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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335550/the-peg-responding-desiccome-of-the-alder-microsymbiont-frankia-alni
#1
Kais Ghedira, Emna Harigua-Souiai, Cherif Ben Hamda, Pascale Fournier, Petar Pujic, Sihem Guesmi, Ikram Guizani, Guylaine Miotello, Jean Armengaud, Philippe Normand, Haïtham Sghaier
Actinorhizal plants are ecologically and economically important. Symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria allows these woody dicotyledonous plants to colonise soils under nitrogen deficiency, water-stress or other extreme conditions. However, proteins involved in xerotolerance of symbiotic microorganisms have yet to be identified. Here we characterise the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-responding desiccome from the most geographically widespread Gram-positive nitrogen-fixing plant symbiont, Frankia alni, by next-generation proteomics, taking advantage of a Q-Exactive HF tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an ultra-high-field Orbitrap analyser...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331020/human-phenotypes-caused-by-piezo1-mutations-one-gene-two-overlapping-phenotypes
#2
Silvia Martin-Almedina, Sahar Mansour, Pia Ostergaard
PIEZO1 is a large mechanosensitive ion channel protein. Diseases associated with PIEZO1 include autosomal recessive Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia of Fotiou (GLDF) and autosomal dominant Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis with or without pseudohyperkalemia and/or perinatal oedema (DHS). The two disorders show overlapping features, fetal hydrops/perinatal oedema have been reported in both. Electrophysiological studies suggest opposite mechanisms of action, the mutations identified in GLDF patients cause a loss-of-function mechanism of disease and mutations in DHS patients cause gain-of-function...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330181/a-novel-l-glutamate-exporter-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#3
Yu Wang, Guoqiang Cao, Deyu Xu, Liwen Fan, Xinyang Wu, Xiaomeng Ni, Shuxin Zhao, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
Besides metabolic pathways and regulatory networks, transport systems are also pivotal for cellular metabolism and hyper-production of biochemicals using microbial cell factories. Identification and characterization of transporters are therefore of great significance for understanding and engineering of transport reactions. Herein, a novel l-glutamate exporter MscCG2 that extensively exists in Corynebacterium glutamicum strains but is distinct from the only known l-glutamate exporter MscCG was discovered in an industrial l-glutamate producing C...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323146/ca2-permeable-mechanosensitive-channels-mca1-and-mca2-mediate-cold-induced-cytosolic-ca2-increase-and-cold-tolerance-in-arabidopsis
#4
Kendo Mori, Na Renhu, Maho Naito, Aki Nakamura, Hayato Shiba, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Takuya Suzaki, Hidetoshi Iida, Kenji Miura
Cold shock triggers an immediate rise in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) in Arabidopsis thaliana and this cold-induced elevation of [Ca2+]cyt is inhibited by lanthanum or EGTA. It is suggested that intracellular calcium mainly contributes to the cold-induced [Ca2+]cyt response by entering into the cytosol. Two calcium-permeable mechanosensitive channels, MCA1 and MCA2 (mid1-complementing activity), have been identified in Arabidopsis. Here, we demonstrate that MCA1 and MCA2 are involved in a cold-induced increase in [Ca2+]cyt...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304430/-force-from-lipids-gating-of-mechanosensitive-channels-modulated-by-pufas
#5
Pietro Ridone, Stephan L Grage, Amrutha Patkunarajah, Andrew R Battle, Anne S Ulrich, Boris Martinac
The level of fatty acid saturation in phospholipids is a crucial determinant of the biophysical properties of the lipid bilayer. Integral membrane proteins are sensitive to changes of their bilayer environment such that their activities and localization can be profoundly affected. When incorporated into phospholipids of mammalian cells, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) determine the mechanical properties of the bilayer thereby affecting several membrane-associated functions such as endo- and exo-cytosis and ion channel/membrane receptor signalling cascades...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282315/dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-intracellular-calcium-waves-elicited-by-tandem-bubble-induced-jetting-flow
#6
Fenfang Li, Chen Yang, Fang Yuan, Defei Liao, Thomas Li, Farshid Guilak, Pei Zhong
One of the earliest events in cellular mechanotransduction is often an increase in intracellular calcium concentration associated with intracellular calcium waves (ICWs) in various physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Although cavitation-induced calcium responses are believed to be important for modulating downstream bioeffects such as cell injury and mechanotransduction in ultrasound therapy, the fundamental mechanisms of these responses have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mechanistically the ICWs elicited in single HeLa cells by the tandem bubble-induced jetting flow in a microfluidic system...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247535/the-role-of-extracellular-matrix-stiffness-in-megakaryocyte-and-platelet-development-and-function
#7
REVIEW
Orly Leiva, Catherine Leon, Seng Kah Ng, Pierre Mangin, Christian Gachet, Katya Ravid
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key acellular structure in constant remodeling to provide tissue cohesion and rigidity. Deregulation of the balance between matrix deposition, degradation, and crosslinking results in fibrosis. Bone marrow fibrosis (BMF) is associated with several malignant and nonmalignant pathologies severely affecting blood cell production. BMF results from abnormal deposition of collagen fibers and enhanced lysyl oxidase-mediated ECM crosslinking within the marrow, thereby increasing marrow stiffness...
December 16, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241539/functional-and-molecular-characterization-of-mechanoinsensitive-silent-nociceptors
#8
Vincenzo Prato, Francisco J Taberner, James R F Hockley, Gerard Callejo, Alice Arcourt, Bassim Tazir, Leonie Hammer, Paulina Schad, Paul A Heppenstall, Ewan S Smith, Stefan G Lechner
Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia (pain hypersensitivity) are cardinal signs of inflammation. Although the mechanism underlying thermal hyperalgesia is well understood, the cellular and molecular basis of mechanical hyperalgesia is poorly described. Here, we have identified a subset of peptidergic C-fiber nociceptors that are insensitive to noxious mechanical stimuli under normal conditions but become sensitized to such stimuli when exposed to the inflammatory mediator nerve growth factor (NGF). Strikingly, NGF did not affect mechanosensitivity of other nociceptors...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234037/dynamic-regulation-of-trek1-gating-by-polycystin-2-via-a-filamin-a-mediated-cytoskeletal-mechanism
#9
Steven Li Fraine, Amanda Patel, Fabrice Duprat, Reza Sharif-Naeini
Mechanosensing is essential for several physiological functions including touch and pain sensations, osmoregulation, and controlling the myogenic tone of resistance arteries. Understanding how mechanosensitive ion channels (MSCs) are gated can provide important information regarding these processes. We have previously demonstrated that during pathological conditions such as polycystic kidney disease, polycystin 2 (TRPP2) inhibits the activity of potassium-selective MSCs through a filamin A-mediated cytoskeletal effect, and renders tubular epithelial cells susceptible to apoptosis...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231809/structure-based-membrane-dome-mechanism-for-piezo-mechanosensitivity
#10
Yusong R Guo, Roderick MacKinnon
Mechanosensitive ion channels convert external mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals for critical processes including touch sensation, balance, and cardiovascular regulation. The best understood mechanosensitive channel, MscL, opens a wide pore, which accounts for mechanosensitive gating due to in-plane area expansion. Eukaryotic Piezo channels have a narrow pore and therefore must capture mechanical forces to control gating in another way. We present a cryo-EM structure of mouse Piezo1 in a closed conformation at 3...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222414/structural-dynamics-of-the-mscl-c-terminal-domain
#11
Navid Bavi, Adam D Martinac, D Marien Cortes, Omid Bavi, Pietro Ridone, Takeshi Nomura, Adam P Hill, Boris Martinac, Eduardo Perozo
The large conductance mechanosensitive channel (MscL), acts as an osmoprotective emergency valve in bacteria by opening a large, water-filled pore in response to changes in membrane tension. In its closed configuration, the last 36 residues at the C-terminus form a bundle of five α-helices co-linear with the five-fold axis of symmetry. Here, we examined the structural dynamics of the C-terminus of EcMscL using site-directed spin labelling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) spectroscopy. These experiments were complemented with computational modelling including molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and finite element (FE) modelling...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217640/lipid-bilayer-mediates-ion-channel-cooperativity-in-a-model-of-hair-cell-mechanotransduction
#12
Francesco Gianoli, Thomas Risler, Andrei S Kozlov
Mechanoelectrical transduction in the inner ear is a biophysical process underlying the senses of hearing and balance. The key players involved in this process are mechanosensitive ion channels. They are located in the stereocilia of hair cells and opened by the tension in specialized molecular springs, the tip links, connecting adjacent stereocilia. When channels open, the tip links relax, reducing the hair-bundle stiffness. This gating compliance makes hair cells especially sensitive to small stimuli. The classical explanation for the gating compliance is that the conformational rearrangement of a single channel directly shortens the tip link...
December 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197577/solution-structure-analysis-of-the-periplasmic-region-of-bacterial-flagellar-motor-stators-by-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#13
C W Liew, R M Hynson, L A Ganuelas, N Shah-Mohammadi, A P Duff, S Kojima, M Homma, L K Lee
The bacterial flagellar motor drives the rotation of helical flagellar filaments to propel bacteria through viscous media. It consists of a dynamic population of mechanosensitive stators that are embedded in the inner membrane and activate in response to external load. This entails assembly around the rotor, anchoring to the peptidoglycan layer to counteract torque from the rotor and opening of a cation channel to facilitate an influx of cations, which is converted into mechanical rotation. Stator complexes are comprised of four copies of an integral membrane A subunit and two copies of a B subunit...
November 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195054/bacterial-mechanosensors
#14
Charles D Cox, Navid Bavi, Boris Martinac
Bacteria represent one of the most evolutionarily successful groups of organisms to inhabit Earth. Their world is awash with mechanical cues, probably the most ancient form of which are osmotic forces. As a result, they have developed highly robust mechanosensors in the form of bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels. These channels are essential in osmoregulation, and in this setting, provide one of the simplest paradigms for the study of mechanosensory transduction. We explore the past, present, and future of bacterial MS channels, including the alternate mechanosensory roles that they may play in complex microbial communities...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194125/nav1-7-and-pain-contribution-of-peripheral-nerves
#15
Tal Hoffmann, Ohad Sharon, Jürgen Wittmann, Richard W Carr, Alina Vyshnevska, Roberto De, Mohammed A Nassar, Peter W Reeh, Christian Weidner
The sodium channel NaV1.7 contributes to action potential generation and propagation. Loss-of-function mutations in patients lead to congenital indifference to pain, though it remains unclear where on the way from sensory terminals to CNS the signalling is disrupted. We confirm that conditional deletion of NaV1.7 in advillin expressing sensory neurons leads to impaired heat and mechanical nociception in behavioural tests. With single-fiber recordings from isolated skin we found (1) a significantly lower prevalence of heat responsiveness to in normally mechanosensitive C-fibers, although (2) the rare heat responses appeared quite vigorous and (3) heat-induced CGRP release was normal...
November 24, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187535/transient-receptor-potential-channel-6-regulates-abnormal-cardiac-s-nitrosylation-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#16
Heaseung Sophia Chung, Grace E Kim, Ronald J Holewinski, Vidya Venkatraman, Guangshuo Zhu, Djahida Bedja, David A Kass, Jennifer E Van Eyk
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder with dystrophin loss that results in skeletal and cardiac muscle weakening and early death. Loss of the dystrophin-sarcoglycan complex delocalizes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to alter its signaling, and augments mechanosensitive intracellular Ca2+ influx. The latter has been coupled to hyperactivation of the nonselective cation channel, transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (Trpc6), in isolated myocytes. As Ca2+ also activates NOS, we hypothesized that Trpc6 would help to mediate nitric oxide (NO) dysregulation and that this would be manifest in increased myocardial S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and muscle disease...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183968/catch-bond-drives-stator-mechanosensitivity-in-the-bacterial-flagellar-motor
#17
Ashley L Nord, Emilie Gachon, Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Jasmine A Nirody, Alessandro Barducci, Richard M Berry, Francesco Pedaci
The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is the rotary motor that rotates each bacterial flagellum, powering the swimming and swarming of many motile bacteria. The torque is provided by stator units, ion motive force-powered ion channels known to assemble and disassemble dynamically in the BFM. This turnover is mechanosensitive, with the number of engaged units dependent on the viscous load experienced by the motor through the flagellum. However, the molecular mechanism driving BFM mechanosensitivity is unknown...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176668/a-protein-interaction-mechanism-for-suppressing-the-mechanosensitive-piezo-channels
#18
Tingxin Zhang, Shaopeng Chi, Fan Jiang, Qiancheng Zhao, Bailong Xiao
Piezo proteins are bona fide mammalian mechanotransduction channels for various cell types including endothelial cells. The mouse Piezo1 of 2547 residues forms a three-bladed, propeller-like homo-trimer comprising a central pore-module and three propeller-structures that might serve as mechanotransduction-modules. However, the mechanogating and regulation of Piezo channels remain unclear. Here we identify the sarcoplasmic /endoplasmic-reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), including the widely expressed SERCA2, as Piezo interacting proteins...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171028/the-mechanosensitive-piezo1-channel-structural-features-and-molecular-bases-underlying-its-ion-permeation-and-mechanotransduction
#19
Yubo Wang, Bailong Xiao
The evolutionarily conserved Piezo family of proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, encodes the long-sought-after mammalian mechanosensitive cation channels that play critical roles in various mechanotransduction processes such as touch, pain, proprioception, vascular development and blood pressure regulation. Mammalian Piezo proteins contain over 2500 amino acids with numerous predicted transmembrane segments, and do not bear sequence homology with any known class of ion channels. Thus, it is imperative, but challenging, to understand how they serve as effective mechanotransducers for converting mechanical force into electrochemical signals...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168523/electroconductive-nanoscale-topography-for-enhanced-neuronal-differentiation-and-electrophysiological-maturation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#20
Kisuk Yang, Seung Jung Yu, Jong Seung Lee, Hak-Rae Lee, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Jungmok Seo, Taeyoon Lee, Eunji Cheong, Sung Gap Im, Seung-Woo Cho
Biophysical cues, such as topography, and electrical cues can provide external stimulation for the promotion of stem cell neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate an electroconductive surface nanotopography for enhancing neuronal differentiation and the functional maturation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs). The electroconductive nanopatterned substrates were prepared by depositing a thin layer of titanium (Ti) with nanograting topographies (150 to 300 nm groove/ridge, the thickness of the groove - 150 μm) onto polymer surfaces...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
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