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Sebastian Woloszczuk, Mohammad O Tuhin, Soumya R Gade, Melissa A Pasquinelli, Michal Banaszak, Richard J Spontak
In the presence of a midblock-selective solvent, triblock copolymers not only self-organize but also form a molecular network. Thermoplastic elastomer gels constitute examples of such materials and serve as sealants and adhesives, as well as ballistic, microfluidic, and electroactive media. We perform Monte Carlo and dissipative particle dynamics simulations to investigate the phase behavior and network characteristics of these materials. Of particular interest is the existence of a truncated octahedral morphology that resembles the atomic arrangement of various inorganic species...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Stefano Signetti, Simone Taioli, Nicola M Pugno
We study the ballistic properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials upon the hypervelocity impacts of C60 fullerene molecules combining ab initio density functional tight binding and finite element simulations. The critical penetration energy of monolayer membranes is determined using graphene and the 2D allotrope of boron nitride as case studies. Furthermore, the energy absorption scaling laws with a variable number of layers and interlayer spacing are investigated, for homogeneous or hybrid configurations (alternated stacking of graphene and boron nitride)...
November 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Joon Sang Kang, Huan Wu, Yongjie Hu
Heat dissipation is an increasingly critical technological challenge in modern electronics and photonics as devices continue to shrink to the nanoscale. To address this challenge, high thermal conductivity materials that can efficiently dissipate heat from hot spots and improve device performance are urgently needed. Boron phosphide is a unique high thermal conductivity and refractory material with exceptional chemical inertness, hardness, and high thermal stability, which holds high promises for many practical applications...
November 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Vitaly A Kuzkin, Anton M Krivtsov
An approach for analytical description of thermal processes in harmonic lattices is presented. We cover longitudinal and transverse vibrations of chains and out-of-plane vibrations of two-dimensional lattices with interactions of an arbitrary number of neighbors. Motion of each particle is governed by a single scalar equation and therefore the notion ``scalar lattice'' is used. Evolution of initial temperature field in an infinite lattice is investigated. An exact equation describing the evolution is derived...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Keigo Otsuka, Taiki Inoue, Etsuo Maeda, Reo Kometani, Shohei Chiashi, Shigeo Maruyama
Ballistic transport and sub-10 nm channel lengths have been achieved in transistors containing one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). To fill the gap between single-tube transistors and high-performance logic circuits for the replacement of silicon, large-area, high-density, and purely semiconducting (s-) SWNT arrays are highly desired. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of multiple transistors along a purely semiconducting SWNT array via an on-chip purification method. Water- and polymer-assisted burning from site-controlled nanogaps is developed for the reliable full-length removal of metallic SWNTs with the damage to s-SWNTs minimized even in high-density arrays...
November 13, 2017: ACS Nano
Markus Stock, Dietmar Georg, Alexander Ableitinger, Andrea Zechner, Alexander Utz, Marta Mumot, Gabriele Kragl, Johannes Hopfgartner, Joanna Gora, Till Böhlen, Loïc Grevillot, Peter Kuess, Phil Steininger, Heinz Deutschmann, Stanislav Vatnitsky
The ratio of patients who need a treatment adaptation due to anatomical variations at least once during the treatment course is significantly higher in light ion beam therapy (LIBT) than in photon therapy. The ballistic behaviour of ion beams makes them more sensitive to changes. Hence, the delivery of LIBT has always been supported by state of art image guidance. On the contrary CBCT technology was adapted for LIBT quite late. Adaptive concepts are being implemented more frequently in photon therapy and also efficient workflows are needed for LIBT...
October 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Benoit Tallon, Thomas Brunet, John H Page
The strong impact of scattering resonances on all the key transport parameters of classical waves in disordered media is demonstrated through ultrasonic experiments on monodisperse emulsions. Through accurate measurements of both ballistic and diffusive transport over a wide range of frequencies, we show that the group velocity is large near sharp resonances, whereas the energy velocity (as well as the diffusion coefficient) is significantly slowed down by resonant scattering delay. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found, elucidating the effects of resonant scattering on wave transport in both acoustics and optics...
October 20, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Patrick W Fowler, Irene Sciriha, Martha Borg, Victoria E Seville, Barry T Pickup
Within the source-and-sink-potential model, a complete characterisation is obtained for the conduction behaviour of alternant π-conjugated hydrocarbons (conjugated hydrocarbons without odd cycles). In this model, an omni-conductor has a molecular graph that conducts at the Fermi level irrespective of the choice of connection vertices. Likewise, an omni-insulator is a molecular graph that fails to conduct for any choice of connections. We give a comprehensive classification of possible combinations of omni-conducting and omni-insulating behaviour for molecular graphs, ranked by nullity (number of non-bonding orbitals)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
G J Appleby-Thomas, B Fitzmaurice, A Hameed, J Painter, M Gibson, D C Wood, R Hazael, P J Hazell
Tissue analogues employed for ballistic purposes are often monolithic in nature, e.g. ballistic gelatin and soap, etc. However, such constructs are not representative of real-world biological systems. Further, ethical considerations limit the ability to test with real-world tissues. This means that availability and understanding of accurate tissue simulants is of key importance. Here, the shock response of a wide range of ballistic simulants (ranging from dermal (protective/bulk) through to skeletal simulant materials) determined via plate-impact experiments are discussed, with a particular focus on the classification of the behaviour of differing simulants into groups that exhibit a similar response under high strain-rate loading...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Lech Gmachowski
Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions...
November 2, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Teodora Zecheru, Alexandru Dena, Marius Cîrmaci, Ciprian Său, Cătălin Zaharia, Claudiu Lăzăroaie
Ballistic gelatin as simulant of the human body and organs is a support in forensics. After having obtained very good results for a new gelatin-based composite in terms of physicochemical and rheological properties, this study focused on this material's mechanical behavior during stabbing and shooting versus bovine and porcine organs and standard ballistic gelatin. The hybrid gelatin has a predominantly elastic behavior at 23°C, whereas the elastic modulus becomes practically constant in the 10-0.1 Hz frequency range...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lucas de Paula Oliveira, Luiz Henrique Palucci Vieira, Rodrigo Aquino, João Paulo Vieira Manechini, Paulo Roberto Pereira Santiago, Enrico Fuini Puggina
The aim of the present study was to compare the acute effects of active (AC), ballistic (BA), passive (PA), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (PNF) methods on performance in vertical jumping, sit and reach, and sprinting in young soccer players. Twelve trained soccer players (17.67 ± 0.87 years) participated in the study. The jump height (H), peak power (PP), and relative power (RP) in the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ), the range of motion (ROM), the rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and time (s) in 10-20-30 m sprints were evaluated...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Keith B Morris, Eric F Law, Roger L Jefferys, Elizabeth C Dearth, Emily B Fabyanic
Through analysis and comparison of firing pin, breech face, and ejector impressions, where appropriate, firearm examiners may connect a cartridge case to a suspect firearm with a certain likelihood in a criminal investigation. When a firearm is not present, an examiner may use the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS(®)), an automated search and retrieval system coupled with the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN), a database of images showing the markings on fired cartridge cases and bullets from crime scenes along with test fired firearms...
October 14, 2017: Forensic Science International
Tibor Hortobágyi, Adinda Mieras, John Rothwell, Miguel Fernandez Del Olmo
PURPOSE: Aging is associated with slow reactive movement generation and poor termination. OBJECTIVE: We examined the hypothesis that the build-up of excitability in the primary motor cortex in the agonist muscle to generate ballistic wrist flexion and extension and in the antagonist to stop the movement, is lower and slower in old compared with young adults. METHODS: We measured the size of the motor potentials evoked (MEP) produced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), background integrated EMG (iEMG), and the MEP:iEMG ratio in healthy young (23 y, n = 14) and old adults' (73 y, n = 14) wrist flexors and extensors as they rapidly flexed or extended the wrist in response to an auditory cue...
2017: PloS One
Giorgio Volpe, Giovanni Volpe
In environments with scarce resources, adopting the right search strategy can make the difference between succeeding and failing, even between life and death. At different scales, this applies to molecular encounters in the cell cytoplasm, to animals looking for food or mates in natural landscapes, to rescuers during search and rescue operations in disaster zones, and to genetic computer algorithms exploring parameter spaces. When looking for sparse targets in a homogeneous environment, a combination of ballistic and diffusive steps is considered optimal; in particular, more ballistic Lévy flights with exponent [Formula: see text] are generally believed to optimize the search process...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C E Wehrenberg, D McGonegle, C Bolme, A Higginbotham, A Lazicki, H J Lee, B Nagler, H-S Park, B A Remington, R E Rudd, M Sliwa, M Suggit, D Swift, F Tavella, L Zepeda-Ruiz, J S Wark
Pressure-driven shock waves in solid materials can cause extreme damage and deformation. Understanding this deformation and the associated defects that are created in the material is crucial in the study of a wide range of phenomena, including planetary formation and asteroid impact sites, the formation of interstellar dust clouds, ballistic penetrators, spacecraft shielding and ductility in high-performance ceramics. At the lattice level, the basic mechanisms of plastic deformation are twinning (whereby crystallites with a mirror-image lattice form) and slip (whereby lattice dislocations are generated and move), but determining which of these mechanisms is active during deformation is challenging...
October 25, 2017: Nature
Jules Opplert, Nicolas Babault
Stretching has long been used in many physical activities to increase range of motion (ROM) around a joint. Stretching also has other acute effects on the neuromuscular system. For instance, significant reductions in maximal voluntary strength, muscle power or evoked contractile properties have been recorded immediately after a single bout of static stretching, raising interest in other stretching modalities. Thus, the effects of dynamic stretching on subsequent muscular performance have been questioned. This review aimed to investigate performance and physiological alterations following dynamic stretching...
October 23, 2017: Sports Medicine
Johnny Padulo, Gian Mario Migliaccio, Luca Paolo Ardigò, Bruno Leban, Marco Cosso, Pierre Samozino
The aim was to compare lower-limb power, force, and velocity capabilities between squat and leg press movements. Ten healthy sportsmen performed ballistic lower-limb push-offs against 5-to-12 different loads during both the squat and leg press. Individual linear force-velocity and polynomial power-velocity relationships were determined for both movements from push-off mean force and velocity measured continuously with a pressure sensor and linear encoder. Maximal power output, theoretical maximal force and velocity, force-velocity profile and optimal velocity were computed...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Monica Allen, Oles Shtanko, Ion Cosma Fulga, Joel I-Jan Wang, Daniyar Nurgaliev, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Anton Akhmerov, Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Leonid Levitov, Amir Yacoby
Electron surface states in solids are typically confined to the outermost atomic layers and, due to surface disorder, have negligible impact on electronic transport. Here we demonstrate a very different behavior for surface states in graphene. We probe the wavelike character of these states by Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry and find that, in contrast to theoretical predictions, these states can propagate ballistically over micron-scale distances. This is achieved by embedding a graphene resonantor formed by gate-defined p-n junctions within a graphene SNS structure...
October 18, 2017: Nano Letters
Yipeng Zheng, Wenjiang Tan, Xiaojing Liu, Junyi Tong
We propose a new ballistic imaging method that is capable of imaging an object through an intense scattering medium. In this method, a femtosecond supercontinuum and a roundabout spatial gate were used to suppress speckles and filter background noise, respectively. The roundabout spatial gate extracts ballistic light and avoids low-pass spatial filtering to ensure the high resolution of images. The experimental results showed that even when the optical depth of the scattering medium reached 17, the images extracted by the method had improved identifiability and contrast...
August 21, 2017: Optics Express
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