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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775559/mechanosensitivity-of-mitochondr-ial-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#1
Agnieszka Walewska, Bogusz Kulawiak, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Potassium channels have been discovered in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various cells. These channels can regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume, respiration and reactive species generation. Therefore, it is believed that their activation is cytoprotective in various tissues. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa ) was measured by the patch-clamp technique on mitoplasts derived from mitochondria isolated from human glioma U-87 MG cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769447/aquaporin-1-regulates-platelet-procoagulant-membrane-dynamics-and-in-vivo-thrombosis
#2
Ejaife O Agbani, Christopher M Williams, Yong Li, Marion Tj van den Bosch, Samantha F Moore, Adele Mauroux, Lorna Hodgson, Alan S Verkman, Ingeborg Hers, Alastair W Poole
In response to collagen stimulation, platelets use a coordinated system of fluid entry to undergo membrane ballooning, procoagulant spreading, and microvesiculation. We hypothesized that water entry was mediated by the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aimed to determine its role in the platelet procoagulant response and thrombosis. We established that human and mouse platelets express AQP1 and localize to internal tubular membrane structures. However, deletion of AQP1 had minimal effects on collagen-induced platelet granule secretion, aggregation, or membrane ballooning...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757278/a-microbiomechanical-system-for-studying-varicosity-formation-and-recovery-in-central-neuron-axons
#3
Dustin Servello, Yuanzheng Gu, Chen Gu
Axonal varicosities are enlarged structures along the shafts of axons with a high degree of heterogeneity. They are present not only in brains with neurodegenerative diseases or injuries, but also in the normal brain. Here, we describe a newly-established micromechanical system to rapidly, reliably, and reversibly induce axonal varicosities, allowing us to understand the mechanisms governing varicosity formation and heterogeneous protein composition. This system represents a novel means to evaluate the effects of compression and shear stress on different subcellular compartments of neurons, different from other in vitro systems that mainly focus on the effect of stretching...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724954/piezo2-channel-merkel-cell-signaling-modulates-the-conversion-of-touch-to-itch
#4
Jing Feng, Jialie Luo, Pu Yang, Junhui Du, Brian S Kim, Hongzhen Hu
The somatosensory system relays many signals ranging from light touch to pain and itch. Touch is critical to spatial awareness and communication. However, in disease states, innocuous mechanical stimuli can provoke pathologic sensations such as mechanical itch (alloknesis). The molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern this conversion remain unknown. We found that in mice, alloknesis in aging and dry skin is associated with a loss of Merkel cells, the touch receptors in the skin. Targeted genetic deletion of Merkel cells and associated mechanosensitive Piezo2 channels in the skin was sufficient to produce alloknesis...
May 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709295/activation-of-mechanosensitive-transient-receptor-potential-piezo-channels-in-odontoblasts-generates-action-potentials-in-cocultured-isolectin-b-4-negative-medium-sized-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons
#5
Masaki Sato, Kazuhiro Ogura, Maki Kimura, Koichi Nishi, Masayuki Ando, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
INTRODUCTION: Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706494/is-there-a-role-for-genes-in-exercise-induced-atrial-cardiomyopathy
#6
REVIEW
Diane Fatkin, Charles D Cox, Inken G Huttner, Boris Martinac
In endurance athletes, prolonged high intensity exercise participation can have deleterious effects on the myocardium with subsequent structural and electrical remodelling. In a subset of athletes, there is a predilection for atrial involvement and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) is increased. The mechanisms underpinning exercise-induced atrial cardiomyopathy have yet to be fully elucidated and the contribution of an individual's genetic makeup is unknown. Some athletes may have rare genetic variants that are sufficient to cause AF irrespective of exercise exposure...
April 9, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703787/dissociation-between-csd-evoked-metabolic-perturbations-and-meningeal-afferent-activation-and-sensitization-implications-for-mechanisms-of-migraine-headache-onset
#7
Jun Zhao, Dan Levy
The onset of the headache phase during attacks of migraine with aura, which occur in about 30% of migraineurs, is believed to involve cortical spreading depression (CSD) and the ensuing activation and sensitization of primary afferent neurons that innervate the intracranial meninges, and their related large vessels. The mechanism by which CSD enhances the activity and mechanosensitivity of meningeal afferents remains poorly understood, but may involve cortical metabolic perturbations. We employed extracellular single-unit recording of meningeal afferent activity and monitored changes in cortical blood flow and tissue partial pressure of oxygen (tpO2 ) in anesthetized male rats to test whether the prolonged cortical hypoperfusion and reduction in tissue oxygenation that occur in the wake of CSD contribute to meningeal nociception...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693628/influence-of-mechanical-unloading-on-articular-chondrocyte-dedifferentiation
#8
Simon L Wuest, Martina Caliò, Timon Wernas, Samuel Tanner, Christina Giger-Lange, Fabienne Wyss, Fabian Ille, Benjamin Gantenbein, Marcel Egli
Due to the limited self-repair capacity of articular cartilage, the surgical restoration of defective cartilage remains a major clinical challenge. The cell-based approach, which is known as autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT), has limited success, presumably because the chondrocytes acquire a fibroblast-like phenotype in monolayer culture. This unwanted dedifferentiation process is typically addressed by using three-dimensional scaffolds, pellet culture, and/or the application of exogenous factors...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687344/spatiotemporal-relationships-defining-the-adaptive-gating-of-the-bacterial-mechanosensitive-channel-mscs
#9
Uğur Çetiner, Andriy Anishkin, Sergei Sukharev
Adaptive desensitization and inactivation are common properties of most ion channels and receptors. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS, which serves as a low-threshold osmolyte release valve in most bacteria, inactivates not from the open, but from the resting state under moderate tensions. This mechanism enables the channel to respond differently to slow tension ramps versus abruptly applied stimuli. In this work, we present a reconstruction of the energy landscape for MscS transitions based on patch current kinetics recorded under special pressure protocols...
April 23, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677505/a-mechanosensitive-gpcr-that-detects-the-bloody-force
#10
Adam J Iliff, X Z Shawn Xu
Mechanoreceptors mediate a wide variety of physiological processes, such as hearing, touch, proprioception, and blood flow regulation. It is generally believed that mechanoreceptors are force-gated ion channels. Now, Xu et al. uncover a GPCR that is activated by shear force in endothelial cells of blood vessels.
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675710/salt-water-and-skin-interactions-new-lines-of-evidence
#11
REVIEW
Jose Manuel Carbajo, Francisco Maraver
In Health Resort Medicine, both balneotherapy and thalassotherapy, salt waters and their peloids, or mud products are mainly used to treat rheumatic and skin disorders. These therapeutic agents act jointly via numerous mechanical, thermal, and chemical mechanisms. In this review, we examine a new mechanism of action specific to saline waters. When topically administered, this water rich in sodium and chloride penetrates the skin where it is able to modify cellular osmotic pressure and stimulate nerve receptors in the skin via cell membrane ion channels known as "Piezo" proteins...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674264/ultrasonic-modulation-of-neural-circuit-activity
#12
REVIEW
William J Tyler, Shane W Lani, Grace M Hwang
Ultrasound (US) is recognized for its use in medical imaging as a diagnostic tool. As an acoustic energy source, US has become increasingly appreciated over the past decade for its ability to non-invasively modulate cellular activity including neuronal activity. Data obtained from a host of experimental models has shown that low-intensity US can reversibly modulate the physiological activity of neurons in peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and intact brain circuits. Experimental evidence indicates that acoustic pressures exerted by US act, in part, on mechanosensitive ion channels to modulate activity...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648543/modeling-and-predictions-of-biphasic-mechanosensitive-cell-migration-altered-by-cell-intrinsic-properties-and-matrix-confinement
#13
Amit Pathak
Motile cells sense the stiffness of their extracellular matrix (ECM) through adhesions and respond by modulating the generated forces, which in turn lead to varying mechanosensitive migration phenotypes. Through modeling and experiments, cell migration speed is known to vary with matrix stiffness in a biphasic manner, with optimal motility at an intermediate stiffness. Here, we present a two-dimensional cell model defined by nodes and elements, integrated with subcellular modeling components corresponding to mechanotransductive adhesion formation, force generation, protrusions and node displacement...
April 12, 2018: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619409/electrophysiological-experiments-in-microgravity-lessons-learned-and-future-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Simon L Wuest, Benjamin Gantenbein, Fabian Ille, Marcel Egli
Advances in electrophysiological experiments have led to the discovery of mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) and the identification of the physiological function of specific MSCs. They are believed to play important roles in mechanosensitive pathways by allowing for cells to sense their mechanical environment. However, the physiological function of many MSCs has not been conclusively identified. Therefore, experiments have been developed that expose cells to various mechanical loads, such as shear flow, membrane indentation, osmotic challenges and hydrostatic pressure...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617663/brv1-is-required-for-drosophila-larvae-to-sense-gentle-touch
#15
Mingfeng Zhang, Xia Li, Honglan Zheng, Xiaoxu Wen, Sihan Chen, Jia Ye, Siyang Tang, Fuqiang Yao, Yuezhou Li, Zhiqiang Yan
How we sense touch is fundamental for many physiological processes. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular identity for touch sensation are largely unknown. Here, we report on defective gentle-touch behavioral responses in brv1 loss-of-function Drosophila larvae. RNAi and Ca2+ imaging confirmed the involvement of Brv1 in sensing touch and demonstrated that Brv1 mediates the mechanotransduction of class III dendritic arborization neurons. Electrophysiological recordings further revealed that the expression of Brv1 protein in HEK293T cells gives rise to stretch-activated cation channels...
April 3, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610524/a-lever-like-transduction-pathway-for-long-distance-chemical-and-mechano-gating-of-the-mechanosensitive-piezo1-channel
#16
Yanfeng Wang, Shaopeng Chi, Huifang Guo, Guang Li, Li Wang, Qiancheng Zhao, Yu Rao, Liansuo Zu, Wei He, Bailong Xiao
Piezo1 represents a prototype of eukaryotic mechanotransduction channels. The full-length 2547-residue mouse Piezo1 possesses a unique 38-transmembrane-helix (TM) topology and is organized into a three-bladed, propeller-shaped architecture, comprising a central ion-conducting pore, three peripheral blade-like structures, and three 90-Å-long intracellular beam-resembling structures that bridge the blades to the pore. However, how mechanical force and chemicals activate the gigantic Piezo1 machinery remains elusive...
April 3, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610303/dramatic-pressure-sensitive-ion-conduction-in-conical-nanopores
#17
Laetitia Jubin, Anthony Poggioli, Alessandro Siria, Lydéric Bocquet
Ion transporters in Nature exhibit a wealth of complex transport properties such as voltage gating, activation, and mechanosensitive behavior. When combined, such processes result in advanced ionic machines achieving active ion transport, high selectivity, or signal processing. On the artificial side, there has been much recent progress in the design and study of transport in ionic channels, but mimicking the advanced functionalities of ion transporters remains as yet out of reach. A prerequisite is the development of ionic responses sensitive to external stimuli...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608914/spatial-and-temporal-translocation-of-pkc%C3%AE-in-single-endothelial-cell-in-response-to-mechanical-stimulus
#18
Masataka Aarai, Toshihiro Sera, Takumi Hasegawa, Susumu Kudo
Endothelial cells (ECs) are exposed to various environmental forces, and a Ca2+ wave is occurred in mechanical stimulated cells. Pharmacological studies reveal that the translocation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα) to the membrane is observed simultaneously with intracellular Ca2+ wave. In this study, we investigate whether and how the kinetics of PKCα in ECs is induced in response to mechanical stress. The results show that a mechanical stimulus induced biphasic and directional PKCα translocation; PKCα initially translocated near or at the membrane and then accumulated at the stimulus point...
March 30, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604963/stim1-and-trpv4-regulate-fluid-flow-induced-calcium-oscillation-at-early-and-late-stages-of-osteoclast-differentiation
#19
Ping Li, Xueyan Bian, Chenglin Liu, Shurong Wang, Mengmeng Guo, Yingjie Tao, Bo Huo
Bone resorption is mainly mediated by osteoclasts (OCs), whose formation and function are regulated by intracellular Ca2+ oscillation. Our previous studies demonstrated that fluid shear stress (FSS) lead to Ca2+ oscillation through mechanosensitive cation-selective channels. However, the specific channels responsible for this FSS-induced Ca2+ oscillation remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the expression of several Ca2+ channels in OCs, including STIM1, ORAI1, TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPV5, and TRPV6, by western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602058/cell-mechanics-of-pollen-tube-growth
#20
REVIEW
Christine Cameron, Anja Geitmann
The pollen tube features particular traits that can only be understood when integrating cell biological with cell mechanical concepts. Firstly, regular temporal variations in the growth rate are governed by a feedback mechanism thought to involve mechanosensitive ion channels. Secondly, the tube uses invasive growth to penetrate the flower tissues with the aim to transport the male sperm cells to their target. Thirdly, the pollen tube is able to reorient its growth direction upon exposure to a guidance cue; the steering mechanism involves the sophisticated choreography of intracellular transport processes...
March 27, 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
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