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Abstinence only programs

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702864/tobacco-use-prevalence-and-outcomes-among-perinatal-patients-assessed-through-an-opt-out-cessation-and-follow-up-clinical-program
#1
Cole Buchanan, Georges J Nahhas, Constance Guille, K Michael Cummings, Cameron Wheeler, Erin A McClure
Purpose Cigarette smoking in the perinatal period is associated with costly morbidity and mortality for mother and infant, yet many women continue to smoke throughout their pregnancy and following delivery. This report describes tobacco use prevalence among perinatal smokers identified through an "opt-out" inpatient smoking cessation clinical service. Description Adult women admitted to the peripartum, delivery, and postpartum units at a large academic hospital were screened for tobacco use. Smokers were identified through their medical record and referred to a bedside consult and follow-up using an interactive voice response (IVR) system to assess smoking up to 30 days post-discharge...
July 12, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665180/evaluating-effectiveness-of-abstinence-education
#2
Thomas E Smith, Lisa S Panisch, Thallia Malespin, M Graça Pereira
PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of an abstinence education program that was sensitive to federally mandated curriculum and measures. METHODS: The intervention was delivered to 5,772 middle school and high school students. Effectiveness was assessed by a measure that was anchored on A-H themes, which are components of federally mandated curricular components of abstinence education. To better understand the relationship of different variables and determine the significance of student's improvements on the A-H measure scores, the ANCOVA was used with the pretest score and age as covariates and the use of gender and ethnicity as fixed factors in the analysis...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654651/herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-2-educational-assessment-of-young-adults-in-rural-southwest-virginia
#3
Shantal S Hover, Andrea S Bertke
PURPOSE: Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. HSV-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. Abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in Virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing STI risks. College students in southwest Virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding HSV-1 and HSV-2 and to identify students' preferred methods for STI education...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645889/a-review-of-the-theoretical-basis-effects-and-cost-effectiveness-of-online-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-the-netherlands-a-mixed-methods-approach
#4
REVIEW
Kei Long Cheung, Ben Wijnen, Hein de Vries
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a worldwide public health problem. In 2015, 26.3% of the Dutch population aged 18 years and older smoked, 74.4% of them daily. More and more people have access to the Internet worldwide; approximately 94% of the Dutch population have online access. Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (online cessation interventions) provide an opportunity to tackle the scourge of tobacco. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this paper was to provide an overview of online cessation interventions in the Netherlands, while exploring their effectivity, cost effectiveness, and theoretical basis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641534/interest-of-single-hair-analysis-to-document-drug-exposure-literature-review-and-a-case-report-involving-zuclopenthixol
#5
Nathalie Allibe, Pascal Kintz, Amandine Faure, François Paysant, Anne-Pascale Michard-Lenoir, Françoise Stanke-Labesque, Virginie Scolan, Hélène Eysseric-Guerin
The analysis of hair to detect drugs and drugs of abuse is performed in various contexts, including child protection cases, abstinence control programs, and workplace drug testing. This alternative matrix offers several advantages, such as a large detection window (months) and non-invasive collection. Segmental analysis of multiple hair strands for drugs and metabolites has been widely reported in the literature over the past three decades, whereas a review of the literature showed that there are only 26 articles that report the analysis of a single hair...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616772/evaluation-of-the-cognitive-behavioral-smoking-reduction-program-smoke_less-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Tobias Rüther, Alexa Kiss, Kerstin Eberhardt, Andrea Linhardt, Christoph Kröger, Oliver Pogarell
The vast majority of smokers are unable or unwilling to quit, but many are open to reducing smoking. No treatment options exist for these smokers besides medication-based therapies. Thus, this study investigated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) smoking reduction program, Smoke_less. A sample of 155 outpatient smokers aged 18-70 years was recruited at the Tobacco Dependence Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Center of the University of Munich, Germany, and randomly assigned to the experimental group (Smoke_less: four weekly CBT group sessions and two telephone calls over 5 weeks, n = 51), active comparator group (one 15-minute counseling session, n = 49), or waiting control group (no intervention during the study, n = 55)...
June 14, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604538/abstinence-only-sex-education-fails-african-american-youth
#7
Michelle Breunig
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) disproportionately affect U.S. African American (AA) youth. In AA faith communities, cultural practices have contributed to increased STI rates because abstinence-only-until-marriage education programs do not teach the use of condoms or birth control for preventing STIs or pregnancy. Comprehensive sex education or abstinence-plus programs have been reported to increase STI knowledge and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Evidence supports computerized education to increase STI knowledge and decrease risky sexual behaviors of AA churchgoing youth...
July 2017: Journal of Christian Nursing: a Quarterly Publication of Nurses Christian Fellowship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592268/prevalence-perceptions-and-predictors-of-alcohol-consumption-and-abstinence-among-south-australian-school-students-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#8
Jacqueline A Bowden, Paul Delfabbro, Robin Room, Caroline L Miller, Carlene Wilson
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. METHODS: A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885)...
June 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569519/concurrent-varenicline-and-prolonged-exposure-for-patients-with-nicotine-dependence-and-ptsd-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Edna B Foa, Anu Asnaani, David Rosenfield, Laurie J Zandberg, Peter Gariti, Patricia Imms
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of smoking among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is disproportionately high, and PTSD is associated with especially poor response to smoking cessation treatment. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether integrating treatments for smoking cessation (varenicline plus smoking cessation counseling; VARCC) and PTSD (prolonged exposure therapy; PE) enhances smoking outcomes among smokers diagnosed with PTSD. METHOD: 142 adults with nicotine dependence (ND) and PTSD were randomized to a treatment program consisting of varenicline, smoking cessation counseling, and PE (VARCC + PE) or to VARCC only...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551200/factors-associated-with-indigenous-youths-abstinence-from-drinking
#10
Kelley J Sittner
The proportion of youth who abstain from alcohol use decreases during adolescence but little attention has focused on factors associated with abstinence. No research has examined this question for Indigenous youth, many of whom live in communities experiencing high rates of alcohol-related health problems. Using data from a longitudinal study of Indigenous youth (n = 649, ages 10-17 years) in the U.S. and Canada, the current study investigates factors associated promoting or decreasing abstaining from alcohol use...
August 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539999/assessment-of-executive-functions-in-methamphetamine-addicted-individuals-emphasis-on-duration-of-addiction-and-abstinence
#11
Majid Farhadian, Malahat Akbarfahimi, Peyman Hassani Abharian, Seyedeh Golaleh Hosseini, Susan Shokri
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have conducted on impairments of executive functions in individuals with methamphetamine addiction; however, only a few have investigated the relationship between executive functions and duration of addiction or abstinence. This study was designed to assess the executive functions in methamphetamine-addicted individuals in relation to the duration of addiction or abstinence. METHODS: A total of 161 subjects aged between 20 and 45 years were categorized into three subgroups: currently abusing (n=41), abstinent (n=60), and control healthy individuals (n=60)...
March 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535804/housing-first-and-harm-reduction-a-rapid-review-and-document-analysis-of-the-us-and-canadian-open-access-literature
#12
REVIEW
Dennis P Watson, Valery Shuman, James Kowalsky, Elizabeth Golembiewski, Molly Brown
BACKGROUND: Housing First is an evidence-based practice intended to serve chronically homeless individuals with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders. Despite housing active substance users, harm reduction is an often-overlooked element during the Housing First implementation process in real-world settings. In this paper, we explore the representation of the Housing First model within the open-access scholarly literature as a potential contributing factor for this oversight...
May 23, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505303/acute-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-affect-and-smoking-craving-in-the-weeks-before-and-after-a-cessation-attempt
#13
Ana M Abrantes, Samantha G Farris, Haruka Minami, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Richard A Brown
Introduction: Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect, and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts, nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect-enhancing and craving-reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects...
May 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426355/income-levels-and-response-to-contingency-management-for-smoking-cessation
#14
Carla López-Núñez, Roberto Secades-Villa, Elsa Peña-Suárez, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi, Sara Weidberg
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385173/novel-augmentation-strategies-in-major-depression
#15
REVIEW
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239426/validation-of-non-smoking-status-by-spouse-following-a-cessation-intervention
#16
Raul M Mejia, Sandra Braun, Lorena Peña, Steven E Gregorich, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
BACKGROUND: Following cessation interventions, self-reported smoking abstinence with biochemical verification is the "gold standard" for defining outcomes. Because obtaining biochemical verification is challenging in community studies, we compared self-reported cessation among smokers completing treatment to the smoking status reported by each participant's spouse or proxy. METHOD: Participants were smokers who had reported quitting 12 months after a cessation intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219367/effectiveness-of-a-pharmacist-delivered-smoking-cessation-program-in-the-state-of-qatar-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Nadir Kheir, Ahmad Mohd Al Mulla, Rula Shami, Nadia Fanous, Ziyad R Mahfoud
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the major preventable causes of death and diseases in Qatar. The study objective was to test the effect of a structured smoking cessation program delivered by trained pharmacists on smoking cessation rates in Qatar. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in eight ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Eligible participants were smokers 18 years and older who smoked one or more cigarettes daily for 7 days, were motivated to quit, able to communicate in Arabic or English, and attend the program sessions...
February 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178739/methamphetamine-consumption-during-pregnancy-effects-on-child-health
#18
Jürgen Dinger, Patricia Hinner, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers...
May 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129092/an-exploration-of-smoking-among-people-attending-residential-substance-abuse-treatment-prevalence-and-outcomes-at-three-months-post-discharge
#19
Isabella Ingram, Peter J Kelly, Frank P Deane, Amanda L Baker, Geoff Lyons, Russell Blackman
OBJECTIVES: Smoking continues to be a major health concern for people with a history of alcohol or other substance use problems. The current research is aimed to (1) describe the prevalence of smoking in residential addictions treatment services and (2) compare characteristics of people who had or had not quit smoking. METHODS: Participants were attending residential substance abuse treatment provided by the Australian Salvation Army. These programs are up to 10 months in length and offer a range of low-intensity smoking cessation supports...
January 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126511/efficacy-of-mindfulness-meditation-for-smoking-cessation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Margaret A Maglione, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Brett Ewing, Benjamin Colaiaco, Sydne Newberry, Ryan Kandrack, Roberta M Shanman, Melony E Sorbero, Susanne Hempel
BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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