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Mycobacterium avium complex

A O Jenkins, E Gormley, N Gcebe, G T Fosgate, A Conan, C Aagaard, A L Michel, V P M G Rutten
Accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis in cattle may be compromised in areas where there are high rates of exposure to environmental/non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This cross reaction of immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis antigens shared with NTMs can result in reduced specificity of commonly used diagnostic tests including tuberculin skin tests and the interferon gamma assay (IFN-ɣ). In this study we assessed the cross-reactive immune responses of M. bovis (infected) and NTM exposed animals to M. bovis and M...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Denise C Hsu, Kimberly F Breglio, Luxin Pei, Chun-Shu Wong, Bruno B Andrade, Virginia Sheikh, Margery Smelkinson, Constantinos Petrovas, Adam Rupert, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Adrian Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kenneth Olivier, Daniel Barber, Irini Sereti
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated monocyte and CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in tissues, and plasma cytokines and inflammatory markers, in 13 HIV-infected patients with MAC-IRIS and 14 HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary MAC infection...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Wataru Hirose, Masayoshi Harigai, Takashi Uchiyama, Kenji Itoh, Toshiaki Ishizuka, Mitsuyo Matsumoto, Toshihiro Nanki
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). We aimed to identify factors associated with MAC-PD in RA patients, and investigate their clinical significance for diagnosis of this disease. METHODS: We examined 396 patients with RA for the presence of MAC-PD, using the criteria of the American Thoracic Society and conducted three years of follow-up on these patients. Multivariate logistic analyses were employed for selecting factors associated with MAC-PD...
March 13, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Hong-Tae Park, Hyun-Eui Park, Young-Hoon Jung, Han Sang Yoo
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a causative agent of Johne's disease or paratuberculosis (PTB), which is a chronic debilitating disease in ruminants, that is characterized by incurable enteritis and persistent diarrhea. ISMap02 is one of the major targets of PCR because it is present in multicopies (six copies) and known to be specific to MAP. However, in the present study, non-MAP mycobacteria were shown to be positive by ISMap02 targeting PCR. Two bacterial isolates (Sample ID: BO-038 and BO-042) were cultured from bovine fecal samples that produced positive results in three of two ISMap02 targeting PCR analyses with negative results in IS900 real-time PCR...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Mousumi Sarkar Saha, Shilpee Pal, Indrani Sarkar, Ayan Roy, Pradeep K Das Mohapatra, Arnab Sen
Mycobacterium is gram positive, slow growing, disease causing Actinobacteria. Beside potential pathogenic species, Mycobacterium also contains opportunistic pathogens as well as free living non-pathogenic species. Disease related various analyses on Mycobacterium tuberculosis are very widespread. However, genomic study of overall Mycobacterium species for understanding the selection pressure on genes as well as evolution of the organism is still illusive. MLSA and 16s rDNA based analysis has been generated for 241 Mycobacterium strains and a detailed analysis of codon and amino acid usage bias of mycobacterial genes, their functional analysis have been done...
February 28, 2018: Genomics
Tiffany A Claeys, Richard T Robinson
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include species that colonize human epithelia, as well as species that are ubiquitous in soil and aquatic environments. NTM that primarily inhabit soil and aquatic environments include the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, M. avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare ) and the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus , massiliense , and bolletii ), and can be free-living, biofilm-associated, or amoeba-associated. Although NTM are rarely pathogenic in immunocompetent individuals, those who are immunocompromised - due to either an inherited or acquired immunodeficiency - are highly susceptible to NTM infection (NTMI)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Tatjana Adzic-Vukicevic, Aleksandra Barac, Ana Blanka-Protic, Marija Laban-Lazovic, Bojana Lukovic, Vesna Skodric-Trifunovic, Salvatore Rubino
INTRODUCTION: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms associated with various infections. The aim of the study was to determine the most relevant clinical characteristics of NTM during the 7-year period. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study of NTM infections was conducted between January 2009 and December 2016. The American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America criteria were used to define cases of pulmonary or an extrapulmonary site...
February 23, 2018: Infection
Sara Blanco-Conde, Teresa Nebreda-Mayoral, Cristina Labayru-Echeverría, M Fe Brezmes-Valdivieso, Ramiro López-Medrano, Begoña Nogueira-González
INTRODUCTION: Lady Windermere syndrome (LWS) is a pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The objective of this study is to ascertain its frequency and characteristics in the northern area of the autonomous community of Castile and León. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with MAC isolates in respiratory samples from five public hospitals in the autonomous community over a six-year period, following the ATS/IDSA criteria. The MAC strains were identified by GenoType Mycobacterium reverse hybridisation probes or PCR-RFLP analysis of the hsp65 gene...
February 19, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Mark H Adelman, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent original research and specialty society guidelines regarding the diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of NTM pulmonary disease has risen in recent years. The prevalence of individual NTM species varies geographically, although Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) remain among the most commonly encountered in many regions...
February 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Chunrong Lin, Chad Russell, Bruce Soll, Dominic Chow, Sapna Bamrah, Richard Brostrom, Wesley Kim, Jerry Scott, Matthew J Bankowski
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) respiratory infections represent a growing public health problem in many countries. However, there are limited published epidemiologic studies for the Western Pacific region. We reviewed respiratory specimens submitted to Diagnostic Laboratory Services in Hawaii, USA, for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during August 2007-December 2011 to determine the NTM isolation rate. We observed a statistically significant increase in the rate of specimens with NTM isolated in respiratory culture (adjusted rate ratio per year 1...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Ryoung Eun Ko, Seong Mi Moon, Soohyun Ahn, Byung Woo Jhun, Kyeongman Jeon, O Jung Kwon, Hee Jae Huh, Chang Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee, Won Jung Koh
This study investigated the changes in the major etiologic organisms and clinical phenotypes of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) over a recent 15-year period in Korea. The increase of number of patients with NTM-LD was primarily due to an increase of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD). Among MAC cases, the proportion of M. avium increased compared with M. intracellulare, whereas the incidence of M. abscessus complex and M. kansasii LD remained relatively stable. The proportion of cases of the nodular bronchiectatic form increased compared with the fibrocavitary form of NTM-LD...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Seoung-Ryoung Choi, Bradley E Britigan, Barbara Switzer, Traci Hoke, David Moran, Prabagaran Narayanasamy
The nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pathogens, M. avium complex (MAC) and M. abscessus, can result in severe pulmonary infections. Current antibiotics confront significant challenges for treatment of these NTM infections due to emerging multidrug-resistance. Thus, development of new antibiotics targeted against these agents is needed. We examined the inhibitory activities of Ga(NO3 )3 , GaCl3 , gallium meso-tetraphenylporphyrine (GaTP), and gallium nanoparticles (GaNP) against intra- and extracellular M...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
R Diel, A Nienhaus, F Ringshausen, E Richter, T Welte, K F Rabe, R Loddenkemper
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary disease (PD) caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is increasing worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of studies that include microbiological outcomes to evaluate current macrolide-based treatment regimens. METHODS: We searched literature published before April 2017 using MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Risk of bias in randomized trials was assessed using the Cochrane tool. RESULTS: 333 citations were retrieved and 42 studies including 2748 patients evaluated...
February 1, 2018: Chest
Takashi Inomata, Satoshi Konno, Katsura Nagai, Masaru Suzuki, Masaharu Nishimura
Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is increasing in prevalence worldwide even in immunocompetent individuals. Despite its variable clinical course, the clinical and immunological factors associated with radiographical severity and progression are not largely unknown. We aimed to study the association between the inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles at the local infected site, and the radiological severity and/or progression of pulmonary MAC infection. In this retrospective cohort study, 22 healthy subjects and 37 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having pulmonary MAC infection by positive cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids were enrolled...
2018: PloS One
Deba Prasad Dhibar, Kamal Kant Sahu, Surjit Singh, Amanjit Bal, Abhijit Chougale, Varun Dhir
Pseudotumour is a benign inflammatory lesion. Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare pseudotumour. It is a benign proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast mycobacterium, commonly reported in immunocompromised patients. MSP is usually associated with mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we present the case of a 38-year-old gentleman with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented with low-grade fever for 1-month duration. Clinically, he had generalised lymphadenopathy...
January 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Y A M El-Wajeh, M G Watson, D Igoumenakis, P Stathopoulos
This retrospective study covered over two decades, during which an individual head and neck surgeon treated 24 patients with cervicofacial lymphadenitis that was related to both Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (n=17, made up of M tuberculosis (n=16) and M bovis (n=1)), and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The seven cases of non-tuberculous mycobacteria were caused by M avium complex (n=3), M malmoense (n=3), and M kansaii (n=1). By using a tailored management approach, at times selective combined surgical and antimycobacterial treatment, he achieved a success rate of 23/24 cases, with only one recurrence and no major complications...
January 27, 2018: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Matthew Schwartz, Stefanie Fisher, Elizabeth Story-Roller, Gyanu Lamichhane, Nicole Parrish
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are at risk for recurrent pulmonary infections due to increased viscosity of airway secretions, leading to persistent colonization with pathogenic bacteria, including nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Extensive antibiotic use for treatment of infections has led to increasing antimicrobial resistance, which is a significant barrier to the treatment of NTMs. We examined the in vitro activity of several antibiotics against a selection of the most drug-resistant clinical isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium avium complex recovered from CF patients at our institution, as well as paired combinations of antibiotics against a subset of M...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Maroun M Sfeir, Audrey Schuetz, Koen Van Besien, Alain C Borczuk, Rosemary Soave, Stephen G Jenkins, Thomas J Walsh, Catherine B Small
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterial spindle cell pseudotumour (MSP) is a rare disease characterised by tumour-like local proliferation of spindle-shaped histiocytes containing acid-fast positive mycobacteria. The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical parameters and treatment outcomes of patients with MSP. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the search terms related to mycobacteria and spindle cell tumours. A previously unreported stem cell transplant recipient from our institution diagnosed with MSP was also included...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Yuki Hosono, Seigo Kitada, Yukihiro Yano, Masahide Mori, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Kenji Yoshimura, Hiroyuki Kagawa, Yohei Oshitani, Soichiro Yokota
Long-term, low-dose erythromycin monotherapy, based on the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides, has been reported to have the potential to suppress the exacerbation of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease with less toxicity. It remains unclear whether erythromycin monotherapy induces cross-resistance to clarithromycin, a key drug for MAC. To clarify this point, we conducted a retrospective, single-center, case-series study on patients with MAC lung disease who underwent erythromycin monotherapy for at least 6 months...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Leah Lande, Jason George, Theodore Plush
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-related pulmonary disease has been increasing because of environmental factors, changes in organism virulence, and evolving host susceptibility. Treatment is often complicated by adverse effects, development of drug resistance, and refractory disease, with recurrence rates as high as 25-45%. RECENT FINDINGS: Aerosolization of water, soil, or dusts are the likely sources of MAC-related pulmonary disease in susceptible individuals...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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