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Ronald Werner, Benno Schultz, Britta Bockholdt, Axel Ekkernkamp, Matthias Frank
Amongst hundreds of different projectiles for air guns available on the market, hollow-point air gun pellets are of special interest. These pellets are characterized by a tip or a hollowed-out shape in their tip which, when fired, makes the projectiles expand to an increased diameter upon entering the target medium. This results in an increase in release of energy which, in turn, has the potential to cause more serious injuries than non-hollow-point projectiles. To the best of the authors' knowledge, reliable data on the terminal ballistic features of hollow-point air gun projectiles compared to standard diabolo pellets have not yet been published in the forensic literature...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Fabiano Riva, Wim Kerkhoff, Annabel Bolck, Erwin J A T Mattijssen
The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects...
December 26, 2016: Forensic Science International
Xue-Jun Qiu, Zhen-Zhou Cao, Yan-Fu Cheng, Chaochao Qin
We theoretically study ballistic transport of Dirac fermions in MoS<sub>2</sub> junction through arrays of barriers, of width L , in the presence of a tunable potential of height U and an exchange field h .The charge conductance as functions of U and h , exhibits more conspicuous and sharpened oscillation as the number of barriers increase, due to the contribution of evanescent modes near the edges of the extremum conductance which are exponentially suppressed or enhanced. Furthermore, we found the valley-resolved conductance exhibits a similar oscillating behavior as the charge conductance for multiple barriers, but with inverse oscillatory phases for G<sub>K</sub> and G<sub>K'</sub>, accordingly, a high-efficiency fully valley polarized device is proposed in our system...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Qi Liu, Fangping Ouyang, Zhixiong Yang, Shenglin Peng, Wenzhe Zhou, Hui Zou, Mengqiu Long, Jiangling Pan
Based on density function theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions, we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 NR inplane heterostructure. The effects of channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors (FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors...
January 11, 2017: Nanotechnology
Joseph D Manna, Samantha J Richardson, Mehran F Moghaddam
AIM: Increasing numbers of compounds requiring stability data means highly optimized methods capable of rapid turnaround are desirable during early discovery. Materials and methods/results: An advanced, generic analytical workflow for metabolic stability has been developed that utilizing ballistic gradient LC (sub 1 min run times), exact mass TOF-MS (Waters Xevo-G2-XS Q-TOF) and automated data processing (Waters UNIFI software) allowed for rapid integration and interpretation of all data produced, eliminating the need for method development and manual processing...
January 11, 2017: Bioanalysis
J B Wallace, L B Bayu Aji, A A Martin, S J Shin, L Shao, S O Kucheyev
The formation of stable radiation damage in crystalline solids often proceeds via complex dynamic annealing processes, involving migration and interaction of ballistically-generated point defects. The dominant dynamic annealing processes, however, remain unknown even for crystalline Si. Here, we use a pulsed ion beam method to study defect dynamics in Si bombarded in the temperature range from -20 to 140 °C with 500 keV Ar ions. Results reveal a defect relaxation time constant of ~10-0.2 ms, which decreases monotonically with increasing temperature...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ruben Charlier, Maarten Caspers, Sara Knaeps, Evelien Mertens, Diether Lambrechts, Johan Lefevre, Martine Thomis
Since both muscle mass and strength performance are polygenic in nature, the current study compared four Genetic Predisposition Scores (GPS) in their ability to predict these phenotypes. Data were gathered within the framework of the first generation Flemish Policy Research Centre 'Sport, Physical Activity and Health' (2002-2004). Results are based on muscle characteristics data of 565 Flemish Caucasians (19-73 yr, 365 men). Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) was determined using bioelectrical impedance. The Biodex dynamometer was used to measure isometric (PTstatic120°) and isokinetic strength (PTdynamic60° and PTdynamic240°), ballistic movement speed (S20%) and muscular endurance (Work) of the knee extensors...
December 30, 2016: Physiological Genomics
M Kanász-Nagy, L Glazman, T Esslinger, E A Demler
We analyze the recently measured anomalous transport properties of an ultracold gas through a ballistic constriction [S. Krinner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113, 8144 (2016)]. The quantized conductance observed at weak interactions increases severalfold as the gas is made strongly interacting, which cannot be explained by the Landauer theory of single-channel transport. We show that this phenomenon is due to the multichannel Andreev reflections at the edges of the constriction, where the interaction and confinement result in a superconducting state...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Errol R Hoffmann
The 1-target advantage (OTA) has been found to occur in many circumstances and the current best explanation for this phenomenon is that of the movement integration hypothesis. The author's purpose is twofold: (a) to model the conditions under which there is integration of the movement components in a 2-component movement and (b) to study the factors that determine the magnitude of the OTA for both the first and second component of a 2-component movement. Results indicate that integration of movement components, where times for one component are affected by the geometry of the other component, occurs when 1 of the movement components is made ballistically...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Lingyan Shi, Enrique J Galvez, Robert R Alfano
Photon entanglement, the cornerstone of quantum correlations, provides a level of coherence that is not present in classical correlations. Harnessing it by study of its passage through organic matter may offer new possibilities for medical diagnosis technique. In this work, we study the preservation of photon entanglement in polarization, created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, after one entangled photon propagates through multiphoton-scattering brain tissue slices with different thickness. The Tangle-Entropy (TS) plots show the strong preservation of entanglement of photons propagating in brain tissue...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yaoke Wen, Cheng Xu, Yongxi Jin, R C Batra
The penetration of a rifle bullet into a block of ballistic gelatin is experimentally and computationally studied for enhancing our understanding of the damage caused to human soft tissues. The gelatin is modeled as an isotropic and homogeneous elastic-plastic linearly strain-hardening material that obeys a polynomial equation of state. Effects of numerical uncertainties on penetration characteristics are found by repeating simulations with minute variations in the impact speed and the angle of attack. The temporary cavity formed in the gelatin and seen in pictures taken by two high speed cameras is found to compare well with the computed one...
December 2, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Roman Korol, Michael Kilgour, Dvira Segal
We study the electrical conductance G and the thermopower S of single-molecule junctions and reveal signatures of different transport mechanisms: off-resonant tunneling, on-resonant coherent (ballistic) motion, and multi-step hopping. These mechanisms are identified by studying the behavior of G and S while varying molecular length and temperature. Based on a simple one-dimensional model for molecular junctions, we derive approximate expressions for the thermopower in these different regimes. Analytical results are compared to numerical simulations, performed using a variant of Büttiker's probe technique, the so-called voltage-temperature probe, which allows us to phenomenologically introduce environmentally induced elastic and inelastic electron scattering effects, while applying both voltage and temperature biases across the junction...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Arash Nikoubashman, Andrey Milchev, Kurt Binder
We study the dynamics of a single semiflexible chain in solution using computer simulations, where we systematically investigate the effect of excluded volume, chain stiffness, and hydrodynamic interactions. We achieve excellent agreement with previous theoretical considerations, but find that the crossover from the time τb, up to which free ballistic motion of the monomers describes the chain dynamics, to the times W(-1) or τ0, where anomalous monomer diffusion described by Rouse-type and Zimm-type models sets in, requires two decades of time...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
K Huang, S Eley, P F S Rosa, L Civale, E D Bauer, R E Baumbach, M B Maple, M Janoschek
The Belitz-Kirkpatrick-Vojta (BKV) theory shows in excellent agreement with experiment that ferromagnetic quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in clean metals are generally first order due to the coupling of the magnetization to electronic soft modes, in contrast to the classical analogue that is an archetypical second-order phase transition. For disordered metals the BKV theory predicts that the second-order nature of the QPT is restored because the electronic soft modes change their nature from ballistic to diffusive...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
I V Borzenets, F Amet, C T Ke, A W Draelos, M T Wei, A Seredinski, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, Y Bomze, M Yamamoto, S Tarucha, G Finkelstein
We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Irene Calvo-Almazán, Marco Sacchi, Anton Tamtögl, Emanuel Bahn, Marek M Koza, Salvador Miret-Artés, Peter Fouquet
This work presents an experimental picture of molecular ballistic diffusion on a surface, a process that is difficult to pinpoint because it generally occurs on very short length scales. By combining neutron time-of-flight data with molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations, we provide a complete description of the ballistic translations and rotations of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) adsorbed on the basal plane of graphite. Pyrene, C16H10, adsorbed on graphite is a unique system, where at relative surface coverages of about 10-20% its mean free path matches the experimentally accessible time/space scale of neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy (IN6 at the Institut Laue-Langevin)...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Adrián A Budini
We introduce a class of discrete random-walk model driven by global memory effects. At any time, the right-left transitions depend on the whole previous history of the walker, being defined by an urnlike memory mechanism. The characteristic function is calculated in an exact way, which allows us to demonstrate that the ensemble of realizations is ballistic. Asymptotically, each realization is equivalent to that of a biased Markovian diffusion process with transition rates that strongly differs from one trajectory to another...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Clevin Handschin, Péter Makk, Peter Rickhaus, Ming-Hao Liu, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, Klaus Richter, Christian Schönenberger
While Fabry-Pérot (FP) resonances and Moiré superlattices are intensively studied in graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), the two effects have not been discussed in their coexistence. Here we investigate the FP oscillations in a ballistic pnp-junctions in the presence and absence of a Moiré superlattice. First, we address the effect of the smoothness of the confining potential on the visibility of the FP resonances and carefully map the evolution of the FP cavity size as a function of densities inside and outside the cavity in the absence of a superlattice, when the cavity is bound by regular pn-junctions...
December 16, 2016: Nano Letters
Qi Liu, Fangping OuYang, Zhixiong Yang, Shenglin Peng, Wenzhe Zhou, Hui Zou, Mengqiu Long, Jiangling Pan
Based on density function theory(DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions(NEGF), we construct a NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 nanoribbon inplane heterostructure. The effects of the channel length, width, chirality and vacancy of the heterostructure on the transport properties are systematically investigated. The electron transport of the armchair-edge heterostructure device shows ballistic transport properties, while the zigzag-edge heterostructure device exhibits resonance tunneling transport properties. Further study indicates the NbS2-MoS2-NbS2 field effect transistors(FETs) to be excellent ambipolar transistors...
December 13, 2016: Nanotechnology
Alberto Amadasi, Debora Mazzarelli, Daniele Merli, Alberto Brandone, Cristina Cattaneo
The presence of "chipping" or "flaking" around the edges of gunshot entry wounds has been described among the characteristics of gunshot wounds in bone. In this study, the real frequency of such a peculiar feature was investigated. The presence of "chipping" was assessed on 22 gunshot wounds fired at a near-contact range on bovine ribs with 9-mm bullets. As controls, five samples were shot with a 3 cm range, and five from 40 cm. In 77% of cases shot at near-contact range, a detachment of small fragments of the upper layers of bone was detected, mainly with a circumferential disposition, whereas this feature was lacking in control samples...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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