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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913829/glutamate-fermentation-2-mechanism-of-l-glutamate-overproduction-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#1
Takashi Hirasawa, Masaaki Wachi
The nonpathogenic coryneform bacterium, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was isolated as an L-glutamate-overproducing microorganism by Japanese researchers and is currently utilized in various amino acid fermentation processes. L-Glutamate production by C. glutamicum is induced by limitation of biotin and addition of fatty acid ester surfactants and β-lactam antibiotics. These treatments affect the cell surface structures of C. glutamicum. After the discovery of C. glutamicum, many researchers have investigated the underlying mechanism of L-glutamate overproduction with respect to the cell surface structures of this organism...
December 3, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874267/human-digital-meissner-corpuscles-display-immunoreactivity-for-the-multifunctional-ion-channels-trpc6-and-trpv4
#2
P Alonso-González, R Cabo, I San José, A Gago, I C Suazo, O García-Suárez, J Cobo, J A Vega
Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigated the occurrence, distribution and possible co-localization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents)...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861175/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-and-serum-glucocorticoid-regulated-kinase-1-are-critical-mediators-of-lung-injury-in-overventilated-mice-in-vivo
#3
Laura Michalick, Lasti Erfinanda, Ulrike Weichelt, Markus van der Giet, Wolfgang Liedtke, Wolfgang M Kuebler
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause lung endothelial barrier failure and inflammation cumulating in ventilator-induced lung injury. Yet, underlying mechanotransduction mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the authors tested the hypothesis that activation of the mechanosensitive Ca channel transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV4) by serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) 1 may drive the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Mice (total n = 54) were ventilated for 2 h with low (7 ml/kg) or high (20 ml/kg) tidal volumes and assessed for signs of ventilator-induced lung injury...
November 18, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856251/local-calcium-signalling-is-mediated-by-mechanosensitive-ion-channels-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#4
Vladislav I Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Valeria Y Vasileva, Natalia A Pugovkina, Irina O Vassilieva, Elena A Morachevskaya, Nikolay N Nikolsky, Yuri A Negulyaev
Mechanical forces are implicated in key physiological processes in stem cells, including proliferation, differentiation and lineage switching. To date, there is an evident lack of understanding of how external mechanical cues are coupled with calcium signalling in stem cells. Mechanical reactions are of particular interest in adult mesenchymal stem cells because of their promising potential for use in tissue remodelling and clinical therapy. Here, single channel patch-clamp technique was employed to search for cation channels involved in mechanosensitivity in mesenchymal endometrial-derived stem cells (hMESCs)...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843126/biallelic-loss-of-proprioception-related-piezo2-causes-muscular-atrophy-with-perinatal-respiratory-distress-arthrogryposis-and-scoliosis
#5
Andrea Delle Vedove, Markus Storbeck, Raoul Heller, Irmgard Hölker, Malavika Hebbar, Anju Shukla, Olafur Magnusson, Sebahattin Cirak, Katta M Girisha, Mary O'Driscoll, Bart Loeys, Brunhilde Wirth
We report ten individuals of four independent consanguineous families from Turkey, India, Libya, and Pakistan with a variable clinical phenotype that comprises arthrogryposis, spontaneously resolving respiratory insufficiency at birth, muscular atrophy predominantly of the distal lower limbs, scoliosis, and mild distal sensory involvement. Using whole-exome sequencing, SNPchip-based linkage analysis, DNA microarray, and Sanger sequencing, we identified three independent homozygous frameshift mutations and a homozygous deletion of two exons in PIEZO2 that segregated in all affected individuals of the respective family...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831930/light-activated-control-of-protein-channel-assembly-mediated-by-membrane-mechanics
#6
David M Miller, Heather E Findlay, Oscar Ces, Richard H Templer, Paula J Booth
Photochemical processes provide versatile triggers of chemical reactions. Here, we use a photoactivated lipid switch to modulate the folding and assembly of a protein channel within a model biological membrane. In contrast to the information rich field of water-soluble protein folding, there is only a limited understanding of the assembly of proteins that are integral to biological membranes. It is however possible to exploit the foreboding hydrophobic lipid environment and control membrane protein folding via lipid bilayer mechanics...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829145/piezo1-channels-are-inherently-mechanosensitive
#7
Ruhma Syeda, Maria N Florendo, Charles D Cox, Jennifer M Kefauver, Jose S Santos, Boris Martinac, Ardem Patapoutian
The conversion of mechanical force to chemical signals is critical for many biological processes, including the senses of touch, pain, and hearing. Mechanosensitive ion channels play a key role in sensing the mechanical stimuli experienced by various cell types and are present in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels are characterized thoroughly, but less is known about their counterparts in vertebrates. Piezos have been recently established as ion channels required for mechanotransduction in disparate cell types in vitro and in vivo...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807168/a-defensive-kicking-behavior-in-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-mediated-by-drosophila-wing-margin-bristles
#8
Jiefu Li, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Sophia Wu, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan
: Mechanosensation, one of the fastest sensory modalities, mediates diverse behaviors including those pertinent for survival. It is important to understand how mechanical stimuli trigger defensive behaviors. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster adult flies exhibit a kicking response against invading parasitic mites over their wing margin with ultrafast speed and high spatial precision. Mechanical stimuli that mimic the mites' movement evoke a similar kicking behavior. Further, we identified a TRPV channel, Nanchung, and a specific Nanchung-expressing neuron under each recurved bristle that forms an array along the wing margin as being essential sensory components for this behavior...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806944/the-mechanosensitive-bk%C3%AE-%C3%AE-1-channel-localizes-to-cilia-of-principal-cells-in-rabbit-cortical-collecting-duct-ccd
#9
Rolando Carrisoza-Gaytán, Lijun Wang, Carlos M N Schreck, Thomas R Kleyman, Wen-Hui Wang, Lisa M Satlin
Within the CCD of the distal nephron of the rabbit, the BK (maxi K) channel mediates Ca(2+)- and/or stretch-dependent flow-induced K(+) secretion (FIKS) and contributes to K(+) adaptation in response to dietary K(+) loading. An unresolved question is whether BK channels in intercalated cells (ICs) and/or principal cells (PCs) in the CCD mediate these K(+) secretory processes. In support for a role for ICs in FIKS is the higher density of immunoreactive apical BKα (pore forming subunit) and functional BK channel activity than detected in PCs, and an increase in IC BKα expression in response to a high K(+) diet...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799320/the-hv1-proton-channel-responds-to-mechanical-stimuli
#10
Medha M Pathak, Truc Tran, Liang Hong, Béla Joós, Catherine E Morris, Francesco Tombola
The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is expressed in tissues throughout the body and plays important roles in pH homeostasis and regulation of NADPH oxidase. Hv1 operates in membrane compartments that experience strong mechanical forces under physiological or pathological conditions. In microglia, for example, Hv1 activity is potentiated by cell swelling and causes an increase in brain damage after stroke. The channel complex consists of two proton-permeable voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) linked by a cytoplasmic coiled-coil domain...
November 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798174/are-tmcs-the-mechanotransduction-channels-of-vertebrate-hair-cells
#11
David P Corey, Jeffrey R Holt
Sensory transduction in vertebrate hair cells and the molecules that mediate it have long been of great interest. Some components of the mechanotransduction apparatus have been identified, most as deafness gene products. Although prior candidates for the mechanotransduction channel have been proposed, each has faded with new evidence. Now, two strong candidates, TMC1 and TMC2 (transmembrane channel-like), have emerged from discovery of deafness genes in humans and mice. They are expressed at the right time during development: exactly at the onset of mechanosensitivity...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797339/endothelial-cation-channel-piezo1-controls-blood-pressure-by-mediating-flow-induced-atp-release
#12
ShengPeng Wang, Ramesh Chennupati, Harmandeep Kaur, Andras Iring, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
Arterial blood pressure is controlled by vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide (NO) that are released from the endothelium under the influence of fluid shear stress exerted by flowing blood. Flow-induced endothelial release of ATP and subsequent activation of Gq/G11-coupled purinergic P2Y2 receptors have been shown to mediate fluid shear stress-induced stimulation of NO formation. However, the mechanism by which fluid shear stress initiates these processes is unclear. Here, we have shown that the endothelial mechanosensitive cation channel PIEZO1 is required for flow-induced ATP release and subsequent P2Y2/Gq/G11-mediated activation of downstream signaling that results in phosphorylation and activation of AKT and endothelial NOS...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784066/trpv2-channels-contribute-to-stretch-activated-cation-currents-and-myogenic-constriction-in-retinal-arterioles
#13
Mary K McGahon, José A Fernández, Durga P Dash, Jon McKee, David A Simpson, Alex V Zholos, J Graham McGeown, Tim M Curtis
Purpose: Activation of the transient receptor potential channels, TRPC6, TRPM4, and TRPP1 (PKD2), has been shown to contribute to the myogenic constriction of cerebral arteries. In the present study we sought to determine the potential role of various mechanosensitive TRP channels to myogenic signaling in arterioles of the rat retina. Methods: Rat retinal arterioles were isolated for RT-PCR, Fura-2 Ca2+ microfluorimetry, patch-clamp electrophysiology, and pressure myography studies...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752892/cannabinoids-increase-mechanosensitivity-of-trigeminal-ganglion-neurons-innervating-the-inner-walls-of-rat-anterior-chambers-via-activation-of-trpa1
#14
Yun Ling, Zhuang-Li Hu, Qing-Li Meng, Peng Fang, Hai-Xia Liu
Our previous study found that some trigeminal ganglion (TG) nerve endings in the inner walls of rat anterior chambers were mechanosensitive, and transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) was an essential mechanosensitive channel in the membrane. To address the effect of cannabinoids on the mechanosensitive TG nerve endings in the inner walls of anterior chambers of rat eye, we investigated the effect of the (R)-(+)-WIN55, 212-2 mesylate salt (WIN), a synthetic cannabinoid on their cell bodies in vitro...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739485/skin-bacteria-communication-involvement-of-the-neurohormone-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-in-the-regulation-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-virulence
#15
Awa R N'Diaye, Camille Leclerc, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Cecile Duclairoir Poc, Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Sylvie Chevalier, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (<10(-12 )M) whereas Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729550/pressure-induced-oxidative-activation-of-pkg-enables-vasoregulation-by-ca2-sparks-and-bk-channels
#16
Kaivan Khavandi, Rachael L Baylie, Sarah A Sugden, Majid Ahmed, Viktoria Csato, Philip Eaton, David C Hill-Eubanks, Adrian D Bonev, Mark T Nelson, Adam S Greenstein
Activation of Ca(2+)-sensitive, large-conductance potassium (BK) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) by local, ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) signals (Ca(2+) sparks) acts as a brake on pressure-induced (myogenic) vasoconstriction-a fundamental mechanism that regulates blood flow in small resistance arteries. We report that physiological intraluminal pressure within resistance arteries activated cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) in VSMCs through oxidant-induced formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond between cysteine residues...
October 11, 2016: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723557/dynamic-culture-yields-engineered-myocardium-with-near-adult-functional-output
#17
Christopher P Jackman, Aaron L Carlson, Nenad Bursac
Engineered cardiac tissues hold promise for cell therapy and drug development, but exhibit inadequate function and maturity. In this study, we sought to significantly improve the function and maturation of rat and human engineered cardiac tissues. We developed dynamic, free-floating culture conditions for engineering "cardiobundles", 3-dimensional cylindrical tissues made from neonatal rat cardiomyocytes or human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) embedded in fibrin-based hydrogel. Compared to static culture, 2-week dynamic culture of neonatal rat cardiobundles significantly increased expression of sarcomeric proteins, cardiomyocyte size (∼2...
December 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715063/-staying-out-rather-than-cracking-in-asymmetric-membrane-insertion-of-12-0-lysophosphocholine
#18
Helen Y Fan, Dew Das, Heiko Heerklotz
Interactions between detergents and model membranes are well described by the three-stage model: Saturation and solubilization boundaries divide bilayer-only, bilayer-micelle co-existence, and micelle-only ranges. An underlying assumption of the model is the equilibration of detergent between the two membrane leaflets. However, many detergents partition asymmetrically at room temperature due to slow flip-flop, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and lysolipids. In this work, we use isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to investigate the solubilization of unilamellar POPC vesicles by 12:0 lysophosphocholine (12:0 LPC)...
October 7, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714920/familial-gordon-syndrome-associated-with-a-piezo2-mutation
#19
Franz Alisch, Alexander Weichert, Karim Kalache, Viola Paradiso, Ann Carolin Longardt, Christof Dame, Katrin Hoffmann, Denise Horn
Gordon syndrome or distal arthrogryposis type 3 is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by contractures of upper and lower limbs. It is distinguishable from other forms of distal arthrogryposis by cleft palate and short stature. Recently, Gordon syndrome has been associated to heterozygous mutations in the piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 gene (PIEZO2). Different mutations of this gene also cause distal arthrogryposis type 5 and Marden-Walker syndrome. Dysfunction of this ion channel provides pleiotropic effects on joints, ocular muscles, and bone development...
October 7, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708587/in-situ-reversible-gating-of-a-mechanosensitive-ion-channel-through-protein-lipid-interactions
#20
Anna Dimitrova, Martin Walko, Maryam Hashemi Shabestari, Pravin Kumar, Martina Huber, Armagan Kocer
Understanding the functioning of ion channels, as well as utilizing their properties for biochemical applications requires control over channel activity. Herein we report a reversible control over the functioning of a mechanosensitive ion channel by interfering with its interaction with the lipid bilayer. The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance from Escherichia coli is reconstituted into liposomes and activated to its different sub-open states by titrating lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into the lipid bilayer...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
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