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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633608/biomechanics-of-increased-spin-velocity-of-flying-discs-during-forehand-throws-by-skilled-and-unskilled-throwers
#1
Kei Sasakawa, Koji Umegaki, Shinji Sakurai
We aimed to assess the relationship between throwing distance and kinematic release parameters of the flying disc in unskilled throwers, and to assess the relationship between kinetic variables acting on flying discs and the change in spin velocity during long forehand throws by skilled and unskilled throwers. Ten skilled and eleven unskilled throwers performed throws at maximum effort. Reflective marker positions on the disc and body were recorded with a 3D motion capture system during the throws to derive kinematic variables of a disc and kinetic variables acting on the disc...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632049/kinematic-comparison-of-the-seoi-nage-judo-technique-between-elite-and-college-athletes
#2
Takanori Ishii, Michiyoshi Ae, Yuta Suzuki, Yasuto Kobayashi
This study sought to identify biomechanical factors that determine fast and skilful execution of the seoi-nage (shoulder throw) technique by comparing kinematics between elite and college judo athletes. Three-dimensional motion data were captured using a VICON-MX system with 18 cameras operating at 250 Hz as three male elite and seven male college judo athletes performed seoi-nage. No significant difference was found in motion phase time of the turning phase between the two groups, indicating that motion phase time is not necessarily a factor contributing quickness in seoi-nage...
February 24, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607764/chronic-medial-instability-of-the-elbow
#3
REVIEW
Felix H Savoie, Michael O'Brien
Damage to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow from an instability episode usually heals with non-operative treatment. In some cases, residual instability may occur, leading to functional impairment.Non-operative management can be successful when bracing, taping and therapy are used to stabilise the elbow.A recent report detailing the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in effectively treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in throwers has shown promise. However, there remain specific groups that should be considered for repair or reconstruction...
January 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594005/the-effect-of-stw-defects-on-the-mechanical-properties-and-fracture-toughness-of-pristine-and-hydrogenated-graphene
#4
Akarsh Verma, Avinash Parashar
Graphene is emerging as a versatile material with a diverse field of applications. Synthesis techniques for graphene introduce several topological defects such as vacancies, dislocations and Stone-Thrower-Wales (STW) defects. Among them STW defects are generated without deleting any atom from the lattice position, but are introduced by rotating single C-C bonds. In this article, molecular dynamics based simulations have been performed to study the effect of STW defects on the fracture toughness of pristine graphene as well as graphene with crack edges passivated with hydrogen atoms...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584114/establishment-of-a-vernalization-requirement-in-brachypodium-distachyon-requires-repressor-of-vernalization1
#5
Daniel P Woods, Thomas S Ream, Frédéric Bouché, Joohyun Lee, Nicholas Thrower, Curtis Wilkerson, Richard M Amasino
A requirement for vernalization, the process by which prolonged cold exposure provides competence to flower, is an important adaptation to temperate climates that ensures flowering does not occur before the onset of winter. In temperate grasses, vernalization results in the up-regulation of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) to establish competence to flower; however, little is known about the mechanism underlying repression of VRN1 in the fall season, which is necessary to establish a vernalization requirement. Here, we report that a plant-specific gene containing a bromo-adjacent homology and transcriptional elongation factor S-II domain, which we named REPRESSOR OF VERNALIZATION1 (RVR1), represses VRN1 before vernalization in Brachypodium distachyon That RVR1 is upstream of VRN1 is supported by the observations that VRN1 is precociously elevated in an rvr1 mutant, resulting in rapid flowering without cold exposure, and the rapid-flowering rvr1 phenotype is dependent on VRN1 The precocious VRN1 expression in rvr1 is associated with reduced levels of the repressive chromatin modification H3K27me3 at VRN1, which is similar to the reduced VRN1 H3K27me3 in vernalized plants...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528627/physical-risk-factors-identification-based-on-body-sensor-network-combined-to-videotaping
#6
Nicolas Vignais, Fabien Bernard, Gérard Touvenot, Jean-Claude Sagot
The aim of this study was to perform an ergonomic analysis of a material handling task by combining a subtask video analysis and a RULA computation, implemented continuously through a motion capture system combining inertial sensors and electrogoniometers. Five workers participated to the experiment. Seven inertial measurement units, placed on the worker's upper body (pelvis, thorax, head, arms, forearms), were implemented through a biomechanical model of the upper body to continuously provide trunk, neck, shoulder and elbow joint angles...
May 18, 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513271/college-pitchers-demonstrate-directional-differences-in-shoulder-joint-position-sense-compared-to-controls
#7
John Andrew Badagliacco, Andrew Karduna
CONTEXT: The relationship between overhead throwing and its effect on proprioception is not well understood. It is important to gain a better understanding of how these are related to protect overhead athletes from an increased risk of injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate proprioceptive alterations in the overhead thrower's shoulder. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional Study. Independent variables are: limb (dominant and non-dominant), group (thrower or control), and target angle...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486339/acute-effect-of-upper-and-lower-body-postactivation-exercises-on-shot-put-performance
#8
Eleni I Kontoy, Fani Berberidou, Theophilos C Pilianidis, Nikolaos I Mantzouranis, Spyridon K Methenitis
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different types of upper and lower' extremities exercises on acute increase of shot put performance, in moderate experienced throwers. Eight (n=8) males and nine (n=9) female throwers participated in the present study. Their bench press and squat maximum strength were measured while their shot put performance from power position was evaluated before and after four interventions: [1] plyometric push-ups (Plyo), [2] 6s isometric push-ups (Iso), [3] 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) and [4] 10 reps...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451614/the-functional-arm-scale-for-throwers-fast-part-ii-reliability-and-validity-of-an-upper-extremity-region-specific-and-population-specific-patient-reported-outcome-scale-for-throwing-athletes
#9
Kellie C Huxel Bliven, Alison R Snyder Valier, R Curtis Bay, Eric L Sauers
BACKGROUND: The Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST) is an upper extremity (UE) region-specific and population-specific patient-reported outcome (PRO) scale developed to measure health-related quality of life in throwers with UE injuries. Stages I and II, described in a companion paper, of FAST development produced a 22-item scale and a 9-item pitcher module. Stage III of scale development, establishing reliability and validity of the FAST, is reported herein. PURPOSE: To describe stage III of scale development: reliability and validity of the FAST...
April 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451608/the-functional-arm-scale-for-throwers-fast-part-i-the-design-and-development-of-an-upper-extremity-region-specific-and-population-specific-patient-reported-outcome-scale-for-throwing-athletes
#10
Eric L Sauers, R Curtis Bay, Alison R Snyder Valier, Traci Ellery, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
BACKGROUND: Upper extremity (UE) region-specific, patient-reported outcome (PRO) scales assess injuries to the UE but do not account for the demands of overhead throwing athletes or measure patient-oriented domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). PURPOSE: To develop the Functional Arm Scale for Throwers (FAST), a UE region-specific and population-specific PRO scale that assesses multiple domains of disablement in throwing athletes with UE injuries. In stage I, a beta version of the scale was developed for subsequent factor identification, final item reduction, and construct validity analysis during stage II...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396902/progressive-skeletal-benefits-of-physical-activity-when-young-as-assessed-at-the-midshaft-humerus-in-male-baseball-players
#11
S J Warden, A M Weatherholt, A S Gudeman, D C Mitchell, W R Thompson, R K Fuchs
Physical activity benefits the skeleton, but there is contrasting evidence regarding whether benefits differ at different stages of growth. The current study demonstrates that physical activity should be encouraged at the earliest age possible and be continued into early adulthood to gain most skeletal benefits. INTRODUCTION: The current study explored physical activity-induced bone adaptation at different stages of somatic maturity by comparing side-to-side differences in midshaft humerus properties between male throwing athletes and controls...
April 10, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299434/pathologies-of-the-shoulder-and-elbow-affecting-the-overhead-throwing-athlete
#12
REVIEW
Sean Wo, Hyojeong Mulcahy, Michael L Richardson, Felix S Chew, Albert Gee, Jason Hsu, Jack Porrino
The overhead-throwing athlete is susceptible to a variety of predictable disease entities affecting the shoulder and elbow. While the pathophysiology and nomenclature of these diseases are ubiquitous throughout the clinical literature, this information is sparse within the radiology domain. We provide a comprehensive review of these unique injuries with accompanying imaging features in an effort to enhance the role of the radiologist during the management of the overhead thrower. When appropriately recognized and described, the imaging features aid in establishing a diagnosis and ultimately the implementation of appropriate clinical management...
July 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203588/return-to-play-and-prior-performance-in-major-league-baseball-pitchers-after-repair-of-superior-labral-anterior-posterior-tears
#13
Ryan Smith, Daniel J Lombardo, Graysen R Petersen-Fitts, Charles Frank, Troy Tenbrunsel, Gannon Curtis, James Whaley, Vani J Sabesan
BACKGROUND: The published return-to-play (RTP) rates for Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers who have undergone surgical repair of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears vary widely and are generally accepted to be lower in the subset of competitive throwers. The efficacy of surgical treatment for MLB players is largely unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the RTP rate and performance of MLB pitchers who have undergone SLAP tear repair between 2003 and 2010. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiological study...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196753/temporal-and-spatial-occlusion-of-advanced-visual-information-constrains-movement-re-organization-in-one-handed-catching-behaviors
#14
J A Stone, I W Maynard, J S North, D Panchuk, K Davids
Dynamic interceptive actions are performed under severe spatial and temporal constraints. Here, behavioral processes underpinning anticipation in one-handed catching were examined using novel technology to implement a spatial and temporal occlusion design. Video footage of an actor throwing a ball was manipulated to create four temporal and five spatial occlusion conditions. Data from twelve participants' hand kinematics and gaze behaviors were recorded while attempting to catch a projected ball synchronized with the video footage...
March 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149736/arthroscopic-debridement-of-the-thrower-s-shoulder-less-is-more
#15
Paul E Caldwell, Dustin C Dyer, Sara E Pearson
The thrower's shoulder has long been a topic of debate among shoulder specialists. The tremendous forces produced during the throwing motion coupled with the compilation of the pathology encountered in the thrower's shoulder have generated a complex treatment algorithm. Simplifying management options has been challenging and recommendations continue to evolve. Treatment of injuries to the thrower's shoulder most commonly involves addressing partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. These can be isolated or more commonly associated with tearing of the posterior superior labrum...
December 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149523/differences-in-life-expectancy-between-olympic-high-jumpers-discus-throwers-marathon-and-100-meter-runners
#16
Jeffrey Lee-Heidenreich, David Lee-Heidenreich, Jonathan Myers
BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that body habitus is associated with survival (life expectancy) time. We sought to determine if survival differed between elite athletes with a range of body types. We hypothesized that the survival would differ between athlete types and that ectomorph athletes would have longer survival than heavier athletes. METHODS: For each Olympics between 1928 and 1948 we identified the top (up to 20) Olympic male and female finishers in the high jump (HJ), discus throw, marathon, and 100-m run...
2017: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149401/transfer-of-mechanical-energy-during-the-shot-put
#17
Michalina Błażkiewicz, Barbara Łysoń, Adam Chmielewski, Andrzej Wit
The aim of this study was to analyse transfer of mechanical energy between body segments during the glide shot put. A group of eight elite throwers from the Polish National Team was analysed in the study. Motion analysis of each throw was recorded using an optoelectronic Vicon system composed of nine infrared camcorders and Kistler force plates. The power and energy were computed for the phase of final acceleration of the glide shot put. The data were normalized with respect to time using the algorithm of the fifth order spline and their values were interpolated with respect to the percentage of total time, assuming that the time of the final weight acceleration movement was different for each putter...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125544/acute-effect-of-countermovement-jumping-on-throwing-performance-in-track-and-field-athletes-during-competition
#18
Giorgos P Karampatsos, Panagiotis G Korfiatis, Nikolaos D Zaras, Giorgos V Georgiadis, Gerasimos D Terzis
Karampatsos, GP, Korfiatis, PG, Zaras, ND, Georgiadis, GV, and Terzis, GD. Acute effect of countermovement jumping on throwing performance in track and field athletes during competition. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 359-364, 2017-The purpose of the study was to investigate whether performing 3 consecutive countermovement jumps (CMJs) just before an attempt enhances performance in track and field throwers during competition. Twelve shot putters, 8 hammer throwers, 9 discus throwers, and 3 javelin throwers of both sexes participated in the study...
February 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102105/pitching-form-determines-probabilistic-structure-of-errors-in-pitch-location
#19
Masahiro Shinya, Shinji Tsuchiya, Yousuke Yamada, Kimitaka Nakazawa, Kazutoshi Kudo, Shingo Oda
According to recent motor control studies, it is important to know probabilistic structure of his/her own motor errors to choose an optimal motor plan (i.e., where you aim at) to maximise the expected gain. In this study, we questioned if pitching form determines the probabilistic structure of pitching errors in baseball pitchers. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers with various pitching forms including right- and left-handed overarm, sidearm and underarm throwers threw 100 pitches aiming at a target located 90 cm above the ground...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032029/evaluation-and-treatment-of-internal-impingement-of-the-shoulder-in-overhead-athletes
#20
REVIEW
Keith T Corpus, Christopher L Camp, David M Dines, David W Altchek, Joshua S Dines
One of the most common pathologic processes seen in overhead throwing athletes is posterior shoulder pain resulting from internal impingement. "Internal impingement" is a term used to describe a constellation of symptoms which result from the greater tuberosity of the humerus and the articular surface of the rotator cuff abutting the posterosuperior glenoid when the shoulder is in an abducted and externally rotated position. The pathophysiology in symptomatic internal impingement is multifactorial, involving physiologic shoulder remodeling, posterior capsular contracture, and scapular dyskinesis...
December 18, 2016: World Journal of Orthopedics
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