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Ryuichiro Nakato, Katsuhiko Shirahige
Motivation: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) can detect read-enriched DNA loci for point-source (e.g., transcription factor binding) and broad-source factors (e.g., various histone modifications). Although numerous quality metrics for ChIP-seq data have been developed, the 'peaks' thus obtained are still difficult to assess with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and the percentage of false positives. Results: We developed a quality-assessment tool for ChIP-seq data, SSP (strand-shift profile), that quantifies S/N and peak reliability without peak calling...
March 8, 2018: Bioinformatics
Shelley Macaulay, Martha Ngobeni, David B Dunger, Shane A Norris
AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of GDM amongst black South African women, describe GDM-associated risk factors and clinical management, and evaluate the efficacy of the fasting plasma glucose reading in diagnosing GDM. METHODS: A cross-sectional screening study was performed. Pregnant women were recruited from the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg. A total of 1906 women underwent a two-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks gestation...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Fernando Schemelzer Moraes Bezerra, Joames Kauffimann Freitas Leal, Mariana Silva Sousa, Marta Cristhiany Cunha Pinheiro, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Vanessa Silva-Moraes, Naftale Katz
Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem in Brazil. The Kato-Katz test is the most frequently used diagnostic method for Schistosoma mansoni infection. However, it lacks sensitivity in areas of low prevalence. We have assessed the positivity rate of S. mansoni infection in Bananeiras, a village on Capistrano, Ceara, Brazil by performing a point-of-care test in urine to determine the circulating cathodic antigens (POC-CCA), and we compared the findings with those of the Kato-Katz technique for egg detection in stool and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific antibodies against adult worms (SWAP-ELISA) in serum before treatment (baseline)...
March 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Wei Du, Xinyue Li, Yuanchen Chen, Guofeng Shen
Solid fuels, an important source of severe Household Air Pollution (HAP) linked to many adverse health outcomes, has been widely consumed around the world. China consumes large amounts of solid fuels and suffers from serious indoor and outdoor air pollution. Though global HAP issues had been reviewed in previous literatures, peer-reviewed Chinese publications were seldom included in those reviews. We conducted a literature review on the studies of HAP and personal exposure in rural China with inputs from peer-reviewed publications in both English and Chinese...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mariana Alves Weiss, Luiz Dal Sochio Junior, Fernando Bliacheriene, Caitriona Murphy, Vinod Chinappa, Maria Jose Carmona, Clarita B Margarido
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The general public increased search on the Internet for health information, including Anesthesiology, justifies the study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the information available to the lay person in Portuguese on the internet about labor analgesia for the Brazilian population. METHOD: Using the term "labor anesthesia", the first 20 sites found on Google in November 2014 were evaluated by two resident physicians and classified as medical and non-medical...
March 7, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Fidelma Breen, John Coveney, Carol Anne Pflaum
The purpose of this article is to map the data currently available on the subject of eating practices and food environments in small (i.e. one- and two-person) households. Specifically, the enquiry is focused on commensality; the act of eating together. Research dates from the late 1980s, however, there are few recent publications on this subject. Searching Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest and Google Scholar, 2949 papers were found, but only 457 discussed any element of the research questions...
March 6, 2018: Appetite
Samuel R Donnenfeld
The nineteenth century Mormon Prophet, Brigham Young, has long been lauded as progressive for sending dozens of Mormon women from the Utah territory to receive a formal medical education at The Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania. This manuscript comes to a contrary conclusion through close reading of diaries and journals created by these same women and the public speeches of the Prophet himself. These texts have historically been held up as evidence of Prophet Young's encouragement of women as physicians...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Sofia Persson, Katie Dhingra, Sarah Grogan
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: are to, on a sample of nurses and the general public, examine whether victim blame varies according to level of familiarly between victim and perpetrator. It also examines how Ambivalent Sexism (AS) and Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) impacts on this. BACKGROUND: Around one in five women will be victims of sexual assault during their lifetime. The majority are acquaintance rapes, and these victims are generally attributed more blame than victims of stranger rape...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Max L Nibert, Austin R Manny, Humberto J Debat, Andrew E Firth, Laura Bertini, Carla Caruso
Because so few viruses in the family Barnaviridae have been reported, we searched for more of them in public sequence databases. Here, we report the complete coding sequence of Colobanthus quitensis associated barnavirus 1, mined from a transcriptome of the Antarctic pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis. The 4.2-kb plus-strand sequence of this virus encompasses four main open reading frames (ORFs), as expected for barnaviruses, including ORFs for a protease-containing polyprotein, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase whose translation appears to rely on - 1 ribosomal frameshifting, and a capsid protein that is likely to be translated from a subgenomic RNA...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Virology
Philipp Kirstahler, Søren Solborg Bjerrum, Alice Friis-Møller, Morten la Cour, Frank M Aarestrup, Henrik Westh, Sünje Johanna Pamp
Advances in genomics have the potential to revolutionize clinical diagnostics. Here, we examine the microbiome of vitreous (intraocular body fluid) from patients who developed endophthalmitis following cataract surgery or intravitreal injection. Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the intraocular cavity and can lead to a permanent loss of vision. As controls, we included vitreous from endophthalmitis-negative patients, balanced salt solution used during vitrectomy and DNA extraction blanks. We compared two DNA isolation procedures and found that an ultraclean production of reagents appeared to reduce background DNA in these low microbial biomass samples...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abdul Momin Kazi, Murtaza Ali, Khurram Zubair, Hussain Kalimuddin, Abdul Nafey Kazi, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Jean-Paul Collet, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Improved routine immunization (RI) coverage is recommended as the priority public health strategy to decrease vaccine-preventable diseases and eradicate polio in Pakistan and worldwide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to ascertain whether customized, automated, one-way text messaging (short message service, SMS) reminders delivered to caregivers via mobile phones when a child is due for an RI visit can improve vaccination uptake and timelines in Pakistan...
March 7, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Erin Rothwell, Jeffrey R Botkin, Sydney Cheek-O'Donnell, Bob Wong, Gretchen A Case, Erin Johnson, Trent Matheson, Alena Wilson, Nicole R Robinson, Jared Rawlings, Brooke Horejsi, Ana Maria Lopez, Carrie L Byington
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the short-term impact of the play "Informed Consent" by Deborah Zoe Laufer (a fictionalized look at the controversy over specimens collected from the Havasupai Tribe for diabetes research in 1989) on perceptions of trust, willingness to donate biospecimens, attitudes toward harm and privacy among the medical and undergraduate students, faculty and the public in the intermountain west. METHODS: Surveys were administered before and after a staged reading of the play by professional actors...
March 7, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Omar T Dawood, Mohamed A Hassali, Fahad Saleem, Inas R Ibrahim
This study was undertaken to assess the people's self-reported reading of medicine labels and its associated factors and to assess the sources of information about medicines among general public. A cross-sectional study was carried out among general public in the State of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 888 participants were conveniently selected and completed the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the data from all the participants. Most of the participants (74.2%) reported that they have adequate information about medicines provided on their medicine labels...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Antje Ullrich, Lisa Voigt, Sophie Baumann, Franziska Weymar, Ulrich John, Marcus Dörr, Sabina Ulbricht
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the association between different types of leisure-time sedentary behavior (watching television, using a computer, reading and socializing) and clustered cardiometabolic risk in apparently healthy adults aged 40 to 65 years. METHODS: One hundred seventy-three participants from the general population (64% women; mean age = 54.4 years) consented to attend a cardiovascular examination program and to complete a questionnaire on leisure-time sedentary behaviors...
March 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ying Jin, Molly Hammell
Transposable elements (TE) are mobile genetic elements that can readily change their genomic position. When not properly silenced, TEs can contribute a substantial portion to the cell's transcriptome, but are typically ignored in most RNA-seq data analyses. One reason for leaving TE-derived reads out of RNA-seq analyses is the complexities involved in properly aligning short sequencing reads to these highly repetitive regions. Here we describe a method for including TE-derived reads in RNA-seq differential expression analysis using an open source software package called TEtranscripts...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wen He, Shanrong Zhao, Chi Zhang, Michael S Vincent, Baohong Zhang
Sequencing of transcribed RNA molecules (RNA-Seq) has been used wildly for studying cell transcriptomes in bulk or at the single-cell level (Wang et al., Nat Rev Genet, 10:57-63, 2009; Ozsolak and Milos, Nat Rev Genet, 12:87-98, 2011; Sandberg, Nat Methods, 11:22-24, 2014) and is becoming the de facto technology for investigating gene expression level changes in various biological conditions, on the time course, and under drug treatments. Furthermore, RNA-Seq data helped identify fusion genes that are related to certain cancers (Maher et al...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mary Sawtell, Lorna Sweeney, Meg Wiggins, Cathryn Salisbury, Sandra Eldridge, Lauren Greenberg, Rachael Hunter, Inderjeet Kaur, Christine McCourt, Bethan Hatherall, Gail Findlay, Joanne Morris, Sandra Reading, Adrian Renton, Ruth Adekoya, Belinda Green, Belinda Harvey, Sarah Latham, Kanta Patel, Logan Vanlessen, Angela Harden
BACKGROUND: The provision of high-quality maternity services is a priority for reducing inequalities in health outcomes for mothers and infants. Best practice includes women having their initial antenatal appointment within the first trimester of pregnancy in order to provide screening and support for healthy lifestyles, well-being and self-care in pregnancy. Previous research has identified inequalities in access to antenatal care, yet there is little evidence on interventions to improve early initiation of antenatal care...
March 5, 2018: Trials
Jack C H Ip, Huawei Mu, Qian Chen, Jin Sun, Santiago Ituarte, Horacio Heras, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Monthon Ganmanee, Xin Huang, Jian-Wen Qiu
BACKGROUND: Gastropoda, with approximately 80,000 living species, is the largest class of Mollusca. Among gastropods, apple snails (family Ampullariidae) are globally distributed in tropical and subtropical freshwater ecosystems and many species are ecologically and economically important. Ampullariids exhibit various morphological and physiological adaptations to their respective habitats, which make them ideal candidates for studying adaptation, population divergence, speciation, and larger-scale patterns of diversity, including the biogeography of native and invasive populations...
March 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
Richard N McLaughlin
Transposable elements comprise a huge portion of most animal genomes. Unlike many pathogens, these elements leave a mark of their impact via their insertion into host genomes. With proper teasing, these sequences can relay information about the evolutionary history of transposons and their hosts. In a new publication, Larson and colleagues describe a previously unappreciated density of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) sequences that have been spliced (LINE-1 and other reverse transcribing elements are necessarily intronless)...
March 5, 2018: PLoS Biology
Alon Zivony, Tamar Saguy
Bisexuals are an invisible sexual minority. However, at the same time, bisexuals are stereotypically associated with confusion and promiscuity. Stereotype learning theories suggest that individuals who are unfamiliar with a social group are less likely to have stereotypical beliefs about its members. In contrast, it has been recently hypothesized that stereotypes about bisexuality are not necessarily learned but rather deduced based on common conceptualizations of sexuality. Because stereotypes are suppressed only if they are recognized as offensive, lack of knowledge regarding bisexual stereotypes should actually enhance their adoption...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Sex Research
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