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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020373/artemether-lumefantrine-versus-chloroquine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-knowlesi-malaria-can-know-an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Matthew J Grigg, Timothy William, Bridget E Barber, Giri S Rajahram, Jayaram Menon, Emma Schimann, Christopher S Wilkes, Kaajal Patel, Arjun Chandna, Ric N Price, Tsin W Yeo, Nicholas M Anstey
Background: Plasmodium knowlesi is reported increasingly across Southeast Asia, and is the commonest cause of malaria in Malaysia. No randomized trials have assessed comparative efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for knowlesi malaria. Methods: A randomized-controlled trial was conducted in 3 district hospitals in Sabah, Malaysia to compare the efficacy of AL against chloroquine (CQ) for uncomplicated knowlesi malaria. Participants were included if >10kg, parasitemia <20,000/μL, and had a negative Pf-HRP2 rapid-diagnostic-test...
September 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020247/assessment-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-arterolane-maleate-piperaquine-phosphate-dispersible-tablets-in-comparison-with-artemether-lumefantrine-dispersible-tablets-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-phase-3-randomized
#2
Offianan Andre Toure, Victor Mwapasa, Issaka Sagara, Oumar Gaye, Ricardo Thompson, Aishwarya V Maheshwar, Pitabas Mishra, Narendra Behra, Antoinette K Tshefu, Rashmi R Das, Anupkumar R Anvikar, Pradeep Sharma, Arjun Roy, Sanjay K Sharma, Amit Nasa, Rajinder K Jalali, Neena Valecha
Background: Administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to infant and young children can be challenging. A formulation with accurate dose and ease of administration will improve adherence and compliance in children. The fixed-dose combination dispersible tablet of arterolane maleate (AM) 37.5 mg and piperaquine phosphate (PQP) 187.5 mg can make dosing convenient in children. Methods: This multicenter (India and Africa), comparative, parallel-group trial enrolled 859 patients aged 6 months to 12 years with Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
August 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018840/sharing-individual-patient-and-parasite-level-data-through-the-worldwide-antimalarial-resistance-network-platform-a-qualitative-case-study
#3
Elizabeth Pisani, Stella Botchway
BACKGROUND: Increasingly, biomedical researchers are encouraged or required by research funders and journals to share their data, but there's very little guidance on how to do that equitably and usefully, especially in resource-constrained settings. We performed an in-depth case study of one data sharing pioneer: the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). METHODS: The case study included a records review, a quantitative analysis of WAARN-related publications, in-depth interviews with 47 people familiar with WWARN, and a witness seminar involving a sub-set of 11 interviewees...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993326/a-dynamic-stress-model-explains-the-delayed-drug-effect-in-artemisinin-treatment-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#4
Pengxing Cao, Nectarios Klonis, Sophie Zaloumis, Con Dogovski, Stanley C Xie, Sompob Saralamba, Lisa J White, Freya J I Fowkes, Leann Tilley, Julie A Simpson, James M McCaw
Artemisinin resistance constitutes a major threat to the continued success of control programs for malaria, particularly in light of developing resistance to partner drugs. Improving our understanding of how artemisinin-based drugs act and how resistance manifests is essential for the optimisation of dosing regimens and the development of strategies to prolong the lifespan of current first-line treatment options. Recent short drug-pulse in vitro experiments have shown that the parasite killing rate depends not only on drug concentration but also the exposure time, challenging the standard pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic(PK-PD) paradigm in which the killing rate depends only on drug concentration...
October 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990915/methodological-considerations-for-use-of-routine-health-information-system-data-to-evaluate-malaria-program-impact-in-an-era-of-declining-malaria-transmission
#5
Ruth A Ashton, Adam Bennett, Joshua Yukich, Achuyt Bhattarai, Joseph Keating, Thomas P Eisele
Coverage of malaria control interventions is increasing dramatically across endemic countries. Evaluating the impact of malaria control programs and specific interventions on health indicators is essential to enable countries to select the most effective and appropriate combination of tools to accelerate progress or proceed toward malaria elimination. When key malaria interventions have been proven effective under controlled settings, further evaluations of the impact of the intervention using randomized approaches may not be appropriate or ethical...
September 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989253/psidium-guajava-a-single-plant-for-multiple-health-problems-of-rural-indian-population
#6
REVIEW
Poonam G Daswani, Manasi S Gholkar, Tannaz J Birdi
The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988541/a-randomised-double-blind-clinical-phase-ii-trial-of-the-efficacy-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-a-single-dose-combination-treatment-with-artefenomel-and-piperaquine-in-adults-and-children-with-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria
#7
Fiona Macintyre, Yeka Adoke, Alfred B Tiono, Tran Thanh Duong, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Marielle Bouyou-Akotet, Halidou Tinto, Quique Bassat, Saadou Issifou, Marc Adamy, Helen Demarest, Stephan Duparc, Didier Leroy, Bart E Laurijssens, Sophie Biguenet, Afizi Kibuuka, Antoinette Kitoto Tshefu, Melnick Smith, Chanelle Foster, Illse Leipoldt, Peter G Kremsner, Bui Quang Phuc, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Michael Ramharter
BACKGROUND: The clinical development of a single encounter treatment for uncomplicated malaria has the potential to significantly improve the effectiveness of antimalarials. Exploratory data suggested that the combination of artefenomel and piperaquine phosphate (PQP) has the potential to achieve satisfactory cure rates as a single dose therapy. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether a single dose of artefenomel (800 mg) plus PQP in ascending doses is an efficacious treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the 'target' population of children ≤ 5 years of age in Africa as well as Asian patients of all ages...
October 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982374/relationships-between-infection-with-plasmodium-falciparum-during-pregnancy-measures-of-placental-malaria-and-adverse-birth-outcomes
#8
James Kapisi, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Mary K Muhindo, Paul Natureeba, Patricia Awori, Miriam Nakalembe, Richard Ssekitoleko, Peter Olwoch, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D Clark, Gabrielle Rizzuto, Atis Muehlenbachs, Diane V Havlir, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Stephanie L Gaw
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy has been associated with maternal morbidity, placental malaria, and adverse birth outcomes. However, data are limited on the relationships between longitudinal measures of malaria during pregnancy, measures of placental malaria, and birth outcomes. METHODS: This is a nested observational study of data from a randomized controlled trial of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy among 282 participants with assessment of placental malaria and delivery outcomes...
October 5, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968782/impact-of-intermittent-preventive-treatment-during-pregnancy-on-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-mediating-polymorphisms-in-uganda
#9
Melissa D Conrad, Daniel Mota, Marissa Foster, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Jennifer Legac, Patrick Tumwebaze, Meghan Whalen, Abel Kakuru, Patience Nayebare, Erika Wallender, Diane V Havlir, Prasanna Jagannathan, Liusheng Huang, Francesca Aweeka, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal
Background: In a recent trial of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) in Uganda, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was superior to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in preventing maternal and placental malaria. Methods: We compared genotypes using sequencing, fluorescent microsphere, and qPCR assays at loci associated with drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated from subjects receiving DP or SP. Results: Considering aminoquinoline resistance, DP was associated with increased prevalences of mutations at pfmdr1 N86Y, pfmdr1 Y184F, and pfcrt K76T compared to SP (64...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967610/quantification-of-the-association-between-malaria-in-pregnancy-and-stillbirth-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Kerryn A Moore, Julie A Simpson, Michelle J L Scoullar, Rose McGready, Freya J I Fowkes
BACKGROUND: 2·6 million stillbirths occur annually worldwide. The association between malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth has yet to be comprehensively quantified. We aimed to quantify the association between malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth, and to assess the influence of malaria endemicity on the association. METHODS: We did a systematic review of the association between confirmed malaria in pregnancy and stillbirth. We included population-based cross-sectional, cohort, or case-control studies (in which cases were stillbirths or perinatal deaths), and randomised controlled trials of malaria in pregnancy interventions, identified before Feb 28, 2017...
November 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966050/malaria-epidemiology-at-the-clone-level
#11
REVIEW
Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Mueller
Genotyping to distinguish between parasite clones is nowadays a standard in many molecular epidemiological studies of malaria. It has become crucial in drug trials and to follow individual clones in epidemiological studies, and to understand how drug resistance emerges and spreads. Here, we review the applications of the increasingly available genotyping tools and whole-genome sequencing data, and argue for a better integration of population genetics findings into malaria-control strategies.
September 28, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955615/genome-wide-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates-for-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-using-integrative-bioinformatics-approaches
#12
Satarudra Prakash Singh, Deeksha Srivastava, Bhartendu Nath Mishra
In spite of decades of malaria research and clinical trials, a fully effective and long-lasting preventive vaccine remains elusive. In the present study, 5370 proteins of Plasmodium falciparum genome were screened for the presence of signal peptide/anchor and GPI anchor motifs. Out of 45 screened surface-associated proteins, 22 were consensually predicted as antigens and had no orthologs in human and mouse except circumsporozoite protein (PF3D7_0304600). Among 22 proteins, 19 were identified as new antigens...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947345/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-recombinant-plasmodium-falciparum-ama1-dico-malaria-vaccine-adjuvanted-with-gla-se-or-alhydrogel%C3%A2-in-european-and-african-adults-a-phase-1a-1b-randomized-double-blind-multi-centre-trial
#13
S B Sirima, C Durier, L Kara, S Houard, A Gansane, P Loulergue, M Bahuaud, N Benhamouda, I Nebié, B Faber, E Remarque, O Launay
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 Diversity Covering (PfAMA1-DiCo) candidate vaccine is a formulation of three recombinant variants of AMA1 designed to provide broader protection against parasites with varying AMA1 sequences. METHODS: In this staggered phase Ia/Ib randomized, double blind trial, healthy French adults received AMA1-DiCo with either Alhydrogel® (n=15) or GLA-SE (n=15). Following a safety assessment in French volunteers, GLA-SE was chosen for the phase Ib trial where healthy Burkinabe adults received either AMA1-DiCo/GLA-SE (n=18) or placebo (n=18)...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941620/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-viral-vectored-malaria-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-matrix-m%C3%A2
#14
Navin Venkatraman, Nicholas Anagnostou, Carly Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Danny Wright, Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson, Rachel Roberts, Ian Poulton, Alison Lawrie, Katie Ewer, Adrian V S Hill
The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein)...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938876/assessment-of-the-effect-of-larval-source-management-and-house-improvement-on-malaria-transmission-when-added-to-standard-malaria-control-strategies-in-southern-malawi-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Robert S McCann, Henk van den Berg, Peter J Diggle, Michèle van Vugt, Dianne J Terlouw, Kamija S Phiri, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Nicolas Maire, Steven Gowelo, Monicah M Mburu, Alinune N Kabaghe, Themba Mzilahowa, Michael G Chipeta, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Due to outdoor and residual transmission and insecticide resistance, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) will be insufficient as stand-alone malaria vector control interventions in many settings as programmes shift toward malaria elimination. Combining additional vector control interventions as part of an integrated strategy would potentially overcome these challenges. Larval source management (LSM) and structural house improvements (HI) are appealing as additional components of an integrated vector management plan because of their long histories of use, evidence on effectiveness in appropriate settings, and unique modes of action compared to LLINs and IRS...
September 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935919/split-dosing-of-artemisinins-does-not-improve-antimalarial-therapeutic-efficacy
#16
N J White, J Watson, E A Ashley
It has been suggested recently, based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling exercises, that twice daily dosing of artemisinins increases malaria parasite killing and so could "dramatically enhance and restore drug effectiveness" in artemisinin resistant P. falciparum malaria infections. It was recommended that split dosing should be incorporated into all artemisinin combination regimen designs. To explain why parasite clearance rates were not faster with split dose regimens it was concluded that splenic malaria parasite clearance capacity was readily exceeded, resulting in the accumulation of dead parasites in the circulation, that parasite clearance was therefore an unreliable measure of drug efficacy, and instead that human immunity is the primary determinant of clearance rates...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934066/characterization-of-t-cell-immune-responses-in-clinical-trials-of-the-candidate-rts-s-malaria-vaccine
#17
Philippe Moris, Erik Jongert, Robbert G van der Most
The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S has demonstrated 45.7% efficacy over 18 months against all clinical disease in a phase-III field study of African children. RTS,S targets the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), which is expressed on the Plasmodium sporozoite during the pre-erythrocyte stage of its life-cycle; the stage between mosquito bite and liver infection. Early in the development of RTS,S, it was recognized that CSP-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was required to complement CSP-specific antibody-mediated immunity...
September 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923866/changing-antimalarial-drug-sensitivities-in-uganda
#18
Stephanie A Rasmussen, Frida G Ceja, Melissa D Conrad, Patrick K Tumwebaze, Oswald Byaruhanga, Thomas Katairo, Samuel L Nsobya, Philip J Rosenthal, Roland A Cooper
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) has demonstrated excellent efficacy for the treatment and prevention of malaria in Uganda. However, resistance to both components of this regimen has emerged in Southeast Asia. The efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen to treat malaria in Uganda, has also been excellent, but continued pressure may select for parasites with decreased sensitivity to lumefantrine. To gain insight into current drug sensitivity patterns, ex vivo sensitivities were assessed and genotypes previously associated with altered drug sensitivity were characterized for 58 isolates collected in Tororo, Uganda from subjects presenting in 2016 with malaria from the community or as part of a clinical trial comparing DP chemoprevention regimens...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#19
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904111/a-literature-review-of-the-effect-of-malaria-on-stunting
#20
REVIEW
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting.Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model.Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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