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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424086/questioning-the-application-of-risk-of-bias-tools-in-appraising-evidence-from-natural-experimental-studies-critical-reflections-on-benton-et-al-ijbnpa-2016
#1
David K Humphreys, Jenna Panter, David Ogilvie
We recently read the article by Benton et al. which reviewed risk of bias in natural experimental studies investigating the impact of the built environment on physical activity (Benton et al., 2016; Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 13:107). As a technical exercise in assessing risk of bias to understand study quality, we found the results of this study both interesting and potentially useful. However, it prompted a number of concerns with the use of risk of bias tools for assessing the quality of evidence from studies exploiting natural experiments...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413336/a-restatement-of-the-natural-science-evidence-concerning-catchment-based-natural-flood-management-in-the-uk
#2
REVIEW
Simon J Dadson, Jim W Hall, Anna Murgatroyd, Mike Acreman, Paul Bates, Keith Beven, Louise Heathwaite, Joseph Holden, Ian P Holman, Stuart N Lane, Enda O'Connell, Edmund Penning-Rowsell, Nick Reynard, David Sear, Colin Thorne, Rob Wilby
Flooding is a very costly natural hazard in the UK and is expected to increase further under future climate change scenarios. Flood defences are commonly deployed to protect communities and property from flooding, but in recent years flood management policy has looked towards solutions that seek to mitigate flood risk at flood-prone sites through targeted interventions throughout the catchment, sometimes using techniques which involve working with natural processes. This paper describes a project to provide a succinct summary of the natural science evidence base concerning the effectiveness of catchment-based 'natural' flood management in the UK...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409095/arthroscopic-piriformis-release-a-technique-for-sciatic-nerve-decompression
#3
Todd P Pierce, Casey M Pierce, Kimona Issa, Vincent K McInerney, Anthony Festa, Anthony J Scillia
Various techniques for piriformis muscle release have been published previously. However, it is imperative we continue to improve on existing techniques as well as develop new ones that may further optimize outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to describe an endoscopic technique for the release of the piriformis muscle in those with symptoms of sciatic nerve compression. Using the posterolateral portal, we are able to perform a complete release of the piriformis from the greater trochanter and the piriformis fossa with care to protect the external rotators and the sciatic nerve...
February 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390920/systematic-review-of-results-of-kissing-stents-in-the-treatment-of-aortoiliac-occlusive-disease
#4
REVIEW
Erik Groot Jebbink, Suzanne Holewijn, Cornelis H Slump, Jan-Willem Lardenoije, Michel M P J Reijnen
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this review is to give an overview of current results and role of the kissing stent (KS) technique in AIOD treatment. BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) involving the aortic bifurcation is challenging. The gold standard is open surgery with patency rates up to 90% at 5 years, but has considerable morbidity and mortality. The KS technique was introduced as an alternative. METHODS: The Cochrane guidelines were used to assure a systematic method...
April 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384912/assessment-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-acute-stroke-patients-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#5
Hemachandrika Chidambaram, Kothai Gnanamoorthy, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Kannan Rajendran, Chitrambalam Pavadai
INTRODUCTION: In patients who present with acute cerebro-vascular disease, autonomic function testing is usually not given its due importance. This is because of the complex nature of the autonomic function tests and the relative technical difficulty faced in administering the tests to the patients. A simple and non-invasive method to assess the autonomic dysfunction is measurement of resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV). AIM: To study the pattern of autonomic dysfunction among patients admitted with acute stroke and to study the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and the morbidity and mortality associated with acute stroke...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348924/random-sampling-causes-the-low-reproducibility-of-rare-eukaryotic-otus-in-illumina-coi-metabarcoding
#6
Matthieu Leray, Nancy Knowlton
DNA metabarcoding, the PCR-based profiling of natural communities, is becoming the method of choice for biodiversity monitoring because it circumvents some of the limitations inherent to traditional ecological surveys. However, potential sources of bias that can affect the reproducibility of this method remain to be quantified. The interpretation of differences in patterns of sequence abundance and the ecological relevance of rare sequences remain particularly uncertain. Here we used one artificial mock community to explore the significance of abundance patterns and disentangle the effects of two potential biases on data reproducibility: indexed PCR primers and random sampling during Illumina MiSeq sequencing...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341616/cloudy-with-a-chance-of-pain-engagement-and-subsequent-attrition-of-daily-data-entry-in-a-smartphone-pilot-study-tracking-weather-disease-severity-and-physical-activity-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Samuel Reade, Karen Spencer, Jamie C Sergeant, Matthew Sperrin, David M Schultz, John Ainsworth, Rashmi Lakshminarayana, Bruce Hellman, Ben James, John McBeth, Caroline Sanders, William G Dixon
BACKGROUND: The increasing ownership of smartphones provides major opportunities for epidemiological research through self-reported and passively collected data. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to codesign a smartphone app to assess associations between weather and joint pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to study the success of daily self-reported data entry over a 60-day period and the enablers of and barriers to data collection. METHODS: A patient and public involvement group (n=5) and 2 focus groups of patients with RA (n=9) supported the codesign of the app collecting self-reported symptoms...
March 24, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334373/estimating-error-models-for-whole-genome-sequencing-using-mixtures-of-dirichlet-multinomial-distributions
#8
Steven H Wu, Rachel S Schwartz, David J Winter, Donald F Conrad, Reed A Cartwright
Motivation: Accurate identification of genotypes is an essential part of the analysis of genomic data, including in identification of sequence polymorphisms, linking mutations with disease, and determining mutation rates. Biological and technical processes that adversely affect genotyping include copy-numbervariation, paralogous sequences, library preparation, sequencing error, and reference-mapping biases, among others. Results: We modeled the read depth for all data as a mixture of Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, resulting in significant improvements over previously used models...
March 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334071/on-the-design-and-prospects-of-direct-rna-sequencing
#9
Georgi K Marinov
Throughout the past nearly a decade, the application of high-throughput sequencing to RNA molecules in the form of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and its many variations has revolutionized transcriptomic studies by enabling researchers to take a simultaneously deep and truly global look into the transcriptome. However, there is still considerable scope for improvement on RNA-seq data in its current form, primarily because of the short-read nature of the dominant sequencing technologies, which prevents the completely reliable reconstruction and quantification of full-length transcripts, and the sequencing library building protocols used, which introduce various distortions in the final data sets...
February 17, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328962/the-blood-dna-virome-in-8-000-humans
#10
Ahmed Moustafa, Chao Xie, Ewen Kirkness, William Biggs, Emily Wong, Yaron Turpaz, Kenneth Bloom, Eric Delwart, Karen E Nelson, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti
The characterization of the blood virome is important for the safety of blood-derived transfusion products, and for the identification of emerging pathogens. We explored non-human sequence data from whole-genome sequencing of blood from 8,240 individuals, none of whom were ascertained for any infectious disease. Viral sequences were extracted from the pool of sequence reads that did not map to the human reference genome. Analyses sifted through close to 1 Petabyte of sequence data and performed 0.5 trillion similarity searches...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327976/minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencing-of-environmental-metagenomes-a-synthetic-approach
#11
Bonnie L Brown, Mick Watson, Samuel S Minot, Maria C Rivera, Rima B Franklin
Background: Environmental metagenomic analysis is typically accomplished by assigning taxonomy and/or function from whole genome sequencing (WGS) or 16S amplicon sequences. Both of these approaches are limited, however, by read length, among other technical and biological factors. A nanopore-based sequencing platform, MinION™, produces reads that are ≥1×10 4 bp in length, potentially providing for more precise assignment, thereby alleviating some of the limitations inherent in determining metagenome composition from short reads...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303552/european-radiographers-challenges-from-mammography-education-and-clinical-practice-an-integrative-review
#12
Eija Metsälä, Nicole Richli Meystre, José Pires Jorge, Anja Henner, Tiina Kukkes, Cláudia Sá Dos Reis
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify European radiographers' challenges in clinical performance in mammography and the main areas of mammography that require more and better training. METHODS: An extensive search was performed to identify relevant studies focused on clinical practice, education and training in mammography published between January 2010 and December 2015 in the English language. The data were analysed by using deductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: A total of 27 full text articles were read, evaluating their quality...
March 16, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299895/deep-sequencing-and-variant-analysis-of-an-italian-pathogenic-field-strain-of-equine-infectious-anaemia-virus
#13
K Cappelli, R F Cook, V Stefanetti, F Passamonti, G L Autorino, M T Scicluna, M Coletti, A Verini Supplizi, S Capomaccio
Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus with an almost worldwide distribution that causes persistent infections in equids. Technical limitations have restricted genetic analysis of EIAV field isolates predominantly to gag sequences resulting in very little published information concerning the extent of inter-strain variation in pol, env and the three ancillary open reading frames (ORFs). Here, we describe the use of long-range PCR in conjunction with next-generation sequencing (NGS) for rapid molecular characterization of all viral ORFs and known transcription factor binding motifs within the long terminal repeat of two EIAV isolates from the 2006 Italian outbreak...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285169/microbial-profiling-of-cpn60-universal-target-sequences-in-artificial-mixtures-of-vaginal-bacteria-sampled-by-nylon-swabs-or-self-sampling-devices-under-different-storage-conditions
#14
John J Schellenberg, Angela Yena Oh, Janet E Hill
The vaginal microbiome is increasingly characterized by deep sequencing of universal genes. However, there are relatively few studies of how different specimen collection and sample storage and processing influence these molecular profiles. Here, we evaluate molecular microbial community profiles of samples collected using the HerSwab™ self-sampling device, compared to nylon swabs and under different storage conditions. In order to minimize technical variation, mixtures of 11 common vaginal bacteria in simulated vaginal fluid medium were sampled and DNA extracts prepared for massively parallel sequencing of the cpn60 universal target (UT)...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277235/variation-in-the-level-of-detail-in-pediatric-voiding-cystourethrogram-reports
#15
Anthony J Schaeffer, Jeanne S Chow, Anastasia Ivanova, Gang Cui, Saul P Greenfield, J Michael Zerin, Alejandro Hoberman, Ranjiv I Mathews, Tej K Mattoo, Myra A Carpenter, Marva Moxey-Mims, Russell W Chesney, Caleb P Nelson
INTRODUCTION: Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) provides a wealth of data on urinary tract function and anatomy, but few standards exist for reporting VCUG findings. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess variability in VCUG reports and to test our hypothesis that VCUG reports from pediatric facilities and pediatric radiologists are more complete than those performed at other facilities or by non-pediatric radiologists. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed original VCUG reports from children enrolled in the Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR) trial...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272506/a-murine-model-to-study-epilepsy-and-sudep-induced-by-malaria-infection
#16
Paddy Ssentongo, Anna E Robuccio, Godfrey Thuku, Derek G Sim, Ali Nabi, Fatemeh Bahari, Balaji Shanmugasundaram, Myles W Billard, Andrew Geronimo, Kurt W Short, Patrick J Drew, Jennifer Baccon, Steven L Weinstein, Frank G Gilliam, José A Stoute, Vernon M Chinchilli, Andrew F Read, Bruce J Gluckman, Steven J Schiff
One of the largest single sources of epilepsy in the world is produced as a neurological sequela in survivors of cerebral malaria. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanisms of such epileptogenesis remain unknown and no adjunctive therapy during cerebral malaria has been shown to reduce the rate of subsequent epilepsy. There is no existing animal model of postmalarial epilepsy. In this technical report we demonstrate the first such animal models. These models were created from multiple mouse and parasite strain combinations, so that the epilepsy observed retained universality with respect to genetic background...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269427/colorimetric-determinations-of-lithium-levels-in-drop-volumes-of-human-plasma-for-monitoring-patients-with-bipolar-mood-disorder
#17
M Qassem, M Hickey, P A Kyriacou
Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258768/quality-assessment-of-websites-providing-educational-content-for-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Harish Rajashekarappa Siddhanamatha, Eric Heung, Maria de Los Angeles Lopez-Olivo, Noha Abdel-Wahab, Ana Ojeda-Prias, Irmgard Willcockson, Amye Leong, Maria Eugenia Suarez-Almazor
OBJECTIVE: We performed an environmental scan of currently available websites providing educational information about rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and evaluated the quality of these websites. METHODS: We searched three separate search engines, Google, Bing, and Ask.com, on August 27, 2015, using two search terms, "arthritis" and "rheumatoid." Only patient education websites were included. Two independent investigators evaluated the accuracy, completeness, technical elements, design and esthetics, readability, usability, and accessibility of the websites...
January 18, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240196/social-support-as-a-mediator-variable-of-the-relationship-between-depression-and-life-satisfaction-in-a-sample-of-saudi-caregivers-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Shatha Jamil Khusaifan, Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky
The authors would like to apologise for an error made in the acknowledgement of the above mentioned article. In the acknowledgement section of the article, paragraph 'This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under grant no. (G-282/ 724246/1436). The authors, therefore, acknowledge with thanks DSR for technical and financial support'. Should read: This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under grant no...
February 27, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237189/ct-for-acute-nontraumatic-abdominal-pain-is-oral-contrast-really-required
#20
Rivka Kessner, Sophie Barnes, Pinchas Halpern, Vadim Makrin, Arye Blachar
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed with and without oral contrast in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2013 and December 2014, 348 adult patients presenting to the ED of a large tertiary medical center with nontraumatic abdominal pain were evaluated. Exclusion criteria for the study were history of inflammatory bowel disease, recent abdominal operation and suspected renal colic, abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture, or intestinal obstruction...
February 22, 2017: Academic Radiology
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