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Nontuberculous mycobacteria

Tomoshi Sugiyama, Koji Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Usami, Kohei Yokoi
We herein describe a surgical case of pulmonary involvement in Takayasu's arteritis with pulmonary infections of nontuberculous mycobacteria. A 24-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of a recurrent fever, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest revealed the occlusion of the right pulmonary artery and cavitary lesions in the right lower lobe of the lung. A further examination of the neck revealed the occlusion of aortic branches, and the patient was diagnosed with Takayasu's arteritis...
October 21, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Shradha Subedi, Fanrong Kong, Peter Jelfs, Timothy J Gray, Meng Xiao, Vitali Sintchenko, Sharon C-A Chen
Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included...
2016: PloS One
Rajeev Soman, Ayesha Sunavala, Harjit Dumra, Camilla Rodrigues
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Patricia J Simner, Gail L Woods, Nancy L Wengenack
The immunocompromised host is at increased risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a significant mycobacterial pathogen, nontuberculous mycobacteria causes substantial disease in those with suppressed immune responses. Mycobacterial infections can cause significant morbidity and mortality in this patient population, and rapid identification and susceptibility testing of the mycobacterial species is paramount to patient management and outcomes...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Stephan Stöckel, Susann Meisel, Björn Lorenz, Sandra Kloß, Sandra Henk, Stefan Dees, Elvira Richter, Sönke Andres, Matthias Merker, Ines Labugger, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp
In this study, Raman microspectroscopy has been utilized to identify mycobacteria to the species level. Because of the slow growth of mycobacteria, the per se cultivation-independent Raman microspectroscopy emerges as a perfect tool for a rapid on-the-spot mycobacterial diagnostic test. Special focus was laid upon the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) strains, as the main causative agent of pulmonary tuberculosis worldwide, and the differentiation between pathogenic and commensal nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
C F Wang, W T Yang, L M Yue, J Y Qiu, L J Zhang, C Wang, X Y Jiang, A D Qian
Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous in outside environment and animals. As for nontuberculous mycobacteria infection, there is only limited information in humans regarding infection and the subsequent immune response, especially for Mycobacterium neoaurum. Here, haematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used to observe pathological changes and detect acid-fast bacilli in organ samples in mouse model. Flow cytometry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to analyze the contribution of Th1, Th17 and Tregs to the host immune response...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Cory K Hussain, Tom J B de Man, Nadege C Toney, Kamal Kamboj, Joan-Miquel Balada-Llasat, Shu-Hua Wang
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Maura J Donohue, Larry Wymer
RATIONALE: Many nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) are clinically significant pathogens that cause disease in a variety of different human organs and tissues. OBJECTIVES: A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of patients with a positive specimen for (NTM) within 5 states of United States. METHODS: We determined the case and age distribution of patients with at least one specimen positive for NTM using data submitted to the disease surveillance systems of 5 states (Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2008 and 2013...
September 28, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Wei Song, Li Liu, Hongzhou Lu
Obstract: To identify Mycobacteria isolated from AIDS patients and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MBP64 antigen Colloidal Gold Diagnostic Kit in distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB) and Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Methods: A total of 140 Mycobacteria isolates from AIDS patients were collected and identified by using 16SrDNA PCR assay as well as immune colloidal gold technique (MBP64 antigen Colloidal Gold Diagnostic Kit). The sensitivity and specificity of Colloidal Gold method was analyzed...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Parviz Mohajeri, Laya Yazdani, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Amirhoshang Alvandi, Sara Atashi, Abbas Farahani, Ali Almasi, Mansour Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are habitants of environment, especially in aquatic systems. Some of them cause problems in immunodeficient patients. Over the last decade, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was established in 45 novel species of nontuberculous mycobacteria. Experiences revealed that this method underestimates the diversity, but does not distinguish between some of mycobacterium subsp. To recognize emerging rapidly growing mycobacteria and identify their subsp, rpoB gene sequencing has been developed...
September 26, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Song Wei, Liu Li, L U Hongzhou
Obstract: To identify Mycobacteria isolated from AIDS patients and to evaluate the diagnostic value of MBP64 antigen Colloidal Gold Diagnostic Kit in distinguishing Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB) and Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Methods: A total of 140 Mycobacteria isolates from AIDS patients were collected and identified by using 16SrDNA PCR assay as well as immune colloidal gold technique (MBP64 antigen Colloidal Gold Diagnostic Kit). The sensitivity and specificity of Colloidal Gold method was analyzed...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
Peter W Schreiber, Stefan P Kuster, Barbara Hasse, Cornelia Bayard, Christian Rüegg, Philipp Kohler, Peter M Keller, Guido V Bloemberg, Francesco Maisano, Dominique Bettex, Maximilian Halbe, Rami Sommerstein, Hugo Sax
Invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections after open-heart surgery have been reported internationally. These devastating infections result from aerosols generated by contaminated heater-cooler units used with extracorporeal circulation during surgery. Despite intensified cleaning and disinfection, surveillance samples from factory-new units acquired during 2014 grew nontuberculous mycobacteria after a median of 174 days.
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Tavs Qvist, Tacjana Pressler, Terese L Katzenstein, Niels Høiby, Michael T Collins
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to test a commercial bovine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for investigating antibody activity against Mycobacterium avium complex. METHODS: All patients at the Copenhagen Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Center who had culture for nontuberculous mycobacteria performed were included. A commercially available antibody test used in veterinary medicine, was adjusted for human use, and applied to patient sera in a cross sectional test...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Aoi Yamashiro, Takahiro Uchida, Seigo Ito, Naoki Oshima, Takashi Oda, Hiroo Kumagai
A 46-year-old woman suddenly developed peripheral edema. Her massive proteinuria, hypoproteinemia, and renal biopsy findings yielded the diagnosis of minimal change disease (MCD). In addition, lung Mycobacterium avium infection was diagnosed according to a positive culture of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The lung lesion was improved by anti-nontuberculous mycobacteria therapy. Surprisingly, her proteinuria also gradually decreased and she attained complete remission of MCD without any immunosuppressive therapy...
2016: Internal Medicine
Emily Henkle, Timothy Aksamit, Alan Barker, Charles L Daley, David Griffith, Philip Leitman, Amy Leitman, Elisha Malanga, Theodore K Marras, Kenneth N Olivier, D Rebecca Prevots, Delia Prieto, Alexandra L Quittner, William Skach, John W Walsh, Kevin L Winthrop
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause an increasingly important chronic and debilitating lung disease in older adults. Diagnosis is often delayed, although awareness among clinicians and patients is increasing. When necessary, treatment often lasts 18-24 months and consists of three or four antibiotics that can have serious side effects. Relapses are common and commonly require resumption of prolonged therapy. Given the need for improved diagnostic techniques and clinical trials to identify new therapies or to improve existing therapies, a group of North American clinicians and researchers formed the NTM Research Consortium (NTMRC) in 2014...
September 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Diana Machado, Rolando Cannalire, Sofia Santos Costa, Giuseppe Manfroni, Oriana Tabarrini, Violetta Cecchetti, Isabel Couto, Miguel Viveiros, Stefano Sabatini
The identification of efflux inhibitors to be used as adjuvants alongside existing drug regimens could have a tremendous value in the treatment of any mycobacterial infection. Here, we investigated the ability of four 2-(4'-propoxyphenyl)quinoline Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux inhibitors (1-4) to reduce the efflux activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium avium strains. All four compounds were able to inhibit efflux pumps in both mycobacterial species; in particular, O-ethylpiperazinyl derivative 2 showed an efflux inhibitory activity comparable to that of verapamil, the most potent mycobacterial efflux inhibitor reported to date, and was able to significantly reduce the MIC values of macrolides against different M...
December 11, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Davood Azadi, Hasan Shojaei, Mahnaz Pourchangiz, Ramin Dibaj, Masoumeh Davarpanah, Abass Daei Naser
BACKGROUND: Hospital environment is of crucial importance in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens to the patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria have the remarkable capability to withstand the adverse condition of hospital environments and pose a potential threat to the health of patients. The current study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital water of a developing country using a combination of conventional and molecular methods. METHODS: A total of 148 hospital water samples collected from 38 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates...
September 9, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Aldo Naselli, Giuseppe Losurdo, Stefano Avanzini, Vincenzo Tarantino, Emilio Cristina, Elisabetta Bondi, Elio Castagnola
PURPOSE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are uncommon cause of chronic cervicofacial lymphadenitis in healthy children. We describe clinical features and management strategies of cervicofacial nontuberculous mycobacterium lymphadenitis in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of children discharged from 1992 to 2014 with a diagnosis of cervicofacial nontuberculous mycobacterium was made. Diagnosis certainty was based on microhistological investigations...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Christopher Vinnard, Sarah Longworth, Alyssa Mezochow, Amee Patrawalla, Barry N Kreiswirth, Keith Hamilton
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are a diverse group of organisms related to M. tuberculosis and cause a wide range of human disease. Unlike tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease is not reportable to public health authorities in the United States (US), and the total burden of disease is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the mortality burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in the US over a 15-year period, and to identify temporal trends...
September 8, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ignacio Ruiz Del Olmo Izuzquiza, María L Monforte Cirac, Matilde Bustillo Alonso, Pedro Burgués Prades, Carmelo Guerrero Laleona
Lymphadenitis is the most common clinical feature in nontuberculous mycobacterium infection in immunocompetent children. We present two case reports of M. lentiflavum lymphadenitis diagnosed in a tertiary hospital in the last 10 years. Routine tests were performed after persistent adenopathy, and a sample for culture was obtained, being positive for this microorganism. Both patients received oral antibiotics during several weeks. Case 1 needed complete excision after five months of treatment, whilst Case 2 was cured by medical therapy...
October 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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