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Michael J Zvolensky, Andrew H Rogers, Kara Manning, Julianna B D Hogan, Daniel J Paulus, Julia D Buckner, Nubia A Mayorga, Gerald Hallford, Norman B Schmidt
Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies...
March 5, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Farzad Jalali, Seyedeh Fatemeh Hashemi
BACKGROUND: From one hand, depression is one of the symptoms that occur after abstinence from methamphetamine. On the other people living with HIV/AIDS are in isolation due to the nature of their illness and depression is one of the most common mental health problems they experience. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the effectiveness of saffron on reducing depression among recovered consumers of methamphetamine living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The design of this study was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control (placebo) groups...
March 15, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Eleni M Rettig, Carole Fakhry, Russell K Hales, Flora Kisuule, Harry Quon, Ana P Kiess, Linda X Yin, Yuehan Zhang, Amanda L Blackford, M Bradley Drummond, Christine G Gourin, Wayne M Koch, David W Eisele, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Smoking among patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, however, smoking cessation interventions have had limited success. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial compared a novel smoking cessation intervention ("intervention") with enhanced usual care ("control"). Participants were smokers with head and neck or thoracic malignancies undergoing radiation. Controls received brief counseling. Intervention participants received intensive counseling, pharmacotherapy, text-messaging, and financial incentives...
March 15, 2018: Head & Neck
Alireza Shahbabaie, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Ali Hariri, Michael A Nitsche, Javad Hatami, Emad Fatemizadeh, Mohammad Ali Oghabian, Hamed Ekhtiari
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation tool suited to alter cortical excitability and activity via the application of weak direct electrical currents. An increasing number of studies in the addiction literature suggests that tDCS modulates subjective self-reported craving through stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The major goal of this study was to explore effects of bilateral DLPFC stimulation on resting state networks (RSNs) in association with drug craving modulation...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Thamil Selvan Palanichamy
Increase in the use of technology has led to an increase in various kinds of technological addictions. A range of psychological and behavioural theories has been proposed to explain technology addictions. These include learning theories, reward-deficiency hypothesis, impulsivity, cognitive-behavioural models and social skills deficiency theories. While no particular form of psychological intervention has been suggested as being the golden standard for its treatment, the most frequently investigated approaches have been cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational enhancement therapy...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
B N Subodh, Nidhi Sharma, Raghav Shah
Management of patients with dual diagnosis (Mental illness and substance use disorders) is a challenge. A lack of improvement in either disorder can lead to a relapse in both. The current consensus opinion favours an integrated approach to management of both the disorders wherein the same team of professionals manages both the disorders in the same setting. The role of pharmacotherapy for such dual diagnosis patients is well established but the non-pharmacological approaches for their management are still evolving...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Jin-Chun Lu, Jun Jing, Li Chen, Yi-Feng Ge, Rui-Xiang Feng, Yuan-Jiao Liang, Bing Yao
BACKGROUND: Many factors may lead to sperm DNA damage. However, it is little known that the correlations of sperm DNA damage with obesity-associated markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma. METHODS: In our prospective study, a total of 1 010 subfertile men, aged from 18 to 50 years old, were enrolled from August 2012 through June 2015. Their obesity-associated markers, semen parameters, sperm acrosomal enzyme activity, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and reproductive hormones and lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma were detected...
March 14, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Romano Endrighi, Elizabeth L McQuaid, Yvonne Kiera Bartlett, Ashley H Clawson, Belinda Borrelli
Background: Depressive symptoms are elevated in parents of asthmatic children compared with parents of healthy children. The role of depression in smoking cessation and pediatric asthma outcomes in this population is unclear. Purpose: To prospectively examine the effect of parent depression on smoking cessation and child asthma outcomes. Methods: Secondary analysis from a cessation induction trial involving Motivational Interviewing (MI) and biomarker feedback on secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe)...
February 17, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Samir S Soneji, Hai-Yen Sung, Brian A Primack, John P Pierce, James D Sargent
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help cigarette smokers quit smoking, yet they may also facilitate cigarette smoking for never-smokers. We quantify the balance of health benefits and harms associated with e-cigarette use at the population level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Monte Carlo stochastic simulation model. Model parameters were drawn from census counts, national health and tobacco use surveys, and published literature. We calculate the expected years of life gained or lost from the impact of e-cigarette use on smoking cessation among current smokers and transition to long-term cigarette smoking among never smokers for the 2014 US population cohort...
2018: PloS One
Tadasu Horai, Akitoyo Hishimoto, Ikuo Otsuka, Tatsuhiro So, Kentaro Mouri, Naofumi Shimmyo, Shuken Boku, Noriaki Okishio, Ichiro Sora
Background: Alcohol dependence induces low bone mineral density (BMD), predicting osteoporosis, while low and moderate alcohol consumption may even increase BMD. In recent years, undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), bone turnover markers, have gained special interest as useful indicators of low BMD. However, it remains unclear whether other alcohol-related variables (eg, duration of abstinence and continuous drinking) are linked to aberrant BMD...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
March 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Mariana Caricati Kataoka, Ana Paula Pinho Carvalheira, Anna Paula Ferrari, Maíra Barreto Malta, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite Carvalhaes, Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada
BACKGROUND: Different studies have shown the advantages of abstinence from cigarette smoking during pregnancy to promote full fetal development. Given that pregnant women do not always abstain from smoking, this study aimed to analyze the effect of different intensities of smoking on birth weight of the newborn. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was adopted to explore smoking in a population of pregnant women from a medium-sized city in São Paulo state, Brazil, who gave birth between January and June of 2012...
March 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
George Fein, Mathew Price, Valerie A Cardenas
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often a complicating comorbid factor in alcohol use disorders and substance use disorders. Previous work showed that abstinent alcoholics endorsed lifetime and current symptoms of most of the BPD criteria at much higher rates than controls, with much higher symptom counts for short-term abstinent alcoholic (STAA) women than men, which is consistent with such symptoms negatively affecting female alcoholics' ability to maintain abstinence. Because prior work has also shown that treatment-naïve alcoholics (TNA) are not the same as treated alcoholics observed earlier in their alcohol dependence, but rather are a different population with potentially lower psychiatric comorbidity, in this study we compared BPD symptom criteria between TNA samples of comparable age to the control and STAA samples, including both men and women and individuals dependent on alcohol only or with lifetime dependence on both alcohol and drugs...
October 31, 2017: Alcohol
John R Fedota, Xiaoyu Ding, Allison L Matous, Betty Jo Salmeron, Michael R McKenna, Hong Gu, Thomas J Ross, Elliot A Stein
BACKGROUND: Insular subdivisions show distinct patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with specific brain regions, each with different functional significance. Seeds in these subdivisions are employed to characterize the effects of acute nicotine abstinence on rsFC between insula subdivisions and brain networks implicated in addiction and attentional control. METHODS: In a within-subjects design, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent data were collected from treatment-seeking smokers (N= 20) following smoking satiety and again following 48 hours of nicotine abstinence...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Caroline Franck, Kristian B Filion, Mark J Eisenberg
Over 30% of the nearly 1 million North Americans hospitalized annually with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are smokers. Despite a substantially increased risk of morbidity and mortality, 2/3 of patients who quit smoking after ACS return to smoking within 1 year. To summarize the evidence of smoking cessation in patients hospitalized after ACS, we systematically reviewed all randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic and behavioral smoking cessation therapies in patients with ACS. In addition, we reviewed the clinical considerations surrounding the use of smoking cessation therapies, including their broad mechanisms of action and possible alternative treatments, including cardiac rehabilitation programs and electronic cigarettes...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Ashlea Bartram, Scott Hanson-Easey, Jaklin Eliott
BACKGROUND: In Australia, recent years have seen a rise in the popularity of temporary abstinence campaigns, in which people pledge to abstain from alcohol for a month while raising funds for charity. In addition to their fundraising aims, such initiatives have been viewed as tools for broader behavioural and cultural change around alcohol, encouraging participants to reflect on their drinking and make longer-term changes to their behaviour. The extent to which these initiatives promote enduring change may depend on how they portray the experience of temporarily abstaining from alcohol, and how they position participants...
March 7, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Xinsong Wang, Xiulan Zhang, Xiaoxin Xu, Ying Gao
OBJECTIVE: China produces the majority of the world's electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and e-cigarettes have become popular in the country, especially among young people. However, little is known about the characteristics of e-cigarette use in China and how it is associated with smoking cessation behavior. This study focuses on the adolescent group in China and examines their perception and use of e-cigarettes and the association with smoking abstinence. METHODS: We use a mobile app-based survey on smoking behavior conducted in November 2015 in China, and focus on a sample of 2042 adolescents aged between 12 and 18...
February 24, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Verónica Becerra, Daniel Buamscha, Corina Ponce, Carlos Cambaceres, Alejandro Noman, María E Galván, Miriam Lenz
INTRODUCTION: Sedation of patients in pediatric ICU extubated and in weaning of mechanic ventilation is diffcult under regular sedation, because of the tolerance and/or abstinence generated by its sustained use. The objective of this study is to describe the use of Levomepromazine as sedative coadjuvant in these patients. POPULATION AND METHODS: Observational and longitudinal study in intensive care from Juan P. Garrahan Pediatric Hospital. Patients older than 2 years were included, extubated and in weaning of mechanic ventilation with requirements of additional sedation...
November 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
A Belin-Rauscent, J Lacoste, O Hermine, A Moussy, B J Everitt, David Belin
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that cocaine, and also heroin, influence several tyrosine kinases, expressed in neurons and in non-neuronal populations such as microglia, astrocytes and mast-cells. Drug-induced activation of mast cells both triggers inflammatory processes in the brain mediated by the glial cells they activate, and facilitates histamine release which may directly influence the dopamine system. Thus, by triggering the activation and degranulation of mast cells dependent on the tyrosine kinase c-kit and Fyn, the latter being also involved in NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity, cocaine and heroin may indirectly influence the neural mechanisms that mediate their reinforcing properties...
March 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Enrique Gomez-Pomar, Loretta P Finnegan
Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) refers to a constellation of signs that are present in some newborn infants resulting from the abrupt cessation of passive transfer of maternal opioids used during pregnancy. The classic NAS refers to infants born to mothers who used opioids during pregnancy, but the term has broadened to include infants whose mothers have used or abused other psychoactive substances during pregnancy that contribute to the expression of the syndrome. Pregnant women who use opioids do so illicitly, and/or as medically prescribed for pain relief, and/or as medication assisted treatment for opioid dependence...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
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