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Abstinence only programs

Sam Cole, Casey Suter, Chelsea Nash, Joseph Pollard
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhancement on quit outcomes. DESIGN: Observational study using an intent to treat as treated analysis. SETTING: Not available. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4022 Idaho tobacco users aged ≥18 years who received services from the Idaho Tobacco Quitline or Idaho's web-based program. INTERVENTION: One-call phone or web-based participants were sent a single 4- or 8-week NRT shipment...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Timothy Watts, Kelly L Wilson, Elisa B McNeill, Brittany L Rosen, Nancy Daley Moore, Matthew L Smith
BACKGROUND: We examine personal characteristics, alcohol consumption, normative beliefs, household factors, and extracurricular engagement associated with intentions to have intercourse before marriage among abstinent students. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 245 freshmen enrolled in a school-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program. Two binary logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with intentions to engage in intercourse before marriage and within the next year...
October 2016: Journal of School Health
Guillaume Airagnes, Antoine Pelissolo, Mélanie Lavallée, Martine Flament, Frédéric Limosin
Benzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Paula A Keller, Barbara A Schillo, Amy N Kerr, Rebecca K Lien, Jessie Saul, Marietta Dreher, Randi B Lachter
Although state quitlines provide free telephone counseling and often include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), reach remains limited (1-2% in most states). More needs to be done to engage all smokers in the quitting process. A possible strategy is to offer choices of cessation services through quitlines and to reduce registration barriers. In March 2014, ClearWay Minnesota(SM) implemented a new model for QUITPLAN® Services, the state's population-wide cessation services. Tobacco users could choose the QUITPLAN® Helpline or one or more Individual QUITPLAN® Services (NRT starter kit, text messaging, email program, or quit guide)...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
Brian D Kiluk, Kathleen A Devore, Matthew B Buck, Charla Nich, Tami L Frankforter, Donna M LaPaglia, Brian T Yates, Melissa A Gordon, Kathleen M Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), yet is rarely implemented with high fidelity in clinical practice. Computer-based delivery of CBT offers the potential to address dissemination challenges, but to date there have been no evaluations of a web-based CBT program for alcohol use within a clinical sample. METHODS: This study randomized treatment-seeking individuals with a current AUD to 1 of 3 treatments at a community outpatient facility: (i) standard treatment as usual (TAU); (ii) TAU plus on-site access to a computerized CBT targeting alcohol use (TAU + CBT4CBT); or (iii) CBT4CBT plus brief weekly clinical monitoring (CBT4CBT + monitoring)...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Won S Choi, Laura A Beebe, Niaman Nazir, Baljit Kaur, Michelle Hopkins, Myrietta Talawyma, Theresa I Shireman, Hung-Wen Yeh, K Allen Greiner, Christine M Daley
INTRODUCTION: American Indians have the highest cigarette smoking prevalence of any racial/ethnic group in the U.S. There is currently no effective empirically based smoking-cessation program for American Indians. The purpose of this study was to determine if a culturally tailored smoking-cessation program, All Nations Breath of Life (ANBL), is more effective than a non-tailored cessation program among American Indian smokers. DESIGN: A multisite RCT was conducted from September 2009 to July 2014; analysis was conducted in 2015...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
William H Zywiak, Robert L Stout, Jordan M Braciszewski, Tyler B Wray, Richard Longabaugh
BACKGROUND: The Important People and Activities (IPA) instrument assesses network characteristics and social support for drinking and abstinence. The IPA has garnered widespread use in the alcohol treatment field. We modified the IPA to assess HIV status, drug of choice, and IV drug use among social network members. Further, we queried frequency of unprotected sex, between the participant and network members. AIM: Since this measure was modified, and the test-retest reliability of the IPA has only rarely been examined, we conducted a small substudy (n=26) to examine 1-week test-retest reliability of this measure...
April 2016: Heroin Addiction and related Clinical Problems
Céline Mavrot, Iris Stucki, Fritz Sager, Jean-François Etter
INTRODUCTION: Self-help computer-based programs are easily accessible and cost-effective interventions with a great recruitment potential. However, each program is different and results of meta-analyses may not apply to each new program; therefore, evaluations of new programs are warranted. The aim of this study was to assess the marginal efficacy of a computer-based, individually tailored program (the Coach) over and above the use of a comprehensive Internet smoking cessation website...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Laureen M Lopez, Alissa Bernholc, Mario Chen, Elizabeth E Tolley
BACKGROUND: Young women, especially adolescents, often lack access to modern contraception. Reasons vary by geography and regional politics and culture. The projected 2015 birth rate in 'developing' regions was 56 per 1000 compared with 17 per 1000 for 'developed' regions. OBJECTIVES: To identify school-based interventions that improved contraceptive use among adolescents SEARCH METHODS: Until 6 June 2016, we searched for eligible trials in PubMed, CENTRAL, ERIC, Web of Science, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
James R McKay, Cheryl Knepper, Erin Deneke, Christopher O'Reilly, Robert L DuPont
INTRODUCTION: Physician health programs (PHPs) generate high rates of sustained abstinence in addicted physicians, through a combination of formal treatment, self-help involvement, regular monitoring via random urine toxicology tests, and powerful incentives generated by the threat of losing one's medical license. Recently, Caron Treatment Centers developed a new continuing care intervention, "My First Year of Recovery" (MyFYR), which is modeled after PHPs but provides extended recovery support to a broader segment of those with substance use disorders...
August 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Mary Kate Mohlman, Beth Tanzman, Karl Finison, Melanie Pinette, Craig Jones
In the face of increasing rates of overdose deaths, escalating health care costs, and the tremendous social costs of opioid addiction, policy makers are asked to address the questions of whether and how to expand access to treatment services. In response to an upward trend in opioid abuse and adverse outcomes, Vermont is investing in statewide expansion of a medication-assisted therapy program delivered in a network of community practices and specialized treatment centers (Hub & Spoke Program). This study was conducted to test the rationale for these investments and to establish a pre-Hub & Spoke baseline for evaluating the additive impact of the program...
August 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Yuko Tanibuchi, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Fumi Imamura, Asako Wakabayashi, Hiraku Kawachi, Emi Hikitsuchi, Ayumi Takano, Masako Yonezawa, Takashi Kato, Misako Yamada, Aya Wachi, Mai Aboshi, Kiyoshi Wada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), which is the workbook-based group therapy for individuals with drug dependence, through investigating 1-year follow-up outcomes. METHOD AND SUBJECTS: The sample was drawn from 231 outpatients diagnosed as DSM-IV substance use disorder, who had firstly consulted the drug dependence clinic of the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry between September 2009 and June 2013...
February 2016: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
S K Kathpalia
BACKGROUND: India was one of the first countries to launch a formal family planning program. Initially, the main thrust of the program was on sterilization but subsequently it has got evolved and now the stress is to bring about awareness of contraception and make informed choices. Emergency contraception has been included in its armamentarium. This study was conducted to find out about the awareness among the cases who report for induced abortion. METHODS: A total of 784 willing cases were enrolled in the study; there were no exclusion criteria except unwillingness...
April 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Alison Volpe Holmes, Emily C Atwood, Bonny Whalen, Johanna Beliveau, J Dean Jarvis, John C Matulis, Shawn L Ralston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The incidence and associated costs of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have recently risen sharply; newborns with NAS occupy 4% of NICU beds. We implemented a coordinated program for NAS including standardized protocols for scoring, medications and weaning, and a calm rooming-in environment, to improve family-centered care and to decrease both length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs. METHODS: In early 2013, a multidisciplinary quality improvement team began consecutive plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Anette Kira, Marewa Glover, Natalie Walker, Linda Bauld
INTRODUCTION: Smoking prevalence among pregnant indigenous women is disproportionately higher than for nonindigenous pregnant women. Incentives have been shown to increase retention in and the effectiveness of smoking cessation programs. To trial if this could work for indigenous women, we aimed to recruit and observe retention of Māori (New Zealand indigenous people) pregnant women that smoke into a cessation program using incentives. METHODS: A parallel group, randomized controlled feasibility trial was undertaken in New Zealand...
October 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Tara Gomes, David N Juurlink
The dramatic rise in prescription opioid use in the past two decades across Canada and the United States has been accompanied by increased rates of adverse events, including premature death and neonatal abstinence syndrome. In Ontario, policies and programs designed to address inappropriate prescribing have been implemented with varying degrees of success. Emerging issues that require ongoing attention include the introduction of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids and generic versions of long-acting oxycodone...
2016: Healthcare Quarterly
Lisa J Merlo, Michael D Campbell, Gregory E Skipper, Corinne L Shea, Robert L DuPont
AIMS: To compare treatment outcome among substance dependent physicians enrolled in a physician health program (PHP) who have a history of alcohol use only, any opioid use, or non-opioid drug use, in order to determine whether the distinctive PHP system of care management is as effective for individuals with opioid use disorders as for those with alcohol or other drug use disorders. METHODS: A 5-year, retrospective chart review, intent-to-treat analysis was conducted for all physicians admitted to 16 physician health programs (N=702; 85...
May 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Woo-Young Ahn, Jasmin Vassileva
BACKGROUND: Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. METHODS: The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches...
April 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ulrika Müssener, Marcus Bendtsen, Nadine Karlsson, Ian R White, Jim McCambridge, Preben Bendtsen
IMPORTANCE: Smoking is globally the most important preventable cause of ill health and death. Mobile telephone interventions and, in particular, short message service (SMS) text messaging, have the potential to overcome access barriers to traditional health services, not least among young people. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a text-based smoking cessation intervention among young people. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A single-blind, 2-arm, randomized clinical trial (Nicotine Exit [NEXit]) was conducted from October 23, 2014, to April 17, 2015; data analysis was performed from April 23, 2014, to May 22, 2015...
March 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Jemima A Frimpong, Erick G Guerrero, Yinfei Kong, Tina Kim
Abstinence at successful discharge in substance use disorder treatment is important to reducing relapse rates and increasing long-term recovery from substance use disorders. However, few studies have examined abstinence as an essential component of successful discharge. This study examined rates and correlates of reported abstinence (nonuse of drugs 30 days prior to successful discharge) among clients attending publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. Finding show that only 36% of clients who were successfully discharged reported abstinence...
October 2016: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
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