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neurodegeneration, cancer, oncology

Natalie J Serkova
The inflammatory response, mediated by tissue-resident or newly recruited macrophages, is an underlying pathophysiological condition for many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Paradoxically, inflammation is a double-edged sword in oncology. Macrophages are, generally speaking, the major drivers of inflammatory insult. For many solid tumors, high density of cells expressing macrophage-associated markers have generally been found in association with a poor clinical outcome, characterized by inflamed microenvironment, a high level of dissemination and resistance to conventional chemotherapies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Marina Boccardi, Valentina Gallo, Yutaka Yasui, Paolo Vineis, Alessandro Padovani, Urs Mosimann, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Gabriel Gold, Bruno Dubois, Clifford R Jack, Bengt Winblad, Giovanni B Frisoni, Emiliano Albanese
Biomarkers for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not yet validated for use in clinical settings. We aim to provide a methodological framework for their systematic validation, by reference to that developed for oncology biomarkers. As for this discipline, the steps for the systematic validation of AD biomarkers need to target analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. However, the premises are different from oncology: the nature of disease (neurodegeneration vs. cancer), the purpose (improve diagnosis in clinically affected vs...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
Giorgio Cozza, Lorenzo A Pinna
INTRODUCTION: The conventional term 'casein kinase' (CK) denotes three classes of kinases - CK1, CK2 and Golgi-CK (G-CK)/Fam20C (family with sequence similarity 20, member C) - sharing the ability to phoshorylate casein in vitro, but otherwise unrelated to each other. All CKs have been reported to be implicated in human diseases, and reviews individually dealing with the druggability of CK1 and CK2 are available. Our aim is to provide a comparative analysis of the three classes of CKs as therapeutic targets...
2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
Eugene D Ponomarev, Tatiana Veremeyko, Natasha S Barteneva
UNLABELLED: ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules that play an important role in many physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition to modulating normal cellular functions, it has also been reported that miRNAs are involved in the development of many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Methods for the sensitive detection and measurement of specific miRNAs and their cellular targets are essential for both basic research endeavours, as well as diagnostic efforts aimed at understanding the role of miRNAs in disease processes...
2011: BMC Research Notes
Walter Stünkel, Robert M Campbell
The sirtuin family of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) consists of seven mammalian proteins, SIRT1-7. Many of the sirtuin isoforms also deacetylate nonhistone substrates, such as p53 (SIRT1) and α-tubulin (SIRT2). The sirtuin literature focuses on pharmacological activators of SIRT1 (e.g., resveratrol, SRT1720), proposed as therapeutics for diabetes, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and others. However, many of the SIRT1 activator results may have been due to artifacts in the assay methodology (i...
December 2011: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
Christopher S Straub
Apoptosis is an essential process for embryonic and lymphocyte development, immune system modulation and tissue homeostasis. Defects in apoptotic signaling often lead to diseases of immune deficiency, neurodegeneration and cancer [1, 2]. In the cancer arena, these defects may contribute to the establishment and growth of tumors. Moreover, many cytotoxic chemotherapies act in part by activating these apoptotic networks. Occasionally apoptotic pathways are activated, however key players downstream of initiation are inhibited by negative regulators that have been dysregulated by the diseased state of the cell...
2011: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Amina A Qutub, Feilim Mac Gabhann, Emmanouil D Karagiannis, Prakash Vempati, Aleksander S Popel
Vascular disease, cancer, stroke, neurodegeneration, diabetes, inflammation, asthma, obesity, arthritis--the list of conditions that involve angiogenesis reads like main chapters in a book on pathology. Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting vessels, also occurs in normal physiology, in response to exercise or in the process of wound healing.Why and when is angiogenesis prevalent? What controls the process? How can we intelligently control it? These are the key questions driving researchers in fields as diverse as cell biology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, biomathematics, systems biology, and biomedical engineering...
March 2009: IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
A Caricasole, A Bakker, A Copani, F Nicoletti, G Gaviraghi, G C Terstappen
Wnts function through the activation of at least three intracellular signal transduction pathways, of which the canonical beta-catenin mediated pathway is the best understood. Aberrant canonical Wnt signaling has been involved in both neurodegeneration and cancer. An impairment of Wnt signals appears to be associated with aspects of neurodegenerative pathologies while overactivation of Wnt signaling is a common theme in several types of human tumors. Therefore, although therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating Wnt signaling in neurodegenerative and hyperproliferative diseases might impinge on the same molecular mechanisms, different pharmacological outcomes are required...
October 2005: Bioscience Reports
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