsed cone convolution (CCC) and current standard TG-43-based algorithms for 50 patients treated at our institution with either a Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) or Contura device. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We recalculated target coverage, volume of highly dosed normal tissue, and dose to organs at risk (ribs, skin, and lung) with each algorithm...
August 1, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Giorgos Karampatsos, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Nikolaos Zaras, Giorgos Georgiadis, Gerasimos Terzis
The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing three consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, eight hammer throwers, nine discus throwers, and three javelin throwers of both genders participated in the study. They performed three maximal CMJs 85 ┬▒ 12 sec before the 2nd, 4th, and 6th attempt during three different official competitions of national level. Maximal strength (1-RM) in squat and bench press was measured one week after the competition...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Hamish Anderson, Greg Hoy
STUDY DESIGN: Case series. INTRODUCTION: This paper describes conservative guidelines for the management of scapho-lunate interosseous ligament (SLIL) injury including fabrication of an orthosis that restricts active wrist movement to the dart-throwers (DTM) plane. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The dart throwers' orthosis (DTO) was designed as a response to biomechanical studies suggesting that restraining motion to the DTM would off-load a deficient SLIL...
April 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
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