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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822205/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-two-different-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-in-an-area-with-high-seasonal-transmission-of-malaria-in-burkina-faso
#1
Paul Sondo, Karim Derra, Seydou Diallo Nakanabo, Zekiba Tarnagda, Adama Kazienga, Innocent Valea, Herman Sorgho, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Tinga Robert Guiguemdé, Halidou Tinto
In Sahelian countries such as Burkina Faso, malaria transmission is seasonal with a high incidence of transmission during the rainy season. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two recommended treatments (Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine) for uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso regarding this seasonal variation of malaria transmission. This is part of a randomized open label trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Artesunate-Amodiaquine according to routine practice in Nanoro...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820691/field-trial-of-the-carestart-biosensor-analyzer-for-the-determination-of-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-haiti
#2
Thomas A Weppelmann, Michael E von Fricken, Tara D Wilfong, Elisa Aguenza, Taina T Philippe, Bernard A Okech
Throughout many developing and tropical countries around the world, malaria remains a significant threat to human health. One barrier to malaria elimination is the ability to safely administer primaquine chemotherapy for the radical cure of malaria infections in populations with a high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. In the current study, a field trial of the world's first quantitative, point-of-care assay for measuring G6PD activity was conducted in Haiti. The performance of the CareStart Biosensor Analyzer was compared with the gold standard spectrophotometric assay and genotyping of the G6PD allele in schoolchildren (N = 343) from the Ouest Department of Haiti...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818049/post-treatment-haemolysis-in-african-children-with-hyperparasitaemic-falciparum-malaria-a-randomized-comparison-of-artesunate-and-quinine
#3
C Fanello, M Onyamboko, S J Lee, C Woodrow, S Setaphan, K Chotivanich, P Buffet, S Jauréguiberry, K Rockett, K Stepniewska, N P J Day, N J White, A M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Parenteral artesunate is the treatment of choice for severe malaria. Recently, haemolytic anaemia occurring 1 to 3 weeks after artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria has been reported in returning travellers in temperate countries. METHODS: To assess these potential safety concerns in African children, in whom most deaths from malaria occur, an open-labelled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. 217 children aged between 6 months and 14 years with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and parasite densities over 100,000/μL were randomly allocated to intravenous artesunate or quinine, hospitalized for 3 days and then followed for 42 days...
August 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816023/community-sensitization-and-decision-making-for-trial-participation-a-mixed-methods-study-from-the-gambia
#4
Susan Dierickx, Sarah O'Neill, Charlotte Gryseels, Edna Immaculate Anyango, Melanie Bannister-Tyrrell, Joseph Okebe, Julia Mwesigwa, Fatou Jaiteh, René Gerrets, Raffaella Ravinetto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: Ensuring individual free and informed decision-making for research participation is challenging. It is thought that preliminarily informing communities through 'community sensitization' procedures may improve individual decision-making. This study set out to assess the relevance of community sensitization for individual decision-making in research participation in rural Gambia. METHODS: This anthropological mixed-methods study triangulated qualitative methods and quantitative survey methods in the context of an observational study and a clinical trial on malaria carried out by the Medical Research Council Unit Gambia...
August 16, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814307/which-intervention-is-better-for-malaria-vector-control-insecticide-mixture-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-or-standard-pyrethroid-nets-combined-with-indoor-residual-spraying
#5
Corine Ngufor, Josias Fagbohoun, Jessica Critchley, Raphael N'Guessan, Damien Todjinou, David Malone, Martin Akogbeto, Mark Rowland
BACKGROUND: Malaria control today is threatened by widespread insecticide resistance in vector populations. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of a mixture of unrelated insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LNs) or as a combination of interventions for improved vector control and insecticide resistance management. Studies investigating the efficacy of these different strategies are necessary. METHODS: The efficacy of Interceptor(®) G2 LN, a newly developed LN treated with a mixture of chlorfenapyr (a pyrrole) and alpha-cypermethrin (a pyrethroid), was compared to a combined chlorfenapyr IRS and Interceptor(®) LN (a standard alpha-cypermethrin LN) intervention in experimental huts in Cove Southern Benin, against wild, free-flying, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s...
August 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806957/clinical-and-molecular-surveillance-of-artemisinin-resistant-falciparum-malaria-in-myanmar-2009-2013
#6
Myat Htut Nyunt, Myat Thu Soe, Hla Win Myint, Htet Wai Oo, Moe Moe Aye, Soe Soe Han, Ni Ni Zaw, Cho Cho, Phyo Zaw Aung, Khin Thiri Kyaw, Thin Thin Aye, Naychi Aung San, Leonard Ortega, Krongthong Thimasarn, Maria Dorina G Bustos, Sherwin Galit, Mohammad Rafiul Hoque, Pascal Ringwald, Eun-Taek Han, Myat Phone Kyaw
BACKGROUND: Emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in Southeast Asian countries threatens the global control of malaria. Although K13 kelch propeller has been assessed for artemisinin resistance molecular marker, most of the mutations need to be validated. In this study, artemisinin resistance was assessed by clinical and molecular analysis, including k13 and recently reported markers, pfarps10, pffd and pfmdr2. METHODS: A prospective cohort study in 1160 uncomplicated falciparum patients was conducted after treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), in 6 sentinel sites in Myanmar from 2009 to 2013...
August 14, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804644/a-malaria-vaccine-protects-aotus-monkeys-against-virulent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection
#7
Prakash Srinivasan, G Christian Baldeviano, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Julio A Ventocilla, Karina P Leiva, Luis Lugo-Roman, Carmen Lucas, Sachy Orr-Gonzalez, Daming Zhu, Eileen Villasante, Lorraine Soisson, David L Narum, Susan K Pierce, Carole A Long, Carter Diggs, Patrick E Duffy, Andres G Lescano, Louis H Miller
The Plasmodium falciparum protein, apical membrane antigen 1 forms a complex with another parasite protein, rhoptry neck protein 2, to initiate junction formation with the erythrocyte and is essential for merozoite invasion during the blood stage of infection. Consequently, apical membrane antigen 1 has been a target of vaccine development but vaccination with apical membrane antigen 1 alone in controlled human malaria infections failed to protect and showed limited efficacy in field trials. Here we show that vaccination with AMA1-RON2L complex in Freund's adjuvant protects Aotus monkeys against a virulent Plasmodium falciparum infection...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800035/the-anti-malarial-drug-artesunate-attenuates-cardiac-injury-in-a-rodent-model-of-myocardial-infarction
#8
Areeg I Khan, Amar Kapoor, Jianmin Che, Lukas Martin, Mara Rogazzo, Thomas Mercier, Laurent Decosterd, Massimo Collino, Christoph Thiemermann
Ischaemic heart disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Artesunate is the WHO-recommended drug of choice for complicated malaria (with organ failure). The administration of high doses of artesunate is safe in healthy volunteers (up to 8 mg/kg i.v) and patients with severe malaria (2.4 mg/kg i.v). We investigated the effects of artesunate (1 mg/kg) or its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA; 0.1 mg/kg) in a model of transient myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) and evaluated the mechanism of action of the observed cardioprotective effects of artesunate and DHA...
August 9, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797263/measuring-the-impact-of-seasonal-malaria-chemoprevention-as-part-of-routine-malaria-control-in-kita-mali
#9
Fatou Diawara, Laura C Steinhardt, Almahamoudou Mahamar, Tiangoua Traore, Daouda T Kone, Halimatou Diawara, Beh Kamate, Diakalia Kone, Mouctar Diallo, Aboubacar Sadou, Jules Mihigo, Issaka Sagara, Abdoulaye A Djimde, Erin Eckert, Alassane Dicko
BACKGROUND: Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) is a new strategy recommended by WHO in areas of highly seasonal transmission in March 2012. Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown SMC to be highly effective, evidence and experience from routine implementation of SMC are limited. METHODS: A non-randomized pragmatic trial with pre-post design was used, with one intervention district (Kita), where four rounds of SMC with sulfadoxine + amodiaquine (SP + AQ) took place in August-November 2014, and one comparison district (Bafoulabe)...
August 10, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793894/prevalence-of-polymorphisms-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-sickle-haemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-genes-and-their-relationship-with-incidence-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-iganga-uganda
#10
Catherine Nassozi Lwanira, Fred Kironde, Mark Kaddumukasa, Göte Swedberg
BACKGROUND: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792500/malaria-malnutrition-and-birthweight-a-meta-analysis-using-individual-participant-data
#11
Jordan E Cates, Holger W Unger, Valerie Briand, Nadine Fievet, Innocent Valea, Halidou Tinto, Umberto D'Alessandro, Sarah H Landis, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Kathryn G Dewey, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Meghna Desai, Stephanie Dellicour, Peter Ouma, Julie Gutman, Martina Oneko, Laurence Slutsker, Dianne J Terlouw, Simon Kariuki, John Ayisi, Mwayiwawo Madanitsa, Victor Mwapasa, Per Ashorn, Kenneth Maleta, Ivo Mueller, Danielle Stanisic, Christentze Schmiegelow, John P A Lusingu, Anna Maria van Eijk, Melissa Bauserman, Linda Adair, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Steven Meshnick, Stephen Rogerson
BACKGROUND: Four studies previously indicated that the effect of malaria infection during pregnancy on the risk of low birthweight (LBW; <2,500 g) may depend upon maternal nutritional status. We investigated this dependence further using a large, diverse study population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the interaction between maternal malaria infection and maternal anthropometric status on the risk of LBW using pooled data from 14,633 pregnancies from 13 studies (6 cohort studies and 7 randomized controlled trials) conducted in Africa and the Western Pacific from 1996-2015...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790788/artemisinin-naphthoquine-combination-a-directly-observed-treatment-option-in-malaria
#12
M S Mustafa, V Rastogi
Resistance to standard antimalarials has led to the need for newer options. Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), which require a tedious three-day treatment schedule, have been introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant malaria. Of late, the new generation artemisinin-naphthoquine (ANQ) combination has been developed, which requires a single dose treatment. Artemisinin initiates the action through the cleavage of the endoperoxide bridge while naphtoquine maintains the process by getting concentrated in the digestive vacuole of the parasite...
July 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775306/rts-s-as01-malaria-vaccine-efficacy-is-not-modified-by-seasonal-precipitation-results-from-a-phase-3-randomized-controlled-trial-in-malawi
#13
Larry Han, Michael G Hudgens, Michael E Emch, Jonathan J Juliano, Corinna Keeler, Francis Martinson, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Marc Lievens, Irving F Hoffman
The World Health Organization has selected Malawi as one of three sites to pilot the roll-out of RTS,S/AS01 in phase 4 trials. As policy discussions for the expanded use of RTS,S/AS01 continue, it will be critical to determine the performance of the vaccine according to seasonal patterns of malaria transmission in regions of Africa. Given waning vaccine efficacy over time, this secondary analysis demonstrates that administering the vaccine to children in the months prior to malaria season could maximize impact of the vaccine...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774303/comparison-of-anti-malarial-drugs-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-african-children-and-adults-using-network-meta-analysis
#14
Solange Whegang Youdom, Rachida Tahar, Leonardo K Basco
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and novel drug combinations are available and used in African countries to treat uncomplicated malaria. Network meta-analysis methods are rarely and poorly applied for the comparison of their efficacies. This method was applied on a set of randomized controlled trials to illustrate its usefulness. METHODS: A literature review available in Pubmed was conducted in July 2016. Eligible studies, conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, published between 2002 and 2016, focused on randomized controlled trials of at least two artemisinin-based combinations to treat uncomplicated malaria in children and adults...
August 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771493/differing-growth-responses-to-nutritional-supplements-in-neighboring-health-districts-of-burkina-faso-are-likely-due-to-benefits-of-small-quantity-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements-lns
#15
Sonja Y Hess, Janet M Peerson, Elodie Becquey, Souheila Abbeddou, Césaire T Ouédraogo, Jérôme W Somé, Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez, Jean-Bosco Ouédraogo, Stephen A Vosti, Noël Rouamba, Kenneth H Brown
BACKGROUND: Of two community-based trials among young children in neighboring health districts of Burkina Faso, one found that small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) increased child growth compared with a non-intervention control group, but zinc supplementation did not in the second study. OBJECTIVES: We explored whether the disparate growth outcomes were associated with differences in intervention components, household demographic variables, and/or children's morbidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759593/proteogenomic-analysis-of-the-total-and-surface-exposed-proteomes-of-plasmodium-vivax-salivary-gland-sporozoites
#16
Kristian E Swearingen, Scott E Lindner, Erika L Flannery, Ashley M Vaughan, Robert D Morrison, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, Cristian Koepfli, Ivo Muller, Aaron Jex, Robert L Moritz, Stefan H I Kappe, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Sebastian A Mikolajczak
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cause the majority of human malaria cases. Research efforts predominantly focus on P. falciparum because of the clinical severity of infection and associated mortality rates. However, P. vivax malaria affects more people in a wider global range. Furthermore, unlike P. falciparum, P. vivax can persist in the liver as dormant hypnozoites that can be activated weeks to years after primary infection, causing relapse of symptomatic blood stages. This feature makes P. vivax unique and difficult to eliminate with the standard tools of vector control and treatment of symptomatic blood stage infection with antimalarial drugs...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758824/vaccine-development-and-trials-in-low-and-lower-middle-income-countries-key-issues-advances-and-future-opportunities
#17
Amy Grenham, Tonya Villafana
Over the past ten years there has been an increase in the number of vaccine clinical studies conducted in resource limited countries. These include vaccine trials for diseases such as malaria and dengue fever which are endemic to many low and lower-middle income countries. Concurrent with the increase in the number of trials, has been the increase and improvement in local infrastructure to enable the appropriate conduct and oversight of these trials in these settings, including strengthening of local scientific capabilities, ethical and regulatory oversight...
July 31, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755971/efficacy-of-standardized-extract-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-l-malvaceae-in-improving-iron-status-of-adults-in-malaria-endemic-area-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Emanuel L Peter, Susan F Rumisha, Kijakazi O Mashoto, Omary Ms Minzi, Sayoki Mfinanga
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indigenous community of Mkuranga district have been using aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. for treating anemia. However, there have been neither safety nor efficacy studies to validate this medicinal product in anemia. AIM: The purpose of this study was to establish efficacy and safety of standardized aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa L. in anemic adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial in which 130 adults' men and women aged 18-50 years were involved after meeting the inclusion criteria...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753958/iron-in-micronutrient-powder-promotes-an-unfavorable-gut-microbiota-in-kenyan-infants
#19
Minghua Tang, Daniel N Frank, Audrey E Hendricks, Diana Ir, Fabian Esamai, Edward Liechty, K Michael Hambidge, Nancy F Krebs
Iron supplementation may have adverse health effects in infants, probably through manipulation of the gut microbiome. Previous research in low-resource settings have focused primarily on anemic infants. This was a double blind, randomized, controlled trial of home fortification comparing multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) with and without iron. Six-month-old, non- or mildly anemic, predominantly-breastfed Kenyan infants in a rural malaria-endemic area were randomized to consume: (1) MNP containing 12.5 mg iron (MNP+Fe, n = 13); (2) MNP containing no iron (MNP-Fe, n = 13); or (3) Placebo (CONTROL, n = 7), from 6-9 months of age...
July 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732806/artemisia-annua-dried-leaf-tablets-treated-malaria-resistant-to-act-and-i-v-artesunate-case-reports
#20
Nsengiyumva Bati Daddy, Luc Malemo Kalisya, Pascal Gisenya Bagire, Robert L Watt, Melissa J Towler, Pamela J Weathers
BACKGROUND: Dried leaf Artemisia annua (DLA) has shown efficacy against Plasmodium sp. in rodent studies and in small clinical trials. Rodent malaria also showed resiliency against the evolution of artemisinin drug resistance. PURPOSE: This is a case report of a last resort treatment of patients with severe malaria who were responding neither to artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) nor i.v. artesunate. STUDY DESIGN: Of many patients treated with ACTs and i...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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