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Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Matthew Davidson, Cathy Bodine, Richard F Ff Weir
AIM: Prosthetic devices are not meeting the needs of people with upper limb amputations. Due to controlsidelimitations, prosthetic wrists cannot yet be fully articulated. This study sought to determine which wrist motions users felt were most important for completing activities of daily living. We specifically invstigated whether adding a combinationof flexion and deviation known as the Dart Thrower's Motion to a prosthetic wrist would help improve functionality. METHODS: Fifteen participants with a trans-radial amputation, aged 25-64 years, who use a prosthesis completed an online survey and answered interview questions to determine which types of tasks pose particular challenges...
March 7, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
T Suhasaria, J D Thrower, R Frigge, S Roling, M Bertin, X Michaut, J-H Fillion, H Zacharias
The photochemical processing of a CH4  : D2 O 1 : 3.3 ice mixture adsorbed on an HOPG surface in the XUV regime was investigated using pulses obtained from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) facility. Ice films were exposed to femtosecond pulses with a photon energy of hν = 40.8 eV, consistent with the HeII resonance line. Cationic species desorbing directly from the ice films were detected using time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Simple ions formed through the fragmentation of the parent molecules and subsequent recombination reactions were detected and are consistent with efficient D+ and H+ ejection from the parent species, similar to the case for low energy electron irradiation...
February 28, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Christopher M Jones, David P Beason, Jeffrey R Dugas
Background: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries have increased significantly in recent years, and reconstruction has become the preferred treatment for UCL injury over ligament repair. In a recent study, UCL repair with internal bracing demonstrated significantly greater resistance to gap formation in biomechanical tests, even at low cycles of valgus loading. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue and failure mechanics of traditional UCL reconstruction with UCL repair and internal bracing...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Garry Kuan, Tony Morris, Yee Cheng Kueh, Peter C Terry
Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Terrance A Sgroi, John M Zajac
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Throwing places high demands on the human body, and specific characteristics are developed over time unique to these athletes. When returning to throw after injury, it is important to follow a criterion-based progression that allows the body to be prepared appropriately for the stresses that throwing will require. There is currently a void in the literature for criteria-based progression that helps these athletes return to the highest level of play. RECENT FINDINGS: As injury rates continue to rise in baseball, there is increased evidence showing contributions of the core and lower extremity to the baseball pitch...
March 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Justin W Arner, Michael P McClincy, James P Bradley
In a previous study, compared with throwing athletes with superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears, those with concomitant SLAP tears and rotator cuff tears (RCTs) had significantly poorer outcome scores and return to play. Posterior shoulder instability also occurs in throwing athletes, but no studies currently exist regarding outcomes of these patients with concomitant RCTs. The authors hypothesized that throwing athletes treated with arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for posterior shoulder instability with coexistent rotator cuff pathology would have poorer outcome scores and return to play...
January 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan D Gelber, Lonnie Soloff, Mark S Schickendantz
Overhead athletes subject their shoulders to extreme repetitive torque, compression, distraction, and translation stresses, resulting in adaptive changes of the soft tissues and osseous structures within and around the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic adaptations result in biomechanical enhancements, which improve performance. Understanding the difference between necessary and adaptive changes and pathologic findings is critical when making treatment decisions. Injuries to the shoulder of the overhead athlete can be generally classified into three groups: internal impingement, internal impingement with acquired secondary anterior instability, and primary anterior or multidirectional instability...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Timothy B Griffith, James Kercher, S Clifton Willimon, Crystal Perkins, Xavier A Duralde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With an increasing rate of adolescent elbow injuries, especially in throwing athletes, the purpose of this review is to investigate the current literature regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and non-operative and operative outcomes of medial epicondyle fractures, ulnar collateral ligament repair, osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow, and olecranon stress fractures. RECENT FINDINGS: Acceptable outcomes with both non-operative and operative treatments of medial epicondyle fractures have been reported, with surgical indications continuing to evolve...
February 14, 2018: Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine
Masaki Akeda, Teruhisa Mihata, Woong Kyo Jeong, Michelle H McGarry, Tetsuya Yamazaki, Thay Q Lee
BACKGROUND: Internal impingement and decreased anterior stability, which result from shoulder capsular loosening, are common shoulder pathologies in throwing athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of shoulder abduction angle on shoulder internal impingement and anterior shoulder stability during the simulated throwing motion. METHODS: Eight cadaveric shoulders were tested by simulating the late-cocking and acceleration phases of the throwing motion for intact and thrower's shoulder conditions...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Nancy A Shadick, Melanie J Zibit, Christine K Iannaccone, Rebecca Thrower, Nancy F Sowell, Michael E Weinblatt, Daniel Hal Solomon, Jing Cui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Maurizio Giacchino, Cristina Caresio, Negar E Gorji, Filippo Molinari, Giuseppe Massazza, Marco Alessandro Minetto
Background: Ultrasonographic abnormalities of the patellar tendon frequently occur in asymptomatic athletes and it is not always clear whether they precede (and may predict) the development of tendinopathy. Objective: This study aimed to investigate by ultrasonography the prevalence of patellar tendon abnormalities in players of "pallapugno" and to establish whether structural tendon abnormalities predict tendinopathy development. Methods: Ultrasound B-mode images of the patellar tendon of both sides were acquired in fourteen throwers...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Jeffrey A Cohen, Samuel F Hunter, Theodore R Brown, Mark Gudesblatt, Ben W Thrower, Lily Llorens, Cindy J Souza-Prien, April E Ruby, David N Chernoff, Rajiv Patni
BACKGROUND: Walking impairment causes disability and reduced quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: Characterize the safety and efficacy of ADS-5102 (amantadine) extended release capsules, 274 mg administered once daily at bedtime in patients with MS with walking impairment. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-week study was conducted at 14 trial sites in the United States. Study objectives included safety and tolerability of ADS-5102, and efficacy assessments (Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25FW), Timed Up and Go (TUG), 2-Minute Walk Test, and Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12)...
January 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Dana J Lin, Tony T Wong, Jonathan K Kazam
The unparalleled velocity achieved by overhead throwers subjects the shoulder to extreme forces, resulting in both adaptive changes and pathologic findings that can be detected at imaging. A key biomechanical principle of throwing is achieving maximum external rotation, which initially leads to adaptive changes that may result in a pathologic cascade of injuries. In addition to the well-established concepts of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and internal impingement, osseous and soft-tissue injuries of the shoulder unique to overhead athletes are illustrated...
February 2018: Radiology
Eric C Makhni, Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Jeffrey P Stephens, Kelechi R Okoroha, Vasilios Moutzouros
PURPOSE: To assess the precision of a new wearable device in detecting medial elbow torque during the pitching motion in competitive baseball pitchers and to determine the differences in torque across pitch types and thrower demographic characteristics. METHODS: High school and collegiate baseball pitchers were recruited from August 1, 2016, to January 31, 2017, through direct request by athletic trainers and coaches. Body dimensions and throwing arm measurements of the participants were collected...
December 27, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Kyle D Morgenstern, Gonzalo Barinaga, Paul J Cagle
CASE: A 26-year-old amateur baseball player without prodromal arm pain sustained a thrower's fracture of the humerus on a warm-up throw performed with submaximal effort. The fracture occurred during the first throwing session following a 6-week layoff. The patient was treated nonoperatively and made a full recovery, but he elected to not return to throwing sports. CONCLUSION: Because of the lack of risk factors in this case, we suggest that time off or irregularity in throwing may play a greater role in a thrower's fracture than previously established...
April 2017: JBJS Case Connector
Antonella Maselli, Aishwar Dhawan, Benedetta Cesqui, Marta Russo, Francesco Lacquaniti, Andrea d'Avella
The ability to intercept or avoid a moving object, whether to catch a ball, snatch one's prey, or avoid the path of a predator, is a skill that has been acquired throughout evolution by many species in the animal kingdom. This requires processing early visual cues in order to program anticipatory motor responses tuned to the forthcoming event. Here, we explore the nature of the early kinematics cues that could inform an observer about the future direction of a ball projected with an unconstrained overarm throw...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Patrick M Kane, Bryan G Vopat, P Kaveh Mansuripur, Michael P Gaspar, Scott W Wolfe, Joseph J Crisco, Christopher Got
PURPOSE: To identify the relative contributions of the radiocarpal (RC) and midcarpal (MC) joints to dart-thrower's motion (DTM) of the wrist. METHODS: Six cadaveric upper extremities were fixed to a custom-designed loading jig allowing for pure moment-rotation analysis in 24 different directions of wrist motion. Each specimen was tested in 3 states: intact, simulated radiocarpal fusion (sRCF) and simulated pancarpal fusion (sPCF). Moments of ± 1.5 Nm were applied at each of 24 directions for each state and the resulting wrist rotation recorded...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
Adele Meron, Deborah Saint-Phard
Throwing events in track and field are among the oldest sporting events in recorded history and include shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin. All throwing athletes use the kinetic chain to transfer energy from the lower extremities, through the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, arm, wrist, hand, and finally into the implement to generate maximum force. Throughout this sequential activation, mobilization, and stabilization of body segments, there is opportunity for breakdown in the chain, which can lead to injury. This review describes the biomechanics and kinetic chain components of each event and highlights injuries common among all throwers as well as injuries unique to each event...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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