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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328707/second-sound-in-systems-of-one-dimensional-fermions
#1
K A Matveev, A V Andreev
We study sound in Galilean invariant systems of one-dimensional fermions. At low temperatures, we find a broad range of frequencies in which in addition to the waves of density there is a second sound corresponding to the ballistic propagation of heat in the system. The damping of the second sound mode is weak, provided the frequency is large compared to a relaxation rate that is exponentially small at low temperatures. At lower frequencies, the second sound mode is damped, and the propagation of heat is diffusive...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327268/serum-thiol-levels-and-thiol-disulphide-homeostasis-in-gunshot-injuries
#2
Hasan Buyukaslan, Umut Gulacti, Mehmet Tahir Gökdemir, Ramazan Giden, Hakim Celik, Özcan Erel, Erman Mustafa Dörterler
BACKGROUND: Gunshot injuries result in serious traumatic tissue damage due to high velocity of the bullet, deep penetration, and ballistic effect. Trauma is known to be related with oxidative stress. Serum thiol levels and disulphide/thiol homeostasis are novel oxidative stress biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum thiol levels and disulphide/thiol homeostasis in injury patterns of patients admitted to the emergency department with a gunshot injury. METHOD: A total of 128 participants were included in the study...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315840/ballistic-jumping-drops-on-superhydrophobic-surfaces-via-electrostatic-manipulation
#3
Ning Li, Lei Wu, Cunlong Yu, Haoyu Dai, Ting Wang, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang
The ballistic ejection of liquid drops by electrostatic manipulating has both fundamental and practical implications, from raindrops in thunderclouds to self-cleaning, anti-icing, condensation, and heat transfer enhancements. In this paper, the ballistic jumping behavior of liquid drops from a superhydrophobic surface is investigated. Powered by the repulsion of the same kind of charges, water drops can jump from the surface. The electrostatic acting time for the jumping of a microliter supercooled drop only takes several milliseconds, even shorter than the time for icing...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314859/extreme-mechanical-behavior-of-nacre-mimetic-graphene-oxide-and-silk-nanocomposites
#4
Wanting Xie, Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Sang Hyun Park, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Qisheng Jiang, Srikanth Singamaneni, Jae-Hwang Lee
Biological materials have the ability to withstand mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a micro-scale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 µm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314709/a-frequency-domain-non-contact-photoacoustic-microscope-based-on-an-adaptive-interferometer
#5
Deepu George, Harriet Lloyd, Ronald H Silverman, Parag V Chitnis
A frequency-domain, non-contact approach to photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) that employs amplitude-modulated (0.1-1 MHz) laser for excitation (638-nm pump) in conjunction with a two-wave mixing interferometer (532-nm probe) for non-contact detection of photoacoustic waves at the specimen surface is presented. A lock-in amplifier is employed to detect the photoacoustic signal. Illustrative images of tissue-mimicking phantoms, red-blood cells, and retinal vasculature are presented. Single-frequency modulation of the pump beam directly provides an image that is equivalent to the two-dimensional projection of the image volume...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288648/what-factors-necessitate-removal-of-retained-ballistic-fragments-in-the-head-and-neck
#6
John Vorrasi, Ryan Calvi, Mengxi Lv, Richard Hammond
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of retained ballistic fragment (RBF) removal and to identify factors associated with an increased risk for RBF removal. To date, there are no studies focused on identifying factors associated with removal of RBFs localized to the maxillofacial region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, the authors enrolled a sample composed of patients with RBFs localized to the maxillofacial region...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281133/the-impact-of-strength-level-on-adaptations-to-combined-weightlifting-plyometric-and-ballistic-training
#7
Lachlan P James, G Gregory Haff, Vincent G Kelly, Mark Connick, Ben Hoffman, Emma M Beckman
The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the magnitude of adaptation to integrated ballistic training is influenced by initial strength level. Such information is needed to inform resistance training guidelines for both higher- and lower-level athlete populations. To this end, two groups of distinctly different strength levels (stronger: one-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat = 2.01 ± 0.15 kg. BM-1 ; weaker: 1.20 ± 0.20 kg. BM-1 ) completed 10 weeks of resistance training incorporating weightlifting derivatives, plyometric actions and ballistic exercises...
December 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279322/assessment-of-bullet-effectiveness-based-on-a-human-vulnerability-model
#8
Susu Liu, C Xu, Y Wen, G Li, J Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Penetrating wounds from explosively propelled fragments and bullets are the most common causes of combat injury. There is a requirement to assess the potential effectiveness of bullets penetrating human tissues in order to optimise preventive measures and wound trauma management. METHODS: An advanced voxel model based on the Chinese Visible Human data was built. A digital human vulnerability model was established in combination with wound reconstruction and vulnerability assessment rules, in which wound penetration profiles were obtained by recreating the penetration of projectiles into ballistic gelatin...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278822/slight-variations-of-breech-face-marks-and-firing-pin-impressions-over-3070-consecutive-firings-evaluated-by-evofinder%C3%A2
#9
Kaifeng Zhang, Yaping Luo
To investigate if and how the breech face mark and firing pin impression change over repeated firings, we used an automated ballistic identification system Evofinder® to study cartridge cases fired from five Chinese Norinco QSZ-92 9×19mm pistols. Each pistol fired 3070 consecutive shots. The first 20 cartridge cases were all introduced into the system. From the 21st until the 3070th shot, every ten cartridge cases were collected and one random sample of each group was introduced as the 30th, 40th, …, 3070th round...
December 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260242/-update-on-gunshot-wounds-to-extremities
#10
F von Lübken, G Achatz, B Friemert, M Mauser, A Franke, E Kollig, D Bieler
Due to recent rampage and terror attacks in Europe, gunshot wounds have become a focus of attention even though they are still rare in Europe. Approximately 50% of gunshot wounds affect the extremities and to understand the sequelae, a basic knowledge of wound ballistics is indispensable. The energy transmitted from the bullet to the tissue is responsible for the severity of the injury and is dependent on the type of weapon and ammunition. A differentiation is made between low-energy injuries caused, e.g...
December 19, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230191/the-reticulospinal-pathway-does-not-increase-its-contribution-to-the-strength-of-contralesional-muscles-in-stroke-survivors-as-compared-to-ipsilesional-side-or-healthy-controls
#11
Sheng Li, Minal Bhadane, Fan Gao, Ping Zhou
Objective: Startling acoustic stimulation (SAS), via activation of reticulospinal (RS) pathways, has shown to increase muscle strength in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that, given RS hyperexcitability in stroke survivors, SAS could increase muscle strength in stroke survivors. The objective was to quantify the effect of SAS on maximal and sub-maximal voluntary elbow flexion on the contralesional (impaired) side in stroke survivors as compared to ipsilesional (non-impaired) side and healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223884/chronic-effect-of-different-types-of-stretching-on-ankle-dorsiflexion-range-of-motion-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Diulian Muniz Medeiros, Tamara Fenner Martini
The calf muscles are one of the muscle groups that have the most need for adequate flexibility since they are deeply related to normal lower limb function. When the goal is to increase flexibility, the most commonly used technique is stretching. However, it remains unknown which stretching technique and parameters are the most effective to increase flexibility. Hence, the aim of the current review was to investigate the influence of chronic stretching on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) of healthy individuals...
October 27, 2017: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222407/ballistic-geometric-resistance-resonances-in-a-single-surface-of-a-topological-insulator
#13
Hubert Maier, Johannes Ziegler, Ralf Fischer, Dmitriy Kozlov, Ze Don Kvon, Nikolay Mikhailov, Sergey A Dvoretsky, Dieter Weiss
Transport in topological matter has shown a variety of novel phenomena over the past decade. Although numerous transport studies have been conducted on three-dimensional topological insulators (TIs), study of ballistic motion and thus exploration of potential landscapes on a hundred nanometer scale is for the prevalent TI materials almost impossible due to their low carrier mobility. Therefore, it is unknown whether helical Dirac electrons in TIs, bound to interfaces between topologically distinct materials, can be manipulated on the nanometer scale by local gates or locally etched regions...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219474/zero-energy-modes-from-coalescing-andreev-states-in-a-two-dimensional-semiconductor-superconductor-hybrid-platform
#14
H J Suominen, M Kjaergaard, A R Hamilton, J Shabani, C J Palmstrøm, C M Marcus, F Nichele
We investigate zero-bias conductance peaks that arise from coalescing subgap Andreev states, consistent with emerging Majorana zero modes, in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor wires defined in a two-dimensional InAs/Al heterostructure using top-down lithography and gating. The measurements indicate a hard superconducting gap, ballistic tunneling contact, and in-plane critical fields up to 3 T. Top-down lithography allows complex geometries, branched structures, and straightforward scaling to multicomponent devices compared to structures made from assembled nanowires...
October 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217625/reducing-gravity-takes-the-bounce-out-of-running
#15
Delyle T Polet, Ryan T Schroeder, John E A Bertram
In gravity below Earth normal, a person should be able to take higher leaps in running. We asked ten subjects to run on a treadmill in five levels of simulated reduced gravity and optically tracked center of mass kinematics. Subjects consistently reduced ballistic height compared to running in normal gravity. We explain this trend by considering the vertical takeoff velocity (defined as maximum vertical velocity). Energetically optimal gaits should balance energetic costs of ground-contact collisions (favouring lower takeoff velocity), and step frequency penalties such as leg swing work (favouring higher takeoff velocity, but less so in reduced gravity)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216432/mapping-the-coulomb-environment-in-interference-quenched-ballistic-nanowires
#16
David Gutstein, David Lynall, Selvakumar V Nair, Igor Savelyev, Marina Blumin, Daniele Ercolani, Harry E Ruda
The conductance of semiconductor nanowires is strongly dependent on their electrostatic history because of the overwhelming influence of charged surface and interface states on electron confinement and scattering. We show that InAs nanowire field-effect transistor devices can be conditioned to suppress resonances that obscure quantized conduction thereby revealing as many as six sub-bands in the conductance spectra as the Fermi-level is swept across the sub-band energies. The energy level spectra extracted from conductance, coupled with detailed modelling shows the significance of the interface state charge distribution revealing the Coulomb landscape of the nanowire device...
December 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215898/significantly-high-thermal-rectification-in-an-asymmetric-polymer-molecule-driven-by-diffusive-versus-ballistic-transport
#17
Hao Ma, Zhiting Tian
Tapered bottlebrush polymers have novel nanoscale polymer architecture. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that these polymers have the unique ability to generate thermal rectification in a single polymer molecule and offer an exceptional platform for unveiling different heat conduction regimes. In sharp contrast to all other reported asymmetric nanostructures, we observed that the heat current from the wide end to the narrow end in tapered bottlebrush polymers is smaller than that in the opposite direction...
December 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213338/particle-therapy-and-nanomedicine-state-of-art-and-research-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Sandrine Lacombe, Erika Porcel, Emanuele Scifoni
Cancer radiation therapy with charged particle beams, called particle therapy, is a new therapeutic treatment presenting major advantages when compared to conventional radiotherapy. Because ions have specific ballistic properties and a higher biological effectiveness, they are superior to x-rays. Numerous medical centres are starting in the world using mostly protons but also carbon ions as medical beams. Several investigations are attempting to reduce the cost/benefit ratio and enlarge the range of therapeutic indications...
2017: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212552/validity-and-reliability-of-simple-measurement-device-to-assess-the-velocity-of-the-barbell-during-squats
#19
Silvio Lorenzetti, Thomas Lamparter, Fabian Lüthy
OBJECTIVES: The velocity of a barbell can provide important insights on the performance of athletes during strength training. The aim of this work was to assess the validity and reliably of four simple measurement devices that were compared to 3D motion capture measurements during squatting. Nine participants were assessed when performing 2 × 5 traditional squats with a weight of 70% of the 1 repetition maximum and ballistic squats with a weight of 25 kg. Simultaneously, data was recorded from three linear position transducers (T-FORCE, Tendo Power and GymAware), an accelerometer based system (Myotest) and a 3D motion capture system (Vicon) as the Gold Standard...
December 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207241/quantum-wires-and-waveguides-formed-in-graphene-by-strain
#20
Yong Wu, Dawei Zhai, Cheng Pan, Bin Cheng, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Nancy Sandler, Marc Bockrath
Confinement of electrons in graphene to make devices has proven to be a challenging task. Electrostatic methods fail because of Klein tunneling, while etching into nanoribbons requires extreme control of edge terminations, and bottom-up approaches are limited in size to a few nm. Fortunately, its mechanical flexibility raises the possibility of using strain to alter graphene's properties and create novel straintronic devices. Here, we report transport studies of nanowires created by linearly-shaped strained regions resulting from individual folds formed by layer transfer onto hexagonal boron nitride...
December 5, 2017: Nano Letters
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