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malaria resistance

Mie Ikeda, Megumi Kaneko, Shin-Ichiro Tachibana, Betty Balikagala, Miki Sakurai-Yatsushiro, Shouki Yatsushiro, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Masato Yamauchi, Makoto Sekihara, Muneaki Hashimoto, Osbert T Katuro, Alex Olia, Paul S Obwoya, Mary A Auma, Denis A Anywar, Emmanuel I Odongo-Aginya, Joseph Okello-Onen, Makoto Hirai, Jun Ohashi, Nirianne M Q Palacpac, Masatoshi Kataoka, Takafumi Tsuboi, Eisaku Kimura, Toshihiro Horii, Toshihiro Mita
Because ≈90% of malaria cases occur in Africa, emergence of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa poses a serious public health threat. To assess emergence of artemisinin-resistant parasites in Uganda during 2014-2016, we used the recently developed ex vivo ring-stage survival assay, which estimates ring-stage-specific P. falciparum susceptibility to artemisinin. We conducted 4 cross-sectional surveys to assess artemisinin sensitivity in Gulu, Uganda. Among 194 isolates, survival rates (ratio of viable drug-exposed parasites to drug-nonexposed controls) were high (>10%) for 4 isolates...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Wandayi Emmanuel Amlabu, Ishaya Haruna Nock, Naveen Kumar Kaushik, Dinesh Mohanakrishnan, Jyoti Tiwary, Patrick Ahmadu Audu, Musbahu S Abubakar, Dinkar Sahal
The plant kingdom continues to hold great promise for the eradication of Malaria infection following the challenges of insecticide resistance by the vector mosquito, drug resistance by the parasite, and the development of a vaccine still being a mirage. Acalypha wilkesiana Muller Argoviensis, 1866 (family: Euphorbiaceae) leaves have the ethnopharmacological reputation for use as a remedy against dermal microbial infections in Nigeria. Here, we have studied the antiplasmodial potential of the extract of the leaves of this ornamental plant...
March 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Kelle Velasques, Tamara Ramos Maciel, Ana Helena de Castro Dal Forno, Flávia Elizabete Guerra Teixeira, Amanda Luisa da Fonseca, Fernando de Pilla Varotti, André Ricardo Fajardo, Daiana Silva de Ávila, Sandra Elisa Haas
Drugs used for the treatment and prevention of malaria have resistance-related problems, making them ineffective for monotherapy. If properly associated, many of these antimalarial drugs may find their way back to the treatment regimen. Among the therapeutic arsenal, quinine (QN) is a second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria but has side effects that limit its use. Curcumin (CR) is a natural compound with anti-plasmodial activities and low bioavailability. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize co-encapsulated QN + CR-loaded polysorbate-coated polymeric nanocapsules (NC-QC) to evaluate their activity on Plasmodium falciparum and the safety of the nanoformulations for Caenorhabditis elegans...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christine Ludwin Wanjala, Eliningaya J Kweka
Background: Malaria vector control efforts have taken malaria related cases down to appreciable number per annum after large scale of intervention tools. Insecticides-based tools remain the major control option for malaria vectors in Kenya and, therefore, the potential of such programs to be compromised by the reported insecticide resistance is of major concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the status of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in different agro ecosystems from western Kenya...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
A Kane Dia, O Kalsom Guèye, E Amadou Niang, S Mocote Diédhiou, M Demba Sy, Abdoulaye Konaté, Badara Samb, Abdoulaye Diop, Lassana Konaté, Ousmane Faye
BACKGROUND: Urban malaria is an increasing concern in most of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. In Dakar, the capital city of Senegal, the malaria epidemiology has been complicated by recurrent flooding since 2005. The main vector control measure for malaria prevention in Dakar is the community use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. However, the increase of insecticide resistance reported in this area needs to be better understood for suitable resistance management. This study reports the situation of insecticide resistance and underlying mechanisms in Anopheles arabiensis populations from Dakar and its suburbs...
March 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Liwen Feng, Don Antoine Lanfranchi, Leandro Cotos, Elena Cesar-Rodo, Katharina Ehrhardt, Alice-Anne Goetz, Herbert Zimmermann, François Fenaille, Stephanie A Blandin, Elisabeth Davioud-Charvet
Malaria is a tropical parasitic disease threatening populations in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Resistance to antimalarial drugs has spread all over the world in the past 50 years, thus new drugs are urgently needed. Plasmodione (benzylmenadione series) has been identified as a potent antimalarial early lead drug, acting through a redox bioactivation on asexual and young sexual blood stages. To investigate its metabolism, a series of plasmodione-based tools, including a fully13 C-labelled lead drug and putative metabolites, have been designed and synthesized for drug metabolism investigation...
March 15, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Yanouk Epelboin, Sarah C Chaney, Amandine Guidez, Nausicaa Habchi-Hanriot, Stanislas Talaga, Lanjiao Wang, Isabelle Dusfour
Since the 1940s, French Guiana has implemented vector control to contain or eliminate malaria, yellow fever, and, recently, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Over time, strategies have evolved depending on the location, efficacy of the methods, development of insecticide resistance, and advances in vector control techniques. This review summarises the history of vector control in French Guiana by reporting the records found in the private archives of the Institute Pasteur in French Guiana and those accessible in libraries worldwide...
March 12, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Frances Rocamora, Lei Zhu, Kek Yee Liong, Arjen Dondorp, Olivo Miotto, Sachel Mok, Zbynek Bozdech
Due to their remarkable parasitocidal activity, artemisinins represent the key components of first-line therapies against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the decline in efficacy of artemisinin-based drugs jeopardizes global efforts to control and ultimately eradicate the disease. To better understand the resistance phenotype, artemisinin-resistant parasite lines were derived from two clones of the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum using a selection regimen that mimics how parasites interact with the drug within patients...
March 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Janie Anne Zuber, Shannon Takala-Harrison
Based on the emergence and spread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) of multiple artemisinin-resistant lineages, the prevalence of multidrug resistance leading to high rates of artemisinin-based combination treatment failure in parts of the GMS, and the declining malaria burden in the region, the World Health Organization has recommended complete elimination of falciparum malaria from the GMS. Mass drug administration (MDA) is being piloted as one elimination intervention to be employed as part of this effort...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ishag Adam, Yassin Ibrahim, Gasim I Gasim
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major public health problem in endemic countries including Sudan, where about 75% of populations are at risk. Due to widespread of chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is currently treatment of choice for malaria in the vast majority of malaria-endemic countries. This systematic review and meta-analysis is performed to obtain an overall stronger evidence of the outcomes of ACT in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria from the existing literature in Sudan...
March 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Bin Yang, Jingxia Huang, Xuefeng Zhou, Xiuping Lin, Juan Liu, Shengrong Liao, Junfeng Wang, Feng-An Liu, Huaming Tao, Yonghong Liu
Malaria caused by Plasmodium parasites is amongst many prevalent public health concerns in several tropical regions of the world. Nowadays, the parasite resistance patterns to most currently used drugs in therapy and insecticides have created an urgent need for new chemical entities exhibiting new modes of action and management strategies. Fungus have been proven to be excellent sources of biologically active compounds, which have been screened for antiplasmodial activity as potential sources of new antimalarial drugs...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Laurent Dembele, Devendra Kumar Gupta, Michelle Yi-Xiu Lim, Xiaoman Ang, Jeremy J Selva, Kesinee Chotivanich, Chea Nguon, Arjen M Dondorp, Ghislain M C Bonamy, Thierry T Diagana, Pablo Bifani
Artemisinin (ART) resistance has spread through Southeast Asia, posing serious threat to the control and elimination of malaria. ART resistance has been associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch-13 ( Pfk13 ) propeller domain. Phenotypically, ART resistance is defined as delayed parasite clearance in patients' due to the reduced susceptibility of early ring-stage parasites to the active metabolite of ART dihydroartemisinin (DHA). Early rings can enter a state of quiescence upon DHA exposure and resume growth in its absence...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
P Nkoli Mandoko, V Sinou, D Moke Mbongi, D Ngoyi Mumba, G Kahunu Mesia, J Losimba Likwela, S Bi Shamamba Karhemere, L Muepu Tshilolo, J-J Tamfum Muyembe, D Parzy
OBJECTIVE: Artemisinin-based combination therapies have been available since 2005 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to treat malaria and to overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance as well as to improve access to effective treatments. The private sector is the primary distribution source for anti-malarial drugs and thus, has a key position among the supply chain actors for a rational and proper use of anti-malarial drugs. We aimed to assess access to nationally recommended anti-malarial drugs in private sector pharmacies of the capital-city of Kinshasa...
March 9, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Tryphena Adams, Nana Aba A Ennuson, Neils B Quashie, Godfred Futagbi, Sena Matrevi, Oheneba C K Hagan, Benjamin Abuaku, Kwadwo A Koram, Nancy O Duah
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum delayed clearance with the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACTs) has been reported in some African countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes, P. falciparum adaptor protein complex 2 mu subunit (pfap2mu) and ubiquitin specific protease 1 (pfubp1), have been linked to delayed clearance with ACT use in Kenya and recurrent imported malaria in Britain. With over 12 years of ACT use in Ghana, this study investigated the prevalence of SNPs in the pfap2mu and pfubp1 in Ghanaian clinical P...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Mathieu Gendrot, Francis Tsombeng Foguim, Marie Gladys Robert, Rémy Amalvict, Joel Mosnier, Nicolas Benoit, Marylin Madamet, Bruno Pradines
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy has emerged and spread in Southeast Asia. In areas where artemisinin resistance is emerging, the efficacy of combination is now based on partner drugs. In this context, the identification of novel markers of resistance is essential to monitor the emergence and spread of resistance to these partner drugs. The ubiquitylation pathway could be a possible target for anti-malarial compounds and might be involved in resistance...
March 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ana Laura Calderón-Garcidueñas, Stefan M Waliszewski, Rubén Ruiz-Ramos, María Del Carmen Martinez-Valenzuela
The population that lives in areas where organochlorine pesticides were spread in the past is still exposed to them through contaminated food, particulate matter, and vapors. Due to their lipophilic properties and resistance to metabolic reactions, they accumulate in tissues and fluids rich in lipids. The aim of the study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in forensic adipose tissue samples of adult inhabitants of Veracruz City, Mexico, and compare their time trend levels from 1988 to 2014...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Michal Fried, Jonathan D Kurtis, Bruce Swihart, Robert Morrison, Sunthorn Pond-Tor, Amadou Barry, Youssoufa Sidibe, Sekouba Keita, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Naissem Andemel, Oumar Attaher, Adama B Dembele, Kadidia B Cisse, Bacary S Diarra, Moussa B Kanoute, David L Narum, Alassane Dicko, Patrick E Duffy
BACKGROUND: Maternal malaria is a tropical scourge associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Women become resistant to Plasmodium falciparum pregnancy malaria as they acquire antibodies to the variant surface antigen VAR2CSA, a leading vaccine candidate. Because malaria infection may increase VAR2CSA antibody levels and thereby confound analyses of immune protection, gravidity-dependent changes in antibody levels during and after infection, and the effect of VAR2CSA antibodies on pregnancy outcomes were evaluated...
March 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
Rupam Tripura, Thomas J Peto, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Mavuto Mukaka, Pasathorn Sirithiranont, Mehul Dhorda, Cholrawee Promnarate, Mallika Imwong, Lorenz von Seidlein, Jureeporn Duanguppama, Krittaya Patumrat, Huy Rekol, Martin P Grobusch, Nicholas P J Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp
Background: The increase in multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Southeast Asia suggests a need for acceleration of malaria elimination. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of mass drug administrations (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission. Methods: Four malaria-endemic villages in western Cambodia were randomized to three rounds of MDA (a three-day course of dihydroartemisinin with piperaquine-phosphate), administered in either early or at the end of the study-period...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Cyrille Ndo, Edmond Kopya, Marie Agathe Donbou, Flobert Njiokou, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Charles Wondji
BACKGROUND: High coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is the cornerstone of the malaria control strategy of the national malaria control program (NMCP) in Cameroon, with a target of reducing malaria transmission to less than 10% by 2035. To this end, more than 20 million LLINs have been distributed to populations countrywide since 2011. The present study evaluated entomological indices and Anopheles susceptibility to pyrethroids in a rural forested area of south Cameroon with high coverage of LLINs...
March 8, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
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