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C Duchesne, F Gheysen, A Bore, G Albouy, A Nadeau, M E Robillard, F Bobeuf, A L Lafontaine, O Lungu, L Bherer, J Doyon
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise training (AET) has been shown to provide general health benefits, and to improve motor behaviours in particular, in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of AET on their motor learning capacities, as well as the change in neural substrates mediating this effect remains to be explored. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we employed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to assess the effect of a 3-month AET program on the neural correlates of implicit motor sequence learning (MSL)...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Natalie Zizzo, Emily Bell, Anne-Louise Lafontaine, Eric Racine
BACKGROUND: Patient-centred care is a recommended model of care for Parkinson's disease (PD). It aims to provide care that is respectful and responsive to patient preferences, values and perspectives. Provision of patient-centred care should entail considering how patients want to be involved in their care. OBJECTIVE: To understand the participation preferences of patients with PD from a patient-centred care clinic in health-care decision-making processes. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Mixed-methods study with early-stage Parkinson's disease patients from a patient-centred care clinic...
September 14, 2016: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Cibran Perez-Gonzalez, Daniel A Lafontaine, J Carlos Penedo
In addition to the helical nature of double-stranded DNA and RNA, single-stranded oligonucleotides can arrange themselves into tridimensional structures containing loops, bulges, internal hairpins and many other motifs. This ability has been used for more than two decades to generate oligonucleotide sequences, so-called aptamers, that can recognize certain metabolites with high affinity and specificity. More recently, this library of artificially-generated nucleic acid aptamers has been expanded by the discovery that naturally occurring RNA sequences control bacterial gene expression in response to cellular concentration of a given metabolite...
2016: Frontiers in Chemistry
Mónica Guzmán-González, Marie-France Lafontaine, Christine Levesque
Despite evidence that adult attachment insecurity has been linked to the perpetration of physical intimate violence, the mechanisms underlying this link need further exploration. The goal of this study was to evaluate the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the association between romantic attachment and the use of physical intimate partner violence. To this end, 611 students recruited from Chilean universities completed the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire, the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales...
2016: Violence and Victims
Jean-Louis Langhendries, Emilien Nicolas, Gilles Doumont, Serge Goldman, Denis L J Lafontaine
Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors; their involvement in tumorigenesis remains unclear. The box C/D snoRNAs U3 and U8 are upregulated in breast cancers. Here we characterize the function of human U3 and U8 in ribosome biogenesis, nucleolar structure, and tumorigenesis. We show in breast (MCF-7) and lung (H1944) cancer cells that U3 and U8 are required for pre-rRNA processing reactions leading, respectively, to synthesis of the small and large ribosomal subunits...
August 9, 2016: Oncotarget
Sage C Arbor, Mike LaFontaine, Medhane Cumbay
Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials...
March 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Anne Lafontaine, Marc Hanikenne, Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Joëlle Forget-Leray, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Eric Gismondi
Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns...
July 28, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Daniel Z Bar, Chayki Charar, Jehudith Dorfman, Tam Yadid, Lionel Tafforeau, Denis L J Lafontaine, Yosef Gruenbaum
Dietary restriction (DR) is a metabolic intervention that extends the lifespan of multiple species, including yeast, flies, nematodes, rodents, and, arguably, rhesus monkeys and humans. Hallmarks of lifelong DR are reductions in body size, fecundity, and fat accumulation, as well as slower development. We have identified atx-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of the human ATXN2L and ATXN2 genes, as the regulator of these multiple DR phenotypes. Down-regulation of atx-2 increases the body size, cell size, and fat content of dietary-restricted animals and speeds animal development, whereas overexpression of atx-2 is sufficient to reduce the body size and brood size of wild-type animals...
August 9, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Christine Levesque, Marie-France Lafontaine, Jean-François Bureau
Insecure attachment is believed to play a fundamental role in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In fact, the quality of parent-child attachment relationships has become an emerging topic attracting a growing number of theoretical and research contributions in the field of NSSI. However, despite these considerable advances in the scientific study of NSSI, progress pertaining to investigating the quality of romantic attachment relationship is lacking. In an effort to expand current knowledge, the present study aims to not only explore the relationships between romantic attachment and NSSI, but also to explore the mechanisms by which these two variables relate by examining the mediating role that emotion regulation and dyadic coping might play in this relationship...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Anton V Volynkin, Marek Dvořák
Xestia Hübner, [1818] is a large noctuine genus with an almost worldwide distribution. In the Palaearctic region the genus represented by about 190 described species (Kononenko 2003; Gyulai & Ronkay 2006; Fibiger et al. 2010; Gyulai et al. 2011; Kononenko et al. 2012; Gyulai et al. 2013a; 2013b). The genus subdivided into four described subgenera (Lafontaine et al. 1998, in Lafontaine 1998; Kononenko et al. 2012): Xestia, Megasema Hübner, [1821], Pachnobia Guenée, 1852 (= Schoyenia Aurivillius, 1883; Anomogyna Staudinger, 1871) and Raddea Alphéraky, 1892 (= Estimata I...
2016: Zootaxa
Melanie Crane, Nicola Scott, Blythe J O'Hara, Sanchia Aranda, Mayanne Lafontaine, Ingrid Stacey, Megan Varlow, David Currow
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Australia. There is potential that health promotion about the risks and warning signs of lung cancer could be used to reduce delays in symptom presentation when symptoms are first detected. This study investigated knowledge, attitudes and beliefs which might impact help-seeking behaviour and could provide insight into possible public health interventions in New South Wales (NSW). METHODS: A convergent mixed method study design was used wherein data from 16 qualitative focus groups of residents (40+ years), purposefully recruited and stratified by smoking status, age and geography (metropolitan/regional), were compared with a CATI administered population-wide telephone survey (n = 1,000) using the Cancer Research UK cancer awareness measure (LungCAM)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Emilien Nicolas, Pascaline Parisot, Celina Pinto-Monteiro, Roxane de Walque, Christophe De Vleeschouwer, Denis L J Lafontaine
The nucleolus is a potent disease biomarker and a target in cancer therapy. Ribosome biogenesis is initiated in the nucleolus where most ribosomal (r-) proteins assemble onto precursor rRNAs. Here we systematically investigate how depletion of each of the 80 human r-proteins affects nucleolar structure, pre-rRNA processing, mature rRNA accumulation and p53 steady-state level. We developed an image-processing programme for qualitative and quantitative discrimination of normal from altered nucleolar morphology...
2016: Nature Communications
Marc-Andre Comeau, Daniel A Lafontaine, Sherif Abou Elela
Members of the ribonuclease III (RNase III) family regulate gene expression by triggering the degradation of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). Hundreds of RNase III cleavage targets have been identified and their impact on RNA maturation and stability is now established. However, the mechanism defining substrates' reactivity remains unclear. In this study, we developed a real-time FRET assay for the detection of dsRNA degradation by yeast RNase III (Rnt1p) and characterized the kinetic bottlenecks controlling the reactivity of different substrates...
September 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Nikolaos Vakirlis, Véronique Sarilar, Guénola Drillon, Aubin Fleiss, Nicolas Agier, Jean-Philippe Meyniel, Lou Blanpain, Alessandra Carbone, Hugo Devillers, Kenny Dubois, Alexandre Gillet-Markowska, Stéphane Graziani, Nguyen Huu-Vang, Marion Poirel, Cyrielle Reisser, Jonathan Schott, Joseph Schacherer, Ingrid Lafontaine, Bertrand Llorente, Cécile Neuvéglise, Gilles Fischer
Reconstructing genome history is complex but necessary to reveal quantitative principles governing genome evolution. Such reconstruction requires recapitulating into a single evolutionary framework the evolution of genome architecture and gene repertoire. Here, we reconstructed the genome history of the genus Lachancea that appeared to cover a continuous evolutionary range from closely related to more diverged yeast species. Our approach integrated the generation of a high-quality genome data set; the development of AnChro, a new algorithm for reconstructing ancestral genome architecture; and a comprehensive analysis of gene repertoire evolution...
July 2016: Genome Research
Cibran Perez-Gonzalez, Jonathan P Grondin, Daniel A Lafontaine, J Carlos Penedo
The last decade has witnessed the discovery of a variety of non-coding RNA sequences that perform a broad range of crucial biological functions. Among these, the ability of certain RNA sequences, so-called riboswitches, has attracted considerable interest. Riboswitches control gene expression in response to the concentration of particular metabolites to which they bind without the need for any protein. These RNA switches not only need to adopt a very specific tridimensional structure to perform their function, but also their sequence has been evolutionary optimized to recognize a particular metabolite with high affinity and selectivity...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sophie Lafontaine, Christine Prin-Mathieu, Aurélie Velay, Odette Agulles, Evelyne Schvoerer, Hélène Jeulin
BACKGROUND: The International Standard ISO 15189 based on the ISO 9001:2008 emphasizes specific requirements for quality and ability of medical laboratories. The accreditation of medical laboratories according to ISO 15189 includes the validation of biological methods, which depends on collection of bibliographic data and experimental proofs. Moreover, these results must be compared to provider data sheets and independent scientific data. In the immunodiagnostic field, independent published data are deeply lacking...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
Anne Lafontaine, Eric Gismondi, Céline Boulangé-Lecomte, Perrine Geraudie, Nathalie Dodet, Fanny Caupos, Soazig Lemoine, Laurent Lagadic, Jean-Pierre Thomé, Joëlle Forget-Leray
Chlordecone (CLD) is an organochlorine insecticide abundant in aquatic environment of the French West Indies. However, few studies have investigated its impact on freshwater invertebrates. Whereas CLD is suspected of inducing endocrine disruption, this work aimed to study the effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of CLD on the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) hormone concentration and on the chitobiase activity, both having key roles in the molting process of crustaceans. In addition, the bioaccumulation of CLD was measured in the muscle tissue of Macrobrachium rosenbergii to underline potential dose-response relationship...
July 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Jodi Martin, Jean-François Bureau, Kim Yurkowski, Tania Renaud Fournier, Marie-France Lafontaine, Paula Cloutier
The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study...
June 2016: Journal of Adolescence
Britta Meyer, Jan Philip Wurm, Sunny Sharma, Carina Immer, Denys Pogoryelov, Peter Kötter, Denis L J Lafontaine, Jens Wöhnert, Karl-Dieter Entian
The chemically most complex modification in eukaryotic rRNA is the conserved hypermodified nucleotide N1-methyl-N3-aminocarboxypropyl-pseudouridine (m(1)acp(3)Ψ) located next to the P-site tRNA on the small subunit 18S rRNA. While S-adenosylmethionine was identified as the source of the aminocarboxypropyl (acp) group more than 40 years ago the enzyme catalyzing the acp transfer remained elusive. Here we identify the cytoplasmic ribosome biogenesis protein Tsr3 as the responsible enzyme in yeast and human cells...
May 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Marc Philippe Lafontaine, Karine Lacourse, Jean-Marc Lina, Anthony R McIntosh, Frédéric Gosselin, Hugo Théoret, Sarah Lippé
Neuronal activity associated with visual processing of an unfamiliar face gradually diminishes when it is viewed repeatedly. This process, known as repetition suppression (RS), is involved in the acquisition of familiarity. Current models suggest that RS results from interactions between visual information processing areas located in the occipito-temporal cortex and higher order areas, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain signal complexity, which reflects information dynamics of cortical networks, has been shown to increase as unfamiliar faces become familiar...
June 21, 2016: Neuroscience
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