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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637430/malaria-control-by-commodities-without-practical-malariology
#1
J Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#2
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634831/malaria-2017-update-on-the-clinical-literature-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Johanna P Daily
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malaria is a prevalent disease in travelers to and residents of malaria-endemic regions. Health care workers in both endemic and non-endemic settings should be familiar with the latest evidence for the diagnosis, management and prevention of malaria. This article will discuss the recent malaria epidemiologic and medical literature to review the progress, challenges, and optimal management of malaria. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a marked decrease in malaria-related global morbidity and mortality secondary to malaria control programs over the last few decades...
June 20, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628669/the-global-fund-in-china-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-nationwide-programmatic-scale-up-and-challenges-to-transition-to-full-country-ownership
#4
Lixia Wang, Renzhong Li, Caihong Xu, Hui Zhang, Yunzhou Ruan, Mingting Chen, Dongmei Wang, Emilio Dirlikov, Xin Du, Jin Zhao, Yanlin Zhao, ShengFen Wang, Yuhong Liu, Liang Li, Dennis Falzon, Yanni Sun, Yu Wang, Bernhard Schwartländer, Fabio Scano
China has the world's second largest burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), with an estimated 57,000 cases (range, 48,000-67,000) among notified pulmonary TB patients in 2015. During October 1, 2006-June 30, 2014, China expanded MDR-TB care through a partnership with the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund). We analyzed data on site expansion, patient enrolment, treatment outcomes, cost per patient, and overall programme expenditure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623302/insecticide-susceptibility-of-anopheles-mosquitoes-changes-in-response-to-variations-in-the-larval-environment
#5
Henry F Owusu, Nakul Chitnis, Pie Müller
Insecticide resistance threatens the success achieved through vector control in reducing the burden of malaria. An understanding of insecticide resistance mechanisms would help to develop novel tools and strategies to restore the efficacy of insecticides. Although we have substantially improved our understanding of the genetic basis of insecticide resistance over the last decade, we still know little of how environmental variations influence the mosquito phenotype. Here, we measured how variations in larval rearing conditions change the insecticide susceptibility phenotype of adult Anopheles mosquitoes...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620813/an-in-silico-insight-into-the-substrate-binding-characteristics-of-the-active-site-of-amorpha-4-11-diene-synthase-a-key-enzyme-in-artemisinin-biosynthesis
#6
Habib Eslami, Seyed Kaveh Mohtashami, Maryam Taghavi Basmanj, Maryam Rahati, Hamzeh Rahimi
The enzyme amorphadiene synthase (ADS) conducts the first committed step in the biosynthetic conversion of the substrate farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to artemisinin, which is a highly effective natural product against multidrug-resistant strains of malaria. Due to the either low abundance or low turn-over rate of the enzyme, obtaining artemisinin from both natural and synthetic sources is costly and laborious. In this in silico study, we strived to elucidate the substrate binding site specificities of the ADS, with the rational that unraveling enzyme features paves the way for enzyme engineering to increase synthesis rate...
July 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619089/light-manipulation-of-mosquito-behaviour-acute-and-sustained-photic-suppression-of-biting-activity-in-the-anopheles-gambiae-malaria-mosquito
#7
Aaron D Sheppard, Samuel S C Rund, Gary F George, Erin Clark, Dominic J Acri, Giles E Duffield
BACKGROUND: Host-seeking behaviours in anopheline mosquitoes are time-of-day specific, with a greater propensity for nocturnal biting. We investigated how a short exposure to light presented during the night or late day can inhibit biting activity and modulate flight activity behaviour. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), maintained on a 12:12 LD cycle, were exposed transiently to white light for 10-min at the onset of night and the proportion taking a blood meal in a human biting assay was recorded every 2 h over an 8-h duration...
June 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617870/a-novel-genetic-technique-in-plasmodium-berghei-allows-liver-stage-analysis-of-genes-required-for-mosquito-stage-development-and-demonstrates-that-de-novo-heme-synthesis-is-essential-for-liver-stage-development-in-the-malaria-parasite
#8
Upeksha L Rathnapala, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615849/in-vivo-antimalarial-activity-of-aqueous-leaf-and-bark-extracts-of-trema-orientalis-against-plasmodium-berghei-in-mice
#9
Oluwatoyosi Eniola Oyebola, Olajumoke Abimbola Morenikeji, Isaiah Oluwafemi Ademola
The control of malaria relies on the use of chemical antimalarial, but the development of resistance necessitates research into alternatives. Trema orientalis (L.) Blume is used in Nigerian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria. This study investigates the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of T. orientalis in rodent model. Swiss Albino mice weighing 23-27 g were intraperitoneally infected with Plasmodium berghei. The lethal dose in mice was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg based on toxicity signs and death...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615016/ex-vivo-susceptibility-and-genotyping-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-pikine-senegal
#10
Aminata Mbaye, Amy Gaye, Baba Dieye, Yaye D Ndiaye, Amy K Bei, Muna Affara, Awa B Deme, Mamadou S Yade, Khadim Diongue, Ibrahima M Ndiaye, Tolla Ndiaye, Mouhamed Sy, Ngayo Sy, Ousmane Koita, Donald J Krogstad, Sarah Volkman, Davis Nwakanma, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: The monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to anti-malarial drugs is a necessity for effective case management of malaria. This species is characterized by a strong resistance to anti-malarial drugs. In Senegal, the first cases of chloroquine resistance were reported in the Dakar region in 1988 with nearly 7% population prevalence, reaching 47% by 1990. It is in this context that sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine temporarily replaced chloroquine as first line treatment in 2003, pending the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2006...
June 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612497/pharmacotherapy-follow-up-role-in-active-malaria-surveillance-in-a-travel-medicine-centre-outside-the-transmission-area-in-brazil
#11
R S Pedro, P Brasil, A Pina-Costa, C R Machado, L S Damasceno, C T Daniel-Ribeiro, L Guaraldo
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Malaria is a potentially severe disease, widespread in tropical and subtropical areas. Apart from parasite drug resistance, which receives the largest share of attention, several factors directly influence the response to antimalarial treatment such as incorrect doses, adverse drug events, lack of adherence to treatment, drug quality and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacotherapy follow-up can be used to monitor and improve the effectiveness of treatment, prevent drug-related problems and ensure patient safety...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612293/nowhere-to-run-rabbit-the-cold-war-calculus-of-disease-ecology
#12
Warwick Anderson
During the cold war, Frank Fenner (protégé of Macfarlane Burnet and René Dubos) and Francis Ratcliffe (associate of A. J. Nicholson and student of Charles Elton) studied mathematically the coevolution of host resistance and parasite virulence when myxomatosis was unleashed on Australia's rabbit population. Later, Robert May called Fenner the "real hero" of disease ecology for his mathematical modeling of the epidemic. While Ratcliffe came from a tradition of animal ecology, Fenner developed an ecological orientation in World War II through his work on malaria control (with Ratcliffe and Ian Mackerras, among others)-that is, through studies of tropical medicine...
June 2017: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612053/micro-epidemiological-structuring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-in-regions-with-varying-transmission-intensities-in-africa
#13
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Teun Bousema, Kirk Rockett, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Isabella Oyier, Jennifer C Stevenson, Amrish Y Baidjoe, Etienne P de Villiers, Greg Fegan, Amanda Ross, Christina Hubbart, Anne Jeffreys, Thomas N Williams, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background: The first models of malaria transmission assumed a completely mixed and homogeneous population of parasites.  Recent models include spatial heterogeneity and variably mixed populations. However, there are few empiric estimates of parasite mixing with which to parametize such models. Methods: Here we genotype 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5199 P. falciparum isolates from two Kenyan sites and one Gambian site to determine the spatio-temporal extent of parasite mixing, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear regression to examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and relatedness in space and time for parasite pairs...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611355/improved-efficacy-of-an-arthropod-toxin-expressing-fungus-against-insecticide-resistant-malaria-vector-mosquitoes
#14
Etienne Bilgo, Brian Lovett, Weiguo Fang, Niraj Bende, Glenn F King, Abdoulaye Diabate, Raymond J St Leger
The continued success of malaria control efforts requires the development, study and implementation of new technologies that circumvent insecticide resistance. We previously demonstrated that fungal pathogens can provide an effective delivery system for mosquitocidal or malariacidal biomolecules. Here we compared genes from arthropod predators encoding insect specific sodium, potassium and calcium channel blockers for their ability to improve the efficacy of Metarhizium against wild-caught, insecticide-resistant anophelines...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606820/analysis-of-population-structure-and-insecticide-resistance-in-mosquitoes-of-the-genus-culex-anopheles-and-aedes-from-different-environments-of-greece-with-a-history-of-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission
#15
Max Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606053/protein-kinase-inhibitors-as-potential-antimicrobial-drugs-against-tuberculosis-malaria-and-hiv
#16
Yong Cheng, Jeffrey S Schorey, Cheng-Cai Zhang, Xuejuan Tan
Infectious diseases that are caused by pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi remain the top major cause of death across the world, particularly in low income countries, and may be transmitted from person to person, or from insects or animals. In general, infectious diseases may be treated with antimicrobial agents including antibiotics, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic medications. The therapeutic application of antimicrobial drugs in the 20th century substantially contributed to the global control of infectious diseases worldwide...
June 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605993/in-vitro-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-and-polymorphisms-in-pfg377-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates-from-mewat-india
#17
Vineeta Singh, Amit Kumar, Purva Gupta
The malaria infection is the interplay of several complex factors, among which drug resistance and gametocyte biology are the crucial ones. Measurements of the drug sensitivity assays and prevalence of gametocyte genes play a major role in malaria eradication programmes. The purpose of this study was to assess the current drug sensitivity profile in the field isolates and type the Pfg377 gene. In vitro drug sensitivity assay was used to assess the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates collected from Mewat (Haryana), located in Northern region of India to four anti-malarial drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599096/proteases-as-antimalarial-targets-strategies-for-genetic-chemical-and-therapeutic-validation
#18
REVIEW
Edgar Deu
Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease affecting half of the world's population. The rapid emergence of resistance against new antimalarial drugs, including artemisinin-based therapies, has made the development of drugs with novel mechanisms of action extremely urgent. Proteases are enzymes proven to be well suited for target-based drug development due to our knowledge of their enzymatic mechanisms and active site structures. More importantly, Plasmodium proteases have been shown to be involved in a variety of pathways that are essential for parasite survival...
June 9, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596841/targeting-endosomal-acidification-by-chloroquine-analogs-as-a-promising-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-emerging-viral-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Md Abdul Alim Al-Bari
Emerging viruses such as HIV, dengue, influenza A, SARS coronavirus, Ebola, and other viruses pose a significant threat to human health. Majority of these viruses are responsible for the outbreaks of pathogenic lethal infections. To date, there are no effective therapeutic strategies available for the prophylaxis and treatment of these infections. Chloroquine analogs have been used for decades as the primary and most successful drugs against malaria. Concomitant with the emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium strains and a subsequent decrease in the use as antimalarial drugs, other applications of the analogs have been investigated...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595645/ethnobotanical-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-as-insects-repellents-in-six-malaria-endemic-localities-of-cameroon
#20
Roger Ducos Fokouo Youmsi, Patrick Valère Tsouh Fokou, Elisabeth Zeuko'o Menkem, Issakou Bakarnga-Via, Rodrigue Keumoe, Victor Nana, Fabrice Fekam Boyom
BACKGROUND: The combined efforts to combat outdoor/indoor transmission of malaria parasites are hampered by the emerging vector resistance in a wide variety of malaria-endemic settings of Africa and the rest of the world, stressing the need for alternative control measures. This study aimed at documenting insect's repellent plant species used by indigenous populations of 6 localities of East, South, West and Centre regions of Cameroon. METHODS: Information was gathered through face-to-face interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire on the knowledge of medicinal plants with insect repellent properties...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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