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Lachlan P James, Paul Comfort, Timothy J Suchomel, Vincent G Kelly, Emma M Beckman, G Gregory Haff
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether weightlifting actions are a viable method for improving athletic performance amongst weaker, inexperienced lifters when compared to individuals with a greater power clean result, and hence weightlifting ability and experience. Two groups of males with distinctly different power clean performances (higher performance (HP): N = 8; BM = 78.1±4.0 kg; 1RM PC = 1.08±0.09 kgBM; lower performance (LP): N = 8; BM=82.6±14.0 kg; 1RM PC=0.78±0.1 kg·BM) and resistance training age (HP: resistance training experience=3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kay Brandner, Taro Hanazato, Keiji Saito
For classical ballistic transport in a multiterminal geometry, we derive a universal trade-off relation between total dissipation and the precision, at which particles are extracted from individual reservoirs. Remarkably, this bound becomes significantly weaker in the presence of a magnetic field breaking time-reversal symmetry. By working out an explicit model for chiral transport enforced by a strong magnetic field, we show that our bounds are tight. Beyond the classical regime, we find that, in quantum systems far from equilibrium, the correlated exchange of particles makes it possible to exponentially reduce the thermodynamic cost of precision...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Phillip T Chandler, Matthew Greig, John J McMahon
The aim of this study was to investigate changes in vertical jump technique over the course of a training session. Twelve plyometric and ballistic exercise trained male athletes (age = 23.4 ± 4.6 years, body mass = 78.7 ± 18.8 kg, height = 177.1 ± 9.0 cm) performed three sets of 10 repetitions of drop (DJ), rebound (RJ) and squat jumps (SJ). Each exercise was analysed from touch down to peak joint flexion and peak joint flexion to take-off. SJ where analysed from peak joint flexion to take-off only. Jump height, flexion and extension time and range of motion, and instantaneous angles of the ankle, knee and hip joints were measured...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Guoxuan Zhu, Yuanhui Wen, Xiong Wu, Yujie Chen, Jie Liu, Siyuan Yu
A high speed free-space optical communication system capable of self-bending signal transmission around line-of-sight obstacles is proposed and demonstrated. Airy beams are generated and controlled to achieve different propagating trajectories, and the signal transmission characteristics of these beams around the obstacle are investigated. Our results confirm that, by optimizing their ballistic trajectories, Airy beams are able to bypass obstacles with more signal energy and thus improve the communication performance compared with normal Gaussian beams...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Jinho Park, Jae Hyeong Lee, Gil-Ho Lee, Yositake Takane, Ken-Ichiro Imura, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Hu-Jong Lee
We report on short ballistic (SB) Josephson coupling in junctions embedded in a planar heterostructure of graphene. Ballistic Josephson coupling is confirmed by the Fabry-Perot-type interference of the junction critical current I_{c}. The product of I_{c} and the normal-state junction resistance R_{N}, normalized by the zero-temperature gap energy Δ_{0} of the superconducting electrodes, turns out to be exceptionally large close to 2, an indication of strong Josephson coupling in the SB junction limit. However, I_{c} shows a temperature dependence that is inconsistent with the conventional short-junction-like behavior based on the standard Kulik-Omel'yanchuk prediction...
February 16, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Richard J Napier, Brendan J Gallagher, Darrin S Wilson
Background: The 1994 Northern Ireland ceasefire heralded a new beginning for the region after 30-years of violence. In the 20-years following the cessation of hostilities, paramilitary punishment attacks continue to occur in breach of the ceasefire. The aim of this study was to review trends in these attacks over the 20-years and their impact on orthopaedic services. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients admitted under orthopaedic services following paramilitary assault across Northern Ireland over the last 20-years...
May 2017: Ulster Medical Journal
J L Clausen, T Georgian, K H Gardner, T A Douglas
Military ranges are unlike many waste sites because the contaminants, both energetics and metals, are heterogeneously distributed in soil during explosive detonation or ballistic impact and cannot be readily characterized using conventional grab sampling. The Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) has been successful for characterization of energetic contamination in soils, but no published ISM processing studies for soils with small arms range metals such as Pb, Cu, Sb, and Zn exists. This study evaluated several ISM sample-processing steps: (1) field splitting to reduce the sample mass shipped to the analytical laboratory, (2) necessity of milling, and (3) processing a larger subsample mass for digestion in lieu of milling...
March 12, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Katherine A J Daniels, J F Burn
It is generally accepted that animals move in a way that minimises energy use during regular gait and there is evidence that the principle might extend more generally to locomotor behaviour and manoeuvres. Jumping during locomotion is a useful manoeuvre that contributes to the versatility of legged locomotion and is within the repertoire of many terrestrial animals. We describe a simple ballistic model that can be used to identify a single unique trajectory of the body's centre of mass that minimises the mechanical work to initiate a jump, regardless of the approach velocity or take-off position...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Sandro Bartolomei, Federico Nigro, Sandro Ruggeri, Ivan Malagoli Lanzoni, Simone Ciacci, Franco Merni, Eliahu Sadres, Jay R Hoffman, Gabriele Semprini
The purpose of the present study was to validate the ballistic push-up test performed with hands on a force plate (BPU) as a method to measure upper-body power. Twenty-eight experienced resistance trained men (age = 25.4 ± 5.2 y; body mass = 78.5 ± 9.0 kg; body height = 179.6 ± 7.8 cm) performed, two days apart, a bench press 1RM test and upper-body power tests. Mean power and peak power were assessed using the bench press throw test (BT) and the BPU test performed in randomized order. The area under the force/power curve (AUC) obtained at BT was also calculated...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Nichole MacPhee, Anne Savage, Nikolas Noton, Eilidh Beattie, Louise Milne, Joanna Fraser
Bows and arrows are used more for recreation, sport and hunting in the Western world and tend not to be as popular a weapon as firearms or knives. Yet there are still injuries and fatalities caused by these low-velocity weapons due to their availability to the public and that a licence is not required to own them. This study aimed to highlight the penetration capabilities of aluminium arrows into soft tissue and bones in the presence of clothing. Further from that, how the type and fit of clothing as well as arrowhead type contribute to penetration capacity...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Andrea M Cataldo, Andrew L Cohen
A context effect is a change in preference that occurs when alternatives are added to a choice set. Models of preferential choice that account for context effects largely assume a within-dimension comparison process. It has been shown, however, that the format in which a choice set is presented can influence comparison strategies. That is, a by-alternative or by-dimension grouping of the dimension values encourage within-alternative or within-dimension comparisons, respectively. For example, one classic context effect, the compromise effect, is strengthened by a by-dimension presentation format...
March 8, 2018: Cognition
Peter Mahoney, Debra Carr, Karl Harrison, Ruth McGuire, Alan Hepper, Daniel Flynn, Russ J Delaney, Iain Gibb
Six synthetic head models wearing ballistic protective helmets were used to recreate two military combat-related shooting incidents (three per incident, designated 'Incident 1' and 'Incident 2'). Data on the events including engagement distances, weapon and ammunition types was collated by the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory. The models were shot with 7.62 × 39 mm ammunition downloaded to mean impact velocities of 581 m/s (SD 3.5 m/s) and 418 m/s (SD 8 m/s), respectively, to simulate the engagement distances...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Juan Carlos Estrada Saldaña, Yann-Michel Niquet, Jean-Pierre Cleuziou, Eduardo J H Lee, Diana Car, Sébastien R Plissard, Erik P A M Bakkers, Silvano De Franceschi
We report an experimental study of one-dimensional (1D) electronic transport in an InSb semiconducting nanowire. A total of three bottom gates are used to locally deplete the nanowire, creating a ballistic quantum point contact with only a few conducting channels. In a magnetic field, the Zeeman splitting of the corresponding 1D sub-bands is revealed by the emergence of conductance plateaus at multiples of e2 /h, yet we find a quantized conductance pattern largely dependent on the configuration of voltages applied to the bottom gates...
March 7, 2018: Nano Letters
Metello Innocenti
Lamellipodia and ruffles are veil-shaped cell protrusions composed by a highly branched actin filament meshwork assembled by the Arp2/3 complex. They not only hallmark the leading edge of cells adopting the adhesion-based mesenchymal mode of migration but are also thought to drive cell movement. Although regarded as textbook knowledge, the mechanism of formation of lamellipodia and ruffles has been revisited in the last years leveraging new technologies. Furthermore, recent observations have also challenged our current view of the function of lamellipodia and ruffles in mesenchymal cell migration...
March 7, 2018: Cell Adhesion & Migration
Thomas Kamphausen, Katharina Janßen, Sibylle Banaschak, Markus Alexander Rothschild
From time to time, severe or fatal injuries caused by small caliber air rifle projectiles are seen. In forensic sciences, the theoretical wounding potential of these weapons and projectiles is widely known. Usually, shots against the skull were reported and, in these cases, penetrating the eyes or thin bone layers of the temporal region. Amongst a huge number of different projectiles available for air guns, sub-caliber 4.4-mm (.173) caliber steel ball projectiles were used in an unusual suicide case. This case led to fundamental questions concerning wound ballistics...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Martin Keller, Wolfgang Taube, Benedikt Lauber
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery and actual movements share overlapping activation of brain areas but little is known about task-specific activation of distinct motor pathways during mental simulation of movements. For real contractions, it was demonstrated that the slow(er) motor pathways are activated differently in ballistic compared to tonic contractions but it is unknown if this also holds true for imagined contractions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the activity of fast and slow(er) motor pathways during mentally simulated movements of ballistic and tonic contractions...
February 22, 2018: Brain Stimulation
Ewan Thomas, Antonino Bianco, Antonio Paoli, Antonio Palma
Different stretching strategies and protocols are widely used to improve flexibility or maintain health, acting on the muscle tendon-unit, in order to improve the range of motion (ROM) of the joints. This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature in order to understand the relation between stretching typology and ROM, and secondly to evaluate if a relation exists between stretching volume (either as a single training session, weekly training and weekly frequency) and ROM, after long-term stretching...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Xiu-Lin Huo, Ke-Tao Wang, Xiao-Ying Zhang, Yi-Tian Yang, Fu-Yang Cao, Jing Yang, Wei-Xiu Yuan, Wei-Dong Mi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the medium- and long-term effect of pneumatic ballistic extracorporeal shock wave versus ultrasound-guided hormone injection in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. METHODS: The clinical data were collected from patients with plantar fasciitis admitted to PLA General Hospital pain department from September, 2015 to February, 2017. The patients were randomly divided into ultrasound-guided drug injection group and shock wave group. The therapeutic parameters including the numerical rating scale (NRS) scores in the first step pain in the morning, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Ankle Hindfoot Scale, and thickness of the plantar fascia were monitored before and at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the treatment...
February 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
M N Bergold, H Beeck, D Meininger, C Byhahn
An important challenge in learning ultrasound-assisted interventions, such as pericardiocentesis, is the navigation of the needle in a three-dimensional space on the basis of a two-dimensional image. In order to learn this in vitro realistic simulators are required. We manufactured a model which allows simulation of pericardiocentesis on the basis of ballistic gelatin (12.6%, 250 Bloom). Furthermore, the pericardiocentesis model was subjectively evaluated by 37 anesthetists in a pre-post design. The models used proved to be technically simple to manufacture, hard wearing and realistic...
March 2, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Lehi Sudy Dos Santos, Palloma Vieira Muterlle
Factors influencing effectiveness of automated comparisons, test-fired bullets, and cartridge cases from 0.38 Special revolvers were logged into the Evofinder® Ballistic ID System. Tests were performed as follows: First test correlated test-fires of the same type, second test compared different types of ammunition components, third test replicated the second test in a larger database, and fourth test replicated the third test with students having no previous firearm identification experience. System effectiveness with projectiles in the first test was 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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