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Nontuberculous mycobacteria

Víctor Vinuesa, Rafael Borrás, María Luisa Briones, María Ángeles Clari, Vicenta Cresencio, Estela Giménez, Carmen Muñoz, Rosa Oltra, Emilio Servera, Talia Scheelje, Carlos Tornero, David Navarro
The potential impact of routine real-time PCR testing of respiratory specimens from patients with presumptive tuberculosis in terms of diagnostic accuracy and time to tuberculosis treatment inception in low-prevalence settings remains largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective intervention cohort study. Respiratory specimens from 1,020 patients were examined by acid-fast bacilli smear microscopy, tested by the real-time Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR assay (Abbott RealTi me MTB PCR) and cultured in mycobacterial media...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Zhirui Wang, Tong Xie, Cheng Mu, Rui Sun, Chunhua Wang, Hui Zhao, Hanfang Ju
Ofloxacin (OFX) resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates have been increasingly observed worldwide, complicating tuberculosis control. This study investigated the performance of sequencing which could predict OFX resistance in MTB isolates from positive Bactec MGIT 960 cultures. A total of 214 Bactec MGIT 960 positive cultures were identified by p-nitrobenzoic-acid and thiophene-2-carboxylic hydrazide. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using the proportion method and sequencing. The sequence results were compared with the results of the proportion method to analyze the consistency between the results...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Claudia Andrea Tortone, MartIn José Zumárraga, Andrea Karina Gioffr, Delia Susana Oriani
Background: The environment is the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) reservoir, opportunistic pathogens of great diversity and ubiquity, which is observed in the constant description of new species capable of causing infection. Since its introduction, molecular methods are essential for species identification. Most comparative studies between molecular and conventional methods, have used isolated strains from clinical samples. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular methods, especially the hsp65-PRA (PCR-Restriction Enzyme Analysis), and biochemical tests in the identification of NTM recovered from water of different origins, using the sequencing of 16S rRNA and hsp 65 genes as assessment methods of the previous ones...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Barbara Giordani, Annalisa Amato, Fabio Majo, Gianluca Ferrari, Serena Quattrucci, Laura Minicucci, Rita Padoan, Giovanna Floridia, Gianna Puppo Fornaro, Domenica Taruscio, Marco Salvatore
INTRODUCTION: The Italian Cystic Fibrosis Registry (ICFR) is based on a new agreement about the data flow towards the Registry signed on October, 4th 2016 by the Centre for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (NIH), the clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, the Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù" (Rome), the Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present Report is to improve the knowledge on cystic fibrosis (CF) through the epidemiological description of Italian patients...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Akira Yokoyama, Hidenori Kage, Yuki Ohama, Tomoaki Sato, Naoya Miyashita, Satoshi Noguchi, Shu Okugawa, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Kyoji Moriya, Takahide Nagase
Identification of microorganisms by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been widely accepted. However, the significance of MALDI-TOF MS for identifying mycobacteria, particularly rare nontuberculous mycobacteria, has not been established. M. heckeshornense is one such bacteria, and distinguishing it from M. xenopi is difficult. The patient was a 40-year-old man with Behҫet's disease who had started treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. A lung nodule in the right lower lobe was pointed out, and it increased in size 6 months later...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Dorota Wyrostkiewicz, Monika Szturmowicz, Iwona Bartoszuk, Izabela Siemion-Szcześniak, Lilia Jakubowska, Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Jan Kuś
Mycobacterial lung disease is caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as atypical mycobacteria. NTM are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water; they may colonize the airways, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system, without the apparent signs of disease. Nevertheless, in some risk groups such as patients with chronic lung diseases or with immunodeficiency, mycobacterial lung disease is identified. Recently, increased recognition of mycobacterial lung disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients has been observed, especially in those treated with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids...
2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Tiffany A Claeys, Richard T Robinson
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include species that colonize human epithelia, as well as species that are ubiquitous in soil and aquatic environments. NTM that primarily inhabit soil and aquatic environments include the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare ) and the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus , massiliense , and bolletii ), and can be free-living, biofilm-associated, or amoeba-associated. Although NTM are rarely pathogenic in immunocompetent individuals, those who are immunocompromised - due to either an inherited or acquired immunodeficiency - are highly susceptible to NTM infection (NTMI)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Elena Garcia-Zamora, Henar Sanz-Robles, Marta Elosua-Gonzalez, Ximena Rodriguez-Vasquez, Jose Luis Lopez-Estebaranz
(no more than 200 words): In the last few years, the incidence of cutaneous infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria is increasing. Since Mycobacterium immunogenum was first described in 2001, few case reports have been described, all of them in the American continent. We report a case with cutaneous infection caused by this newly discovered NTB in Europe.A 65-year-old woman presented with a 3-months history of pruritic lesions on abdomen. Examination revealed erythematous inflammatory papules, pustules, and crusts...
October 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
Chunrong Lin, Chad Russell, Bruce Soll, Dominic Chow, Sapna Bamrah, Richard Brostrom, Wesley Kim, Jerry Scott, Matthew J Bankowski
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infections represent a growing public health problem in many countries. However, there are limited published epidemiologic studies for the Western Pacific region. We reviewed respiratory specimens submitted to Diagnostic Laboratory Services in Hawaii, USA, for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during August 2007-December 2011 to determine the NTM isolation rate. We observed a statistically significant increase in the rate of specimens with NTM isolated in respiratory culture (adjusted rate ratio per year 1...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Carmen Alicia Daza Bolaños, Marília Masello Junqueira Franco, Antonio Francisco Souza Filho, Cássia Yumi Ikuta, Edith Mariela Burbano-Rosero, José Soares Ferreira Neto, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Rodrigo Garcia Motta, Carolina Lechinski de Paula, Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de Morais, Simony Trevizan Guerra, Ana Carolina Alves, Fernando José Paganini Listoni, Márcio Garcia Ribeiro
Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria in the milk from cows positive to the tuberculin test. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species in milk samples from cows positive to the comparative intradermal test. Milk samples from 142 cows positive to the comparative intradermal test carried out in 4,766 animals were aseptically collected, cultivated on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media and incubated for up to 90 days...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Seoung-Ryoung Choi, Bradley E Britigan, Barbara Switzer, Traci Hoke, David Moran, Prabagaran Narayanasamy
The nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, M. avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus, can result in severe pulmonary infections. Current antibiotics confront significant challenges for treatment of these NTM infections due to emerging multidrug-resistance. Thus, development of new antibiotics targeted against these agents is needed. We examined the inhibitory activities of Ga(NO3)3, GaCl3, gallium meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (GaTP) and several derivative nanoparticles (GaNP) against intra- and extracellular M...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Shih-Ying Huang, Jia-Ru Chang, Yu-Chieh Liao, Horng-Yunn Dou, Min-Chieh Chuang
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major infectious diseases worldwide. The pathogenic bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), continuously evolves strains carrying drug-resistance genes, thus posing a growing challenge to TB prevention and treatment. We report a diagnostic system that uses a molecular beacon probe and an assistant strand as the core to simultaneously interact with an M.tb-specific fragment (in IS6110) and a single nucleotide substitution (SNS)-encoded segment (in rpoB) associated with drug resistance...
May 12, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ana Miqueleiz-Zapatero, Cristina Santa Olalla-Peralta, María Dolores Guerrero-Torres, Laura Cardeñoso-Domingo, Belén Hernández-Milán, Diego Domingo-García
INTRODUCTION: Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection in immunocompetent children, mainly in those under 5years. For many years Mycobacterium lentiflavum (M. lentiflavum) has been considered a rare NTM causing lymphadenitis. METHODS: A restrospective study was performed in pediatric patients with microbiologically confirmed NTM cervical lympahdenitis at the Niño Jesús Hospital in Madrid during 2009-2016. RESULTS: During the period studied, 28 cases of cervical lymphadenitis were recorded...
January 27, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Raghu Sriram, A K Sahni, Vaibhav L Dudhat, A K Pujahari
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly being implicated in infections and have become an important cause of health care associated infections. Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacteria, is of particular concern as it tends to be resistant to commonly used therapeutic options. Conventional phenotypic methods for speciation of mycobacteria are time consuming, labor intensive and not always reliable. Molecular methods require expertise and are expensive. The study was used to evaluate the use of matrix associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a means of rapid identification of M...
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Betty A Forbes, Geraldine S Hall, Melissa B Miller, Susan M Novak, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Max Salfinger, Akos Somoskövi, David M Warshauer, Michael L Wilson
Mycobacteria are the causative organisms for diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, to name the most important ones. In 2015, globally, almost 10 million people developed TB, and almost half a million patients suffered from its multidrug-resistant form. In 2016, a total of 9,287 new TB cases were reported in the United States. In 2015, there were 174,608 new case of leprosy worldwide. India, Brazil, and Indonesia reported the most leprosy cases...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Michael Phelippeau, Cyrine Hakimi, Quentin Didier, Martine Reynaud-Gaubert, Jean-Christophe Dubus, Michel Drancourt
In cystic fibrosis patients, electrolytic and osmolality imbalance secondary to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations may impact on mucoid secretion accumulation and secondary colonization by opportunistic pathogens such as nontuberculous mycobacteria.We performed a noninvasive exploratory prospective controlled clinical study comparing sputum salinity and acid-base characteristics of cystic fibrosis and noncystic fibrosis control patients. A total of 57 patients and 62 controls were included...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Matthew Schwartz, Stefanie Fisher, Elizabeth Story-Roller, Gyanu Lamichhane, Nicole Parrish
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for recurrent pulmonary infections due to increased viscosity of airway secretions, leading to persistent colonization with pathogenic bacteria, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Extensive antibiotic use for treatment of infections has led to increasing antimicrobial resistance, which is a significant barrier to the treatment of NTMs. We examined the in vitro activity of several antibiotics against a selection of the most drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium avium complex recovered from CF patients at our institution, as well as paired combinations of antibiotics against a subset of M...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
David Rodriguez-Temporal, Daniel Perez-Risco, Eduardo A Struzka, Mireia Mas, Fernando Alcaide
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proved to be a useful diagnostic method for identifying conventional bacteria. In the case of mycobacteria, a good protein extraction protocol is essential in order to obtain reliable identification results. To date, no such protocol has been definitively established. The aim of this study was to compare the manufacturer's recommended protein extraction protocol (A) with two novel protocols (B and C), which apply different freezing temperatures and mechanical disruption times using an automatic tissue homogenizer...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Wei Zhang, Qingbo Shu, Zhen Zhao, Jia Fan, Christopher J Lyon, Adrian M Zelazny, Ye Hu
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-mediated infections are a growing cause of worldwide morbidity, but lack of rapid diagnostics for specific NTM species can delay the initiation of appropriate treatment regimens. We thus examined whether mass spectrometry analysis of an abundantly secreted mycobacterial antigen could identify specific NTM species. Methods: We analyzed predicted tryptic peptides of the major mycobacterial antigen Ag85B for their capacity to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis and three NTM species responsible for the majority of pulmonary infections caused by slow-growing mycobacterial species...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Samira Mohammadi, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Sharareh Moghim, Hossein Mirhendi, Fatemeh Riyahi Zaniani, Hajieh Ghasemian Safaei, Hossein Fazeli, Mahshid Salehi
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a group of opportunistic pathogens and these are widely dispersed in water and soil resources. Identification of mycobacteria isolates by conventional methods including biochemical tests, growth rates, colony pigmentation, and presence of acid-fast bacilli is widely used, but these methods are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and may sometimes remain inconclusive. Materials and Methods: The DNA was extracted from NTM cultures using CTAB, Chelex, Chelex + Nonidet P-40, FTA® Elute card, and boiling The quantity and quality of the DNA extracted via these methods were determined using UV-photometer at 260 and 280 nm, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the heat-shock protein 65 gene with serially diluted DNA samples...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
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