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Abstinence only programs

Ana M Abrantes, Samantha G Farris, Haruka Minami, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Richard A Brown
Introduction: Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect, and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts, nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect-enhancing and craving-reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects...
May 15, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Carla López-Núñez, Roberto Secades-Villa, Elsa Peña-Suárez, Sergio Fernández-Artamendi, Sara Weidberg
BACKGROUND: Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy in treating many drug addictions, including nicotine. However, one of the most commonly perceived limitations with regard to its dissemination into community settings is whether this protocol could be equally effective for treating patients across different income levels. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine whether individuals' income levels affect treatment success in a cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) that included a voucher-based CM protocol for smoking cessation...
June 7, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
Klaus Martiny
Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...
April 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Raul M Mejia, Sandra Braun, Lorena Peña, Steven E Gregorich, Eliseo J Pérez-Stable
BACKGROUND: Following cessation interventions, self-reported smoking abstinence with biochemical verification is the "gold standard" for defining outcomes. Because obtaining biochemical verification is challenging in community studies, we compared self-reported cessation among smokers completing treatment to the smoking status reported by each participant's spouse or proxy. METHOD: Participants were smokers who had reported quitting 12 months after a cessation intervention...
March 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Nadir Kheir, Ahmad Mohd Al Mulla, Rula Shami, Nadia Fanous, Ziyad R Mahfoud
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the major preventable causes of death and diseases in Qatar. The study objective was to test the effect of a structured smoking cessation program delivered by trained pharmacists on smoking cessation rates in Qatar. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in eight ambulatory pharmacies in Qatar. Eligible participants were smokers 18 years and older who smoked one or more cigarettes daily for 7 days, were motivated to quit, able to communicate in Arabic or English, and attend the program sessions...
February 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
Jürgen Dinger, Patricia Hinner, Jörg Reichert, Mario Rüdiger
Methamphetamine abuse during pregnancy represents an emerging health care problem. The consequences are not only of relevance to the pregnant women, but also their unborn child. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and hypertension, fetal demise, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction. The deleterious effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on the developing fetal brain may lead to long-term neuro-developmental and behavioral problems.Given the current evidence, abuse of methamphetamine during pregnancy must be of utmost concern to health care professionals and to policy-makers...
May 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
Isabella Ingram, Peter J Kelly, Frank P Deane, Amanda L Baker, Geoff Lyons, Russell Blackman
OBJECTIVES: Smoking continues to be a major health concern for people with a history of alcohol or other substance use problems. The current research is aimed to (1) describe the prevalence of smoking in residential addictions treatment services and (2) compare characteristics of people who had or had not quit smoking. METHODS: Participants were attending residential substance abuse treatment provided by the Australian Salvation Army. These programs are up to 10 months in length and offer a range of low-intensity smoking cessation supports...
January 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Margaret A Maglione, Alicia Ruelaz Maher, Brett Ewing, Benjamin Colaiaco, Sydne Newberry, Ryan Kandrack, Roberta M Shanman, Melony E Sorbero, Susanne Hempel
BACKGROUND: Smokers increasingly seek alternative interventions to assist in cessation or reduction efforts. Mindfulness meditation, which facilitates detached observation and paying attention to the present moment with openness, curiosity, and acceptance, has recently been studied as a smoking cessation intervention. AIMS: This review synthesizes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness meditation (MM) interventions for smoking cessation. METHODS: Five electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2016 to identify English-language RCTs evaluating the efficacy and safety of MM interventions for smoking cessation, reduction, or a decrease in nicotine cravings...
January 18, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Alessandro Coppo, Sandro Baldissera, Alessandro Migliardi, Valentina Minardi, Elisa Quarchioni, Gianluigi Ferrante, Alberto Dal Molin, Fabrizio Faggiano
BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years there was a substantial decrease in the prevalence of smoking in Italy. The objective of this work is to describe attempts to quit and cessation success in Italian smokers. METHODS: A surveillance on health-related behaviors (PASSI) was conducted in 2007 -: 13 on a sample of 203 610 Italian adults 25 -: 64 years of age. An analysis of smokers' characteristics and behaviors was performed, focusing on attempts to quit and quit success...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
Géraldine Petit, Olivier Luminet, Mariana Cordovil de Sousa Uva, Pauline Monhonval, Sophie Leclercq, Quentin Spilliaert, François Zammit, Pierre Maurage, Philippe de Timary
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving is a major cause of relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. It is closely related to the high depression and anxiety symptoms that are frequently observed at the early stages of abstinence, and these comorbid symptoms might thus constitute a relapse factor when they persist after detoxification. As these negative affects are known to evolve during the detoxification process, the aim of this study was to investigate the course of the relation between affects and craving during detoxification, with a particular attention given to gender in light of the known differences in affects between AD men and women...
February 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Julie Lunstead, Elissa R Weitzman, Dylan Kaye, Sharon Levy
BACKGROUND: Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is recommended as a strategy to prevent or reduce adolescent substance use. Offering SBIRT in schools may provide an opportunity to reach adolescents not accessing primary care. The objective is to assess school nurses' attitudes and practices regarding adolescent SBIRT. METHODS: The authors administered electronically and in person a questionnaire including 29 items on SBIRT attitudes and practices to school nurses registered for the Northeastern University's School Health Institute Summer Program in Massachusetts (N = 168)...
December 27, 2016: Substance Abuse
Steven L Proctor, Jaclyn L Wainwright, Philip L Herschman, Albert M Kopak
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Substance use disorder treatments are increasingly being contextualized within a disease management framework. Within this context, there is an identified need to maintain patients in treatment for longer periods of time in order to help them learn how to manage their disease. One way to meet this need is through telephone-based interventions that engage patients, and include more active outreach attempts and involvement of the patient's family. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of three formats of an intensive 12-month post-discharge telephone-based case management approach (AiRCare) on adherence to continuing care plans and substance use outcomes...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Bettina B Hoeppner, Susanne S Hoeppner, Lorien C Abroms
AIMS: To determine the degree to which the observed benefit of Text2Quit was accounted for by psychosocial mechanisms derived from its quit smoking messaging versus from the use of extra-programmatic smoking cessation treatments and services. DESIGN: Prospective, multiple mediation model of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). SETTING: United States nation-wide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 409 adult daily smokers participated...
April 2017: Addiction
Yuin Yi Lee, Selina Khoo, Tony Morris, Clare Hanlon, Lei-Hum Wee, Eng Wah Teo, Yuhanis Adnan
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effectiveness of using Physical Activity Consultation (PAC) as an addition to the standard smoking cessation treatment in Malaysia. We explored participants' experiences in terms of physical activity and smoking abstinence with the combined PAC and smoking cessation intervention. METHODS: Walk-in smokers from a local smoking cessation clinic volunteered for the 8-week intervention program, while undergoing standard smoking cessation treatment...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sam Cole, Casey Suter, Chelsea Nash, Joseph Pollard
PURPOSE: To examine the impact of a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhancement on quit outcomes. DESIGN: Observational study using an intent to treat as treated analysis. SETTING: Not available. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4022 Idaho tobacco users aged ≥18 years who received services from the Idaho Tobacco Quitline or Idaho's web-based program. INTERVENTION: One-call phone or web-based participants were sent a single 4- or 8-week NRT shipment...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Timothy Watts, Kelly L Wilson, Elisa B McNeill, Brittany L Rosen, Nancy Daley Moore, Matthew L Smith
BACKGROUND: We examine personal characteristics, alcohol consumption, normative beliefs, household factors, and extracurricular engagement associated with intentions to have intercourse before marriage among abstinent students. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 245 freshmen enrolled in a school-based abstinence-only-until-marriage program. Two binary logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with intentions to engage in intercourse before marriage and within the next year...
October 2016: Journal of School Health
Guillaume Airagnes, Antoine Pelissolo, Mélanie Lavallée, Martine Flament, Frédéric Limosin
Benzodiazepine (BZD) inappropriate use (i.e., misuse and overuse) is a worldwide public health problem. Despite current knowledge about increased sensitivity to side effects in the elderly, that should lead to more caution, only a third of BZD prescriptions in this age group are considered appropriate. The most frequent inadequate situations are excessive duration and/or dosage of a medical prescription or self-medication, especially in a context where it would be contraindicated, e.g., long-acting BZD in the elderly...
October 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Paula A Keller, Barbara A Schillo, Amy N Kerr, Rebecca K Lien, Jessie Saul, Marietta Dreher, Randi B Lachter
Although state quitlines provide free telephone counseling and often include nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), reach remains limited (1-2% in most states). More needs to be done to engage all smokers in the quitting process. A possible strategy is to offer choices of cessation services through quitlines and to reduce registration barriers. In March 2014, ClearWay Minnesota(SM) implemented a new model for QUITPLAN® Services, the state's population-wide cessation services. Tobacco users could choose the QUITPLAN® Helpline or one or more Individual QUITPLAN® Services (NRT starter kit, text messaging, email program, or quit guide)...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
Brian D Kiluk, Kathleen A Devore, Matthew B Buck, Charla Nich, Tami L Frankforter, Donna M LaPaglia, Brian T Yates, Melissa A Gordon, Kathleen M Carroll
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), yet is rarely implemented with high fidelity in clinical practice. Computer-based delivery of CBT offers the potential to address dissemination challenges, but to date there have been no evaluations of a web-based CBT program for alcohol use within a clinical sample. METHODS: This study randomized treatment-seeking individuals with a current AUD to 1 of 3 treatments at a community outpatient facility: (i) standard treatment as usual (TAU); (ii) TAU plus on-site access to a computerized CBT targeting alcohol use (TAU + CBT4CBT); or (iii) CBT4CBT plus brief weekly clinical monitoring (CBT4CBT + monitoring)...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Won S Choi, Laura A Beebe, Niaman Nazir, Baljit Kaur, Michelle Hopkins, Myrietta Talawyma, Theresa I Shireman, Hung-Wen Yeh, K Allen Greiner, Christine M Daley
INTRODUCTION: American Indians have the highest cigarette smoking prevalence of any racial/ethnic group in the U.S. There is currently no effective empirically based smoking-cessation program for American Indians. The purpose of this study was to determine if a culturally tailored smoking-cessation program, All Nations Breath of Life (ANBL), is more effective than a non-tailored cessation program among American Indian smokers. DESIGN: A multisite RCT was conducted from September 2009 to July 2014; analysis was conducted in 2015...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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