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Abstinence only programs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660034/e-cigarettes-may-support-smokers-with-high-smoking-related-risk-awareness-to-stop-smoking-in-the-short-run-preliminary-results-by-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Marianna Masiero, Claudio Lucchiari, Ketti Mazzocco, Giulia Veronesi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Costantino Jemos, Emanuela Omodeo Salè, Stefania Spina, Raffaella Bertolotti, Gabriella Pravettoni
Introduction: E-cigarettes may be positively used in tobacco cessation treatments. However, neither the World Health Organization nor the American Food and Drug Administration has recognized them as effective cessation aids. Data about the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes are still limited and controversial. Methods: This was a double-blind randomized controlled study. The main aim was to assess the efficacy of the use of e-cigarettes in a tobacco cessation program with a group of chronic smokers voluntarily involved in long-term lung cancer screening...
April 11, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650308/the-impact-of-social-media-based-support-groups-on-smoking-relapse-prevention-in-saudi-arabia
#2
Hamidi Al Onezi, Mohamed Khalifa, Ashraf El-Metwally, Mowafa Househ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking remains a major preventable cause of mortality and morbidity across the globe. People who attempt to quit smoking often experience episodes of relapse before finally quitting. Understanding the part that social networking sites and social media can play in smoking cessation and prevention of relapse is important to aid the development of novel techniques to curb the smoking epidemic. This study investigated the use of extra-treatment provided outside of the formal healthcare setting, bolstered by online social support in order to prevent smoking relapse in Saudi Arabia...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629348/why-don-t-cancer-survivors-quit-smoking-an-evaluation-of-readiness-for-smoking-cessation-in-cancer-survivors
#3
Melissa A Little, Robert C Klesges, Zoran Bursac, Jon O Ebbert, Jennifer P Halbert, Andrew N Dunkle, Lauren Colvin, Patricia J Goedecke, Benny Weksler
Background: Cancer survivors have a high rate of participation in cigarette-smoking cessation programs but their smoking-abstinence rates remain low. In the current study, we evaluated the readiness to quit smoking in a cancer-survivor population. Methods: Cross-sectional data survey conducted among 112 adult cancer survivors who smoked cigarettes in Tennessee. Analyses were conducted using a two-sample t -test, χ2 test, Fishers Exact test, and multivariable logistic regression with smoker's readiness to quit as the dependent variable...
March 2018: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596769/-smoking-cessation-after-bladder-cancer-diagnosis
#4
Paulo Mota, Pedro Miguel Sousa, Francisco Botelho, Emanuel Carvalho-Dias, Agostinho Cordeiro, João Pimentel Torres, Nuno Morais, Sara Anacleto, Estevão Lima
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is an important risk factor for the development, recurrence and progression of bladder cancer. Our aim was to analyze smoking habits after diagnosis in bladder cancer patients. Additionally, we evaluated patient knowledge about smoking as a risk factor and the urologist role in promoting abstinence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was performed in bladder cancer patients, diagnosed between January 2013 and September 2015 (n = 160) in Braga Hospital, in Portugal...
February 28, 2018: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578832/pilot-randomized-trial-of-an-automated-smoking-cessation-intervention-via-mobile-phone-text-messages-as-an-adjunct-to-varenicline-in-primary-care
#5
Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, Erin Hammett, James Nicholson, Arthur Berg, Jonathan Foulds
OBJECTIVE: Varenicline is a safe and effective aid to smoking cessation but most trials have involved frequent visits or intensive behavioral support unlike that typically provided in primary care. The current study examined if motivational text messages, sent via cellphone, would increase quit rates in smokers being treated with varenicline and 3 brief sessions in a family practice setting. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled, parallel-group smoking cessation trial...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570695/lack-of-substantial-post-cessation-weight-increase-in-electronic-cigarettes-users
#6
Cristina Russo, Fabio Cibella, Enrico Mondati, Pasquale Caponnetto, Evelise Frazzetto, Massimo Caruso, Grazia Caci, Riccardo Polosa
Minimization of post-cessation weight gain in quitters is important, but existing approaches (e.g., antismoking medications) shows only limited success. We investigated changes in body weight in smokers who quit or reduced substantially their cigarette consumption by switching to electronic cigarettes (ECs) use. Body weight and smoking/vaping history were extracted from medical records of smokers and ex-smokers to match three study groups: (1) regular EC users on at least two consecutive follow-up visits; (2) regular smokers (and not using ECs); (3) subjects who reported sustained smoking abstinence after completing a cessation program...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549007/planning-a-change-easily-pace-a-randomized-controlled-trial-for-smokers-who-are-not-ready-to-quit
#7
Francisco I Salgado García, Karen J Derefinko, Zoran Bursac, Sarah Hand, Robert C Klesges
Smoking cessation programs are efficacious and have been validated to assist the 10% to 30% of smokers who are ready to quit in the next 30 days. While the majority of smokers want to quit smoking in the future, only 69% are planning to quit within the next year. Planning a Change Easily (PACE) is a nation-wide, telephone-based comparative effectiveness, randomized controlled trial for smokers not ready to quit (SNRTQ). This project, as well as its intervention components, outcomes, and hypotheses are discussed...
March 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526275/smoking-cessation-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Franck, Kristian B Filion, Mark J Eisenberg
Over 30% of the nearly 1 million North Americans hospitalized annually with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are smokers. Despite a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality, 2/3 of patients who quit smoking after ACS return to smoking within 1 year. To summarize the evidence of smoking cessation in patients hospitalized after ACS, we systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation therapies in patients with ACS. In addition, we reviewed the clinical considerations surrounding the use of smoking cessation therapies, including their broad mechanisms of action and possible alternative treatments, including cardiac rehabilitation programs and electronic cigarettes...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389142/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-financial-incentives-to-low-income-pregnant-women-to-engage-in-smoking-cessation-treatment-effects-on-post-birth-abstinence
#9
Timothy B Baker, David L Fraser, Kate Kobinsky, Robert Adsit, Stevens S Smith, Lisette Khalil, Kristine M Alaniz, Tingting E Sullivan, Mimi L Johnson, Michael C Fiore
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effectiveness of monetary incentives for increasing engagement in smoking cessation treatment and improving 6-month abstinence in low-income pregnant smokers. METHOD: Two-group randomized clinical trial recruiting low-income (Medicaid-registered) pregnant smokers receiving assistance through a perinatal support program. Participants were randomized to either an incentive (n = 505) or control condition (n = 509). All participants were offered identical smoking cessation counseling at contacts...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312710/effect-of-telling-patients-their-spirometric-lung-age-on-smoking-cessation-in-japanese-smokers
#10
Haruhi Takagi, Yoshiteru Morio, Toshiji Ishiwata, Kazunori Shimada, Atsumi Kume, Kayo Miura, Eriko Kuwasaki, Miharu Kato, Kuniaki Seyama, Kazuhisa Takahashi
Background: Cigarette smoking remains a significant public health problem. However, current treatment programs have not yet succeeded in sufficiently reducing smoking rates. The study aimed to examine whether patients' recognition of "spirometric-lung-age (SLA)" estimated from spirometry data prompts smoking cessation. Methods: From December 2010 to September 2011, participating smokers were prospectively enrolled into the standardized smoking cessation program (Visits 1-5 for 12 weeks) and assigned single-blindly to either SLA assessment or control groups...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201359/rationale-for-and-approach-to-preoperative-opioid-weaning-a-preoperative-optimization-protocol
#11
REVIEW
Heath McAnally
The practice of chronic opioid prescription for chronic non-cancer pain has come under considerable scrutiny within the past several years as mounting evidence reveals a generally unfavorable risk to benefit ratio and the nation reels from the grim mortality statistics associated with the opioid epidemic. Patients struggling with chronic pain tend to use opioids and also seek out operative intervention for their complaints, which combination may be leading to increased postoperative "acute-on-chronic" pain and fueling worsened chronic pain and opioid dependence...
2017: Perioperative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186650/-survey-of-secondary-school-students-18-years-old-or-older-about-knowledge-on-risks-to-the-fetus-related-to-alcohol-consumption-during-pregnancy
#12
Valeria Traverso, Roberta Da Rin Della Mora
INTRODUCTION:  Being not perceived as risky for health, alcohol consumption is socially accepted worldwide. Nevertheless, related risks for the fetus are relevant, even for occasional use. In Italy there is a high consumption of alcohol among young people and pregnant women, and an increasing number of children born with alcohol-related disorders. AIM: To investigate the knowledge on fetal alcohol-related disorders among students over 18 years of age in a regional capital in the North of Italy...
July 2017: Professioni Infermieristiche
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186618/semi-automatized-segmentation-method-using-image-based-flow-cytometry-to-study-sperm-physiology-the-case-of-capacitation-induced-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#13
Arturo Matamoros-Volante, Ayelen Moreno-Irusta, Paulina Torres-Rodriguez, Laura Giojalas, María G Gervasi, Pablo E Visconti, Claudia L Treviño
STUDY QUESTION: Is image-based flow cytometry a useful tool to study intracellular events in human sperm such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation or signaling processes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image-based flow cytometry is a powerful tool to study intracellular events in a relevant number of sperm cells, which enables a robust statistical analysis providing spatial resolution in terms of the specific subcellular localization of the labeling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization...
February 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092811/engagement-within-a-mobile-phone-based-smoking-cessation-intervention-for-adolescents-and-its-association-with-participant-characteristics-and-outcomes
#14
Raquel Paz Castro, Severin Haug, Andreas Filler, Tobias Kowatsch, Michael P Schaub
BACKGROUND: Although mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation programs are a promising way to promote smoking cessation among adolescents, little is known about how adolescents might actually use them. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine adolescents' trajectories of engagement with a mobile phone-delivered smoking cessation program over time and the associations these trajectories have with baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes. METHODS: We performed secondary data analysis on a dataset from a study that compared a mobile phone-delivered integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention with a smoking cessation only intervention for adolescents recruited in vocational and upper secondary school classes (N=1418)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089293/financial-incentives-alone-versus-incentivized-partner-support-for-promoting-smoking-cessation-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum-protocol-for-a-non-randomized-single-blinded-study
#15
Mai Frandsen, Megan Thow, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco remains the most significant modifiable cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes and contributor to ongoing maternal and infant ill-health. Pregnancy for many is a time of heightened health focus, with the primary motivation being the well-being of the unborn child. Yet, many women continue to smoke throughout their pregnancy. Despite this heightened motivation and known health risks, interventions to date have not effectively curbed the rate of smoking during pregnancy and they remain as high as rates among the general population...
October 31, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040815/the-role-of-folic-acid-and-selenium-against-oxidative-ethanol-damage-in-early-life-programming-a-review
#16
Mª Luisa Ojeda Murillo, Fatima Nogales Bueno, Mª Luisa Murillo Taravillo, Olimpia Carreras Sánchez
Several disorders in children, called Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), occur as result of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation. They appear, at least in part, to be related to the oxidative stress that this drug generates. Ethanol metabolism generates reactive oxygen species and causes a depletion of the antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH) leading to oxidative stress and lipid and protein damage which are related to growth retardation and neurotoxicity, increasing the incidence of FASD...
October 17, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038512/levels-of-exhaled-carbon-monoxide-measured-during-an-intervention-program-predict-1-year-smoking-cessation-a-retrospective-observational-cohort-study
#17
Huei-Guan Shie, Sheng-Wei Pan, Wen-Kuang Yu, Wei-Chih Chen, Li-Ing Ho, Hsin-Kuo Ko
Life-long smoking cessation is a critical public health objective, but it is difficult for numerous people. This study aimed to identify the independent predictors of 1-year abstinence in smokers motivated to quit and participating in an intervention program. This 6-year retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in smokers who participated in an intervention program. The exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was sequentially measured on day 1, 8, 15, and 22 of the intervention program. The primary outcome measure was smoking status at 1 year of follow-up...
October 16, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021121/effect-of-computerized-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-on-acquisition-of-coping-skills-among-cocaine-dependent-individuals-enrolled-in-methadone-maintenance
#18
Brian D Kiluk, Elise E DeVito, Matthew B Buck, Karen Hunkele, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
The acquisition of coping skills has long been considered one of the putative mechanisms of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders, yet consistent statistical support is lacking. This study sought to replicate and extend prior findings regarding the quality of coping skills as a mediator of abstinence outcomes from a computerized CBT program for substance users. Participants were methadone-maintained, cocaine dependent individuals enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of computer-based training for CBT ('CBT4CBT') as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU+CBT4CBT) compared to TAU only...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021116/efficacy-of-a-technology-based-integrated-smoking-cessation-and-alcohol-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-in-adolescents-results-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Severin Haug, Raquel Paz Castro, Tobias Kowatsch, Andreas Filler, Michael P Schaub
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. METHODS: This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021114/a-police-led-addiction-treatment-referral-program-in-gloucester-ma-implementation-and-participants-experiences
#20
Davida M Schiff, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Zoe M Weinstein, Lisa Chan, Megan Bair-Merritt, David Rosenbloom
BACKGROUND: The increasing rates of opioid use disorder and resulting overdose deaths are a public health emergency, yet only a fraction of individuals in need receive treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the implementation of and participants' experiences with a novel police-led addiction treatment referral program. METHODS: Follow-up telephone calls to participants in the Gloucester Police Department's Angel Program from June 2015-May 2016...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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