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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908175/spatio-energetic-cross-talk-in-photon-counting-detectors-detector-model-and-correlated-poisson-data-generator
#1
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Christoph Polster, Okkyun Lee, Karl Stierstorfer, Steffen Kappler
PURPOSE: An x-ray photon interacts with photon counting detectors (PCDs) and generates an electron charge cloud or multiple clouds. The clouds (thus, the photon energy) may be split between two adjacent PCD pixels when the interaction occurs near pixel boundaries, producing a count at both of the pixels. This is called double-counting with charge sharing. (A photoelectric effect with K-shell fluorescence x-ray emission would result in double-counting as well). As a result, PCD data are spatially and energetically correlated, although the output of individual PCD pixels is Poisson distributed...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908125/a-h%C3%A3-ckel-source-sink-potential-theory-of-pauli-spin-blockade-in-molecular-electronic-devices
#2
Barry T Pickup, Patrick W Fowler, Irene Sciriha
This paper shows how to include Pauli (exclusion principle) effects within a treatment of ballistic molecular conduction that uses the tight-binding Hückel Hamiltonian and the source-sink-potential (SSP) method. We take into account the many-electron ground-state of the molecule and show that we can discuss ballistic conduction for a specific molecular device in terms of four structural polynomials. In the standard one-electron picture, these are characteristic polynomials of vertex-deleted graphs, with spectral representations in terms of molecular-orbital eigenvectors and eigenvalues...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890098/ballistics-and-anatomical-modelling-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Caitlin Humphrey, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Ballistics is the study of a projectiles motion and can be broken down into four stages: internal, intermediate, external and terminal ballistics. The study of the effects a projectile has on a living tissue is referred to as wound ballistics and falls within terminal ballistics. To understand the effects a projectile has on living tissues the mechanisms of wounding need to be understood. These include the permanent and temporary cavities, energy, yawing, tumbling and fragmenting. Much ballistics research has been conducted including using cadavers, animal models and simulants such as ballistics ordnance gelatine...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890096/entrance-and-exit-wounds-of-high-velocity-bullet-an-autopsy-analysis-in-the-event-of-dispersing-the-mass-rally-in-bangkok-thailand-may-2010
#4
Vichan Peonim, Smith Srisont, Jitta Udnoon, Sompong Wongwichai, Arisa Thapon, Wisarn Worasuwannarak
Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket...
November 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882264/observation-of-strong-reflection-of-electron-waves-exiting-a-ballistic-channel-at-low-energy
#5
Canute I Vaz, Changze Liu, Jason P Campbell, Jason T Ryan, Richard G Southwick, David Gundlach, Anthony S Oates, Ru Huang, Kin P Cheung
Wave scattering by a potential step is a ubiquitous concept. Thus, it is surprising that theoretical treatments of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices, from quantum point contacts to ballistic transistors, assume no reflection even when the potential step is encountered upon exiting the device. Experiments so far seem to support this even if it is not clear why. Here we report clear evidence of coherent reflection when electron wave exits the channel of a nanoscale transistor and when the electron energy is low...
June 2016: AIP Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869284/phase-separation-and-coexistence-of-hydrodynamically-interacting-microswimmers
#6
Johannes Blaschke, Maurice Maurer, Karthik Menon, Andreas Zöttl, Holger Stark
A striking feature of the collective behavior of spherical microswimmers is that for sufficiently strong self-propulsion they phase-separate into a dense cluster coexisting with a low-density disordered surrounding. Extending our previous work, we use the squirmer as a model swimmer and the particle-based simulation method of multi-particle collision dynamics to explore the influence of hydrodynamics on their phase behavior in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry. The coarsening dynamics towards the phase-separated state is diffusive in an intermediate time regime followed by a final ballistic compactification of the dense cluster...
November 21, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867851/percutaneous-endoscopic-treatment-for-urinary-stones-in-pediatric-patients-where-we-are-now
#7
Paolo Caione, Giuseppe Collura, Michele Innocenzi, Mauro De Dominicis, Simona Gerocarni Nappo, Nicola Capozza
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been adopted for pyelo-calyceal stones treatment in pediatric patients, starting from the 90's. Very recently, miniaturization of endoscopic instruments allowed less invasive procedures with low complication rate. We reviewed our experience on upper tract stone treatment utilizing two different percutaneous accesses, focusing on the recent new miniaturized devices offered for pediatric renal stones. METHODS: Patients presenting upper tract urinary stones observed from January 2011 to December 2015 and treated by percutaneous renal access were prospectively evaluated: age, sex, metabolic issues, associated abnormalities, treatment modalities, hospital stay and complication rate were recorded in a specific database...
October 2016: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862051/comparison-of-the-ballistic-contractile-responses-generated-during-microstimulation-of-single-human-motor-axons-with-brief-irregular-and-regular-stimuli
#8
Michael Leitch, Vaughan G Macefield
INTRODUCTION: Ballistic contractions are induced by brief, high frequency (60-100 Hz) trains of action potentials in motor axons. During ramp voluntary contractions, human motoneurones exhibit significant discharge variability of ∼20% and have shown to be advantageous to the neuromuscular system. We hypothesized that ballistic contractions incorporating discharge variability generate greater isometric forces than regular trains with zero variability. METHODS: High impedance tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the fibular nerve, and single motor axons were stimulated with both irregular and constant-frequency stimuli at mean frequencies ranging from 57...
November 11, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859663/organic-spin-valves-and-beyond-spin-injection-and-transport-in-organic-semiconductors-and-the-effect-of-interfacial-engineering
#9
Hyuk-Jae Jang, Curt A Richter
Since the first observation of the spin-valve effect through organic semiconductors, efforts to realize novel spintronic technologies based on organic semiconductors have been rapidly growing. However, a complete understanding of spin-polarized carrier injection and transport in organic semiconductors is still lacking and under debate. For example, there is still no clear understanding of major spin-flip mechanisms in organic semiconductors and the role of hybrid metal-organic interfaces in spin injection. Recent findings suggest that organic single crystals can provide spin-transport media with much less structural disorder relative to organic thin films, thus reducing momentum scattering...
November 15, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855566/experimental-investigation-of-cavitation-as-a-possible-damage-mechanism-in-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-in-post-mortem-human-subject-heads
#10
Robert S Salzar, Derrick Treichler, Andrew Wardlaw, Greg Weiss, Jacques Goeller
The potential of blast induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebral spinal fluid is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced TBI injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post mortem human surrogate cephali were replaced with both a normal saline solution, and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851668/instability-resistance-training-improves-neuromuscular-outcome-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Carla Silva-Batista, Daniel Montie Corcos, Renato Barroso, Fabian J David, Hélcio Kanegusuku, Cláudia Forjaz, Marco Túlio de Mello, Hamilton Roschel, Valmor Tricoli, Carlos Ugrinowitsch
PURPOSE: This study compared the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance training with instability (RTI) on neuromuscular and total training volume (TTV) outcomes obtained as part of the Instability Resistance Training Trial in Parkinson's disease (IRRT-PD). It also used a linear multiple regression (forward stepwise method) to identify the contribution of neuromuscular outcomes to previously published improvements in the timed-up-and-go-test and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, motor subscale score (UPDRS-III)...
November 16, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849013/run-and-pause-dynamics-of-cytoskeletal-motor-proteins
#12
Anne E Hafner, Ludger Santen, Heiko Rieger, M Reza Shaebani
Cytoskeletal motor proteins are involved in major intracellular transport processes which are vital for maintaining appropriate cellular function. When attached to cytoskeletal filaments, the motor exhibits distinct states of motility: active motion along the filaments, and pause phase in which it remains stationary for a finite time interval. The transition probabilities between motion and pause phases are asymmetric in general, and considerably affected by changes in environmental conditions which influences the efficiency of cargo delivery to specific targets...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847864/smart-optical-coherence-tomography-for-ultra-deep-imaging-through-highly-scattering-media
#13
Amaury Badon, Dayan Li, Geoffroy Lerosey, A Claude Boccara, Mathias Fink, Alexandre Aubry
Multiple scattering of waves in disordered media is a nightmare whether it is for detection or imaging purposes. So far, the best approach to get rid of multiple scattering is optical coherence tomography. This basically combines confocal microscopy and coherence time gating to discriminate ballistic photons from a predominant multiple scattering background. Nevertheless, the imaging-depth range remains limited to 1 mm at best in human soft tissues because of aberrations and multiple scattering. We propose a matrix approach of optical imaging to push back this fundamental limit...
November 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847693/comparison-of-spinal-needle-deflection-in-a-ballistic-gel-model
#14
Ethan Rand, George Christolias, Christopher Visco, Jaspal R Singh
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study...
October 2016: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845936/spatial-organization-of-the-cytoskeleton-enhances-cargo-delivery-to-specific-target-areas-on-the-plasma-membrane-of-spherical-cells
#15
Anne E Hafner, Heiko Rieger
Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations...
November 15, 2016: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836236/optimising-ballistic-facial-coverage-from-military-fragmenting-munitions-a-consensus-statement
#16
J Breeze, D C Tong, D Powers, N A Martin, A M Monaghan, D Evriviades, J Combes, G Lawton, C Taylor, A Kay, J Baden, B Reed, N MacKenzie, A J Gibbons, S Heppell, R F Rickard
VIRTUS is the first United Kingdom (UK) military personal armour system to provide components that are capable of protecting the whole face from low velocity ballistic projectiles. Protection is modular, using a helmet worn with ballistic eyewear, a visor, and a mandibular guard. When all four components are worn together the face is completely covered, but the heat, discomfort, and weight may not be optimal in all types of combat. We organized a Delphi consensus group analysis with 29 military consultant surgeons from the UK, United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to identify a potential hierarchy of functional facial units in order of importance that require protection...
November 8, 2016: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829718/a-rare-case-of-movement-disorder-in-intensive-care-unit
#17
Vikas Sikri, Alok Jain, Vinay Singhal, Amit Gupta
Hemichorea-hemiballismus syndrome (HCHB represents a peculiar form of hyperkinetic movement disorder with varying degrees of chorea and/or ballistic movements on one side of body. The patients are conscious of their environment but unable to control the movements. HCHB is a rare occurrence in acute stroke patients. Patients with sub-cortical strokes are more prone to develop movement disorders than with cortical stroke. We report one such interesting case here posing difficulties in management and intensive care of the patient...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826947/spatial-partitions-systematize-visual-search-and-enhance-target-memory
#18
Grayden J F Solman, Alan Kingstone
Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations...
November 8, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811195/injury-representation-against-ballistic-threats-using-three-novel-numerical-models
#19
Johno Breeze, R Fryer, D Pope, J Clasper
Injury modelling of ballistic threats is a valuable tool for informing policy on personal protective equipment and other injury mitigation methods. Currently, the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) are focusing on the development of three interlinking numerical models, each of a different fidelity, to answer specific questions on current threats. High-fidelity models simulate the physical events most realistically, and will be used in the future to test the medical effectiveness of personal armour systems...
November 3, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787896/comparative-evaluation-of-potentially-radiolucent-projectile-components-by-radiographs-and-computed-tomography
#20
Catherine R Miller, Michael Haag, Chandra Gerrard, Gary M Hatch, Jamie Elifritz, Michael C Simmons, Sarah Lathrop, Kurt B Nolte
Projectile components that are traditionally radiolucent can be of considerable importance in determination of weapon type and caliber, but they are often missed on evaluation of postmortem radiographs. We hypothesized that these components would be significantly better visualized by evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans compared to the practice standard of radiography alone. In this project, potentially radiolucent projectile components were both pulled apart and fired, and the radiolucent components were recovered...
November 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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