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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936796/biosurfactants-produced-by-bacillus-subtilis-a1-and-pseudomonas-stutzeri-na3-reduce-longevity-and-fecundity-of-anopheles-stephensi-and-show-high-toxicity-against-young-instars
#1
Punniyakotti Parthipan, Raja Kumaresan Sarankumar, Anitha Jaganathan, Pandian Amuthavalli, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam, Pattanathu K S M Rahman, Kadarkarai Murugan, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli, Aruliah Rajasekar
Anopheles stephensi acts as vector of Plasmodium parasites, which are responsible for malaria in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Currently, malaria management is a big challenge due to the presence of insecticide-resistant strains as well as to the development of Plasmodium species highly resistant to major antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the present study focused on biosurfactant produced by two bacteria Bacillus subtilis A1 and Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3, evaluating them for insecticidal applications against malaria mosquitoes...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935919/split-dosing-of-artemisinins-does-not-improve-antimalarial-therapeutic-efficacy
#2
N J White, J Watson, E A Ashley
It has been suggested recently, based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling exercises, that twice daily dosing of artemisinins increases malaria parasite killing and so could "dramatically enhance and restore drug effectiveness" in artemisinin resistant P. falciparum malaria infections. It was recommended that split dosing should be incorporated into all artemisinin combination regimen designs. To explain why parasite clearance rates were not faster with split dose regimens it was concluded that splenic malaria parasite clearance capacity was readily exceeded, resulting in the accumulation of dead parasites in the circulation, that parasite clearance was therefore an unreliable measure of drug efficacy, and instead that human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934959/selective-inhibition-of-pfa-m1-over-pfa-m17-by-an-amino-benzosuberone-derivative-blocks-malaria-parasites-development-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Lotfi Bounaadja, Marjorie Schmitt, Sébastien Albrecht, Elisabeth Mouray, Céline Tarnus, Isabelle Florent
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum M1 family aminopeptidase is currently considered as a promising target for anti-malarial chemotherapy. Several series of inhibitors developed by various research groups display IC50/Ki values down to nM range on native PfA-M1 or recombinant forms and block the parasite development in culture at µM to sub-µM concentrations. A handful of these inhibitors has been tested on murine models of malaria and has shown anti plasmodial in vivo activity. However, most of these inhibitors do also target the other neutral malarial aminopeptidase, PfA-M17, often with lower Ki values, which questions the relative involvement and importance of each enzyme in the parasite biology...
September 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934435/declining-transmission-and-immunity-to-malaria-and-emerging-artemisinin-resistance-in-thailand-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Ricardo Ataíde, Rosanna Powell, Kerryn Moore, Alistair McLean, Aung Pyae Phyo, Shalini Nair, Marina White, Tim J Anderson, James G Beeson, Julie A Simpson, Francois Nosten, Freya J I Fowkes
Background: Reductions in malaria transmission decrease naturally acquired immunity, which may influence the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum artemisinin-resistant phenotypes and genotypes over time. Methods: Antibodies specific for P. falciparum antigens were determined in uncomplicated hyperparasitemic malaria patients over a 10-year period of declining malaria transmission and emerging artemisinin resistance in northwestern Thailand. We investigated the association between antibody levels and both parasite clearance time (PCt½) and artemisinin resistance-associated kelch13 genotypes over time...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932814/the-gut-commensal-microbiome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-modified-by-the-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#5
Rama K Simhadri, Eva M Fast, Rong Guo, Michaela J Schultz, Natalie Vaisman, Luis Ortiz, Joanna Bybee, Barton E Slatko, Horacio M Frydman
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928218/the-serine-protease-homolog-clipa14-modulates-the-intensity-of-the-immune-response-in-the-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#6
Johnny Nakhleh, George K Christophides, Mike A Osta
CLIP domain serine protease homologues (cSPHs) are positive and negative regulators of Anopheles gambiae immune responses mediated by the complement-like protein TEP1 against Plasmodium malaria parasites and other microbial infections. We have previously reported that the SPH CLIPA2 is a negative regulator of the TEP1-mediated response by showing that CLIPA2 knockdown (kd) enhances mosquito resistance to infections with fungi, bacteria and Plasmodium parasites. Here, we identify another SPH, CLIPA14, as a novel regulator of mosquito immunity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927428/current-status-of-insecticide-resistance-among-malaria-vectors-in-kenya
#7
Benyl M Ondeto, Christopher Nyundo, Luna Kamau, Simon M Muriu, Joseph M Mwangangi, Kiambo Njagi, Evan M Mathenge, Horace Ochanda, Charles M Mbogo
BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya...
September 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927405/the-use-of-respondent-driven-sampling-to-assess-malaria-knowledge-treatment-seeking-behaviours-and-preventive-practices-among-mobile-and-migrant-populations-in-a-setting-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-western-cambodia
#8
Po Ly, Julie Thwing, Colleen McGinn, Cesia E Quintero, Narann Top-Samphor, Najibullah Habib, Jack S Richards, Sara E Canavati, Seshu Babu Vinjamuri, Chea Nguon
BACKGROUND: Multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens malaria elimination efforts in Cambodia and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Malaria burden in the GMS is higher among certain high-risk demographic groups in Cambodia, especially among migrant and mobile populations (MMPs). This respondent driven sampling (RDS) study was conducted in order to determine malaria knowledge, treatment-seeking behaviours and preventive practices among two MMP groups in Western Cambodia. METHODS: An RDS survey of MMPs was implemented in four purposively-selected communes along the Thai-Cambodia border; two in Veal Veang District and two in Pailin Province, chosen due to their sizeable MMP groups, their convenience of access, and their proximity to Thailand, which allowed for comparison with RDS studies in Thailand...
September 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925968/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-diagnostic-tests-for-malaria
#9
REVIEW
Francis D Krampa, Yaw Aniweh, Gordon A Awandare, Prosper Kanyong
The impact of malaria on global health has continually prompted the need to develop effective diagnostic strategies. In malaria endemic regions, routine diagnosis is hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges to laboratories. These laboratories lack standard facilities, expertise or diagnostic supplies; thus, therapy is administered based on clinical or self-diagnosis. There is the need for accurate diagnosis of malaria due to the continuous increase in the cost of medication, and the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains...
September 19, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923866/changing-antimalarial-drug-sensitivities-in-uganda
#10
Stephanie A Rasmussen, Frida G Ceja, Melissa D Conrad, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Oswald Byaruhanga, Thomas Katairo, Samuel L Nsobya, Philip J Rosenthal, Roland A Cooper
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy for the treatment and prevention of malaria in Uganda. However, resistance to both components of this regimen has emerged in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen to treat malaria in Uganda, has also been excellent, but continued pressure may select for parasites with decreased sensitivity to lumefantrine. To gain insight into current drug sensitivity patterns, ex vivo sensitivities were assessed and genotypes previously associated with altered drug sensitivity were characterized for 58 isolates collected in Tororo, Uganda from subjects presenting in 2016 with malaria from the community or as part of a clinical trial comparing DP chemoprevention regimens...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#11
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915892/modelling-the-impact-of-the-long-term-use-of-insecticide-treated-bed-nets-on-anopheles-mosquito-biting-time
#12
Claudia P Ferreira, Silas P Lyra, Franciane Azevedo, David Greenhalgh, Eduardo Massad
BACKGROUND: Evidence of changing in biting and resting behaviour of the main malaria vectors has been mounting up in recent years as a result of selective pressure by the widespread and long-term use of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), and indoor residual spraying. The impact of resistance behaviour on malaria intervention efficacy has important implications for the epidemiology and malaria control programmes. In this context, a theoretical framework is presented to understand the mechanisms determining the evolution of feeding behaviour under the pressure of use of ITNs...
September 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913784/managing-wastes-as-green-resources-cigarette-butt-synthesized-pesticides-are-highly-toxic-to-malaria-vectors-with-little-impact-on-predatory-copepods
#13
Kadarkarai Murugan, Udaiyan Suresh, Chellasamy Panneerselvam, Rajapandian Rajaganesh, Mathath Roni, Al Thabiani Aziz, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Kuppusamy Sathishkumar, Aruliah Rajasekar, Suresh Kumar, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Akon Higuchi, Giovanni Benelli
The development of novel mosquito control tools is a key prerequisite to build effective and reliable Integrated Vector Management strategies. Here, we proposed a novel method using cigarette butts for the synthesis of Ag nanostructures toxic to young instars of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, chloroquine (CQ)-resistant malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and microbial pathogens. The non-target impact of these nanomaterials in the aquatic environment was evaluated testing them at sub-lethal doses on the predatory copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906438/acetylcholinesterase-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-schistosomes-and-other-parasitic-helminths
#14
REVIEW
Hong You, Chang Liu, Xiaofeng Du, Donald P McManus
Schistosomiasis, which is caused by helminth trematode blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma, is a serious health and economic problem in tropical areas, and the second most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available and treatment is entirely dependent on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ), raising a significant potential public health threat due to the emergence of PZQ drug resistance. It is thus urgent and necessary to explore novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis...
September 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903759/knowledge-access-and-utilization-of-bed-nets-among-stable-and-seasonal-migrants-in-an-artemisinin-resistance-containment-area-of-myanmar
#15
Wint Phyo Than, Tin Oo, Khin Thet Wai, Aung Thi, Philip Owiti, Binay Kumar, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Rony Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Myanmar lies in the Greater Mekong sub-region of South-East Asia faced with the challenge of emerging resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACT). Migrant populations are more likely than others to spread ACT resistance. A vital intervention to reduce malaria transmission, resistance spread and eliminate malaria is the use of bed nets. Among seasonal and stable migrants in an artemisinin resistance containment region of Myanmar, we compared a) their household characteristics, b) contact with health workers and information material, and c) household knowledge, access and utilization of bed nets...
September 14, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903755/prevalence-of-k13-mutation-and-day-3-positive-parasitaemia-in-artemisinin-resistant-malaria-endemic-area-of-cambodia-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Soy Ty Kheang, Siv Sovannaroth, Sovann Ek, Say Chy, Phally Chhun, Sokkieng Mao, Sokomar Nguon, Dy Soley Lek, Didier Menard, Neeraj Kak
BACKGROUND: The presence of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites was confirmed in western Cambodia in 2009. In 2013, mutations in the propeller domain of the kelch protein K13 was found to be associated with artemisinin resistance. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Day-3 parasitaemia, estimate the frequency of k13 molecular marker and assess their relationship in the context of operational research. METHODS: Blood smears and filter paper blood spots were collected from febrile patients in Kravanh District, Pursat Province...
September 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898049/analysis-of-plasmodium-vivax-chloroquine-resistance-transporter-pvcrt-mutant-isoforms
#17
Matthew R Hassett, Bryce E Riegel, Paul Samuel Callaghan, Paul David Roepe
Chloroquine (CQ) resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum malaria is widespread and has limited the use of CQ in many regions of the globe. Malaria caused by the related human parasite P. vivax is as widespread as is P. falciparum malaria and has been treated with CQ as extensively as has P. falciparum, suggesting that P. vivax parasites have been selected with CQ as profoundly as have P. falciparum parasites. Indeed, a growing number of clinical reports have presented data suggesting increased P. vivax CQR...
September 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895080/population-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-modeling-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-southeast-asia
#18
Jesmin Lohy Das, Arjen M Dondorp, Francois Nosten, Aung Pyae Phyo, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Pascal Ringwald, Pharath Lim, Nicholas J White, Mats O Karlsson, Martin Bergstrand, Joel Tarning
Orally administered artemisinin-based combination therapy is the first-line treatment against uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria worldwide. However, the increasing prevalence of artemisinin resistance is threatening efforts to treat and eliminate malaria in Southeast Asia. This study aimed to characterize the exposure-response relationship of artesunate in patients with artemisinin sensitive and resistant malaria infections. Patients were recruited in Pailin, Cambodia (n = 39), and Wang Pha, Thailand (n = 40), and received either 2 mg/kg/day of artesunate mono-therapy for 7 consecutive days or 4 mg/kg/day of artesunate monotherapy for 3 consecutive days followed by mefloquine 15 and 10 mg/kg for 2 consecutive days...
September 11, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894847/community-engagement-for-the-rapid-elimination-of-malaria-the-case-of-kayin-state-myanmar
#19
Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Suphak Nosten, Saw Win Tun, Daniel Parker, Lorenz von Seidlein, Decha Tangseefa, François Nosten, Phaik Yeong Cheah
BACKGROUND:  Currently, malaria elimination efforts are ongoing in several locations across Southeast Asia,  including in Kayin State (also known as Karen State), Myanmar . This paper describes the community engagement efforts for a pilot malaria elimination project, the challenges encountered and lessons learnt. METHODS:  Between May 2013 and June 2015, a study on targeted malaria elimination (TME) that included mass drug administration was conducted in four villages (TPN, TOT, KNH, and HKT) of Kayin State...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894186/contributions-of-cuticle-permeability-and-enzyme-detoxification-to-pyrethroid-resistance-in-the-major-malaria-vector-anopheles-gambiae
#20
Gildas A Yahouédo, Fabrice Chandre, Marie Rossignol, Carole Ginibre, Vasileia Balabanidou, Natacha Garcia Albeniz Mendez, Olivier Pigeon, John Vontas, Sylvie Cornelie
To tackle the problem of insecticide resistance, all resistance mechanisms need to be studied. This study investigated the involvement of the cuticle in pyrethroid resistance in a strain of Anopheles gambiae, MRS, free of kdr mutations. Bioassays revealed MRS to be resistant to pyrethroids and DDT, indicated by increasing knockdown times and resistance ratios. Moreover, biochemical analysis indicated that metabolic resistance based on enhanced CYP450 activity may also play a role. Insecticide penetration assays showed that there were significantly lower amounts of insecticide in the MRS strain than in the susceptible control...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
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