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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211753/response-of-pumas-puma-concolor-to-migration-of-their-primary-prey-in-patagonia
#1
Maria L Gelin, Lyn C Branch, Daniel H Thornton, Andrés J Novaro, Matthew J Gould, Anthony Caragiulo
Large-scale ungulate migrations result in changes in prey availability for top predators and, as a consequence, can alter predator behavior. Migration may include entire populations of prey species, but often prey populations exhibit partial migration with some individuals remaining resident and others migrating. Interactions of migratory prey and predators have been documented in North America and some other parts of the world, but are poorly studied in South America. We examined the response of pumas (Puma concolor) to seasonal migration of guanacos (Lama guanicoe) in La Payunia Reserve in northern Patagonia Argentina, which is the site of the longest known ungulate migration in South America...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196525/mapping-local-and-global-variability-in-plant-trait-distributions
#2
Ethan E Butler, Abhirup Datta, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Ming Chen, Kirk R Wythers, Farideh Fazayeli, Arindam Banerjee, Owen K Atkin, Jens Kattge, Bernard Amiaud, Benjamin Blonder, Gerhard Boenisch, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Kerry A Brown, Chaeho Byun, Giandiego Campetella, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph M Craine, Dylan Craven, Franciska T de Vries, Sandra Díaz, Tomas F Domingues, Estelle Forey, Andrés González-Melo, Nicolas Gross, Wenxuan Han, Wesley N Hattingh, Thomas Hickler, Steven Jansen, Koen Kramer, Nathan J B Kraft, Hiroko Kurokawa, Daniel C Laughlin, Patrick Meir, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Yusuke Onoda, Josep Peñuelas, Quentin Read, Lawren Sack, Brandon Schamp, Nadejda A Soudzilovskaia, Marko J Spasojevic, Enio Sosinski, Peter E Thornton, Fernando Valladares, Peter M van Bodegom, Mathew Williams, Christian Wirth, Peter B Reich
Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant functional types (PFTs), with all trait variation in a PFT collapsed into a single mean value that is applied globally. Using the largest global plant trait database and state of the art Bayesian modeling, we created fine-grained global maps of plant trait distributions that can be applied to Earth system models...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167452/cross-continental-increase-in-methane-ebullition-under-climate-change
#3
Ralf C H Aben, Nathan Barros, Ellen van Donk, Thijs Frenken, Sabine Hilt, Garabet Kazanjian, Leon P M Lamers, Edwin T H M Peeters, Jan G M Roelofs, Lisette N de Senerpont Domis, Susanne Stephan, Mandy Velthuis, Dedmer B Van de Waal, Martin Wik, Brett F Thornton, Jeremy Wilkinson, Tonya DelSontro, Sarian Kosten
Methane (CH4) strongly contributes to observed global warming. As natural CH4 emissions mainly originate from wet ecosystems, it is important to unravel how climate change may affect these emissions. This is especially true for ebullition (bubble flux from sediments), a pathway that has long been underestimated but generally dominates emissions. Here we show a remarkably strong relationship between CH4 ebullition and temperature across a wide range of freshwater ecosystems on different continents using multi-seasonal CH4 ebullition data from the literature...
November 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160927/climate-change-impacts-on-selected-global-rangeland-ecosystem-services
#4
Randall B Boone, Richard T Conant, Jason Sircely, Philip K Thornton, Mario Herrero
Rangelands are Earth's dominant land cover and are important providers of ecosystem services. Reliance on rangelands is projected to grow, thus understanding the sensitivity of rangelands to future climates is essential. We used a new ecosystem model of moderate complexity that allows, for the first time, to quantify global changes expected in rangelands under future climates. The mean global annual net primary production (NPP) may decline by 10 g C m(-2) yr(-1) in 2050 under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8...
November 21, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160811/relationships-between-vacant-homes-and-food-swamps-a-longitudinal-study-of-an-urban-food-environment
#5
Yeeli Mui, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Rachel L J Thornton, Keshia Pollack Porter, Joel Gittelsohn
Research indicates that living in neighborhoods with high concentrations of boarded-up vacant homes is associated with premature mortality due to cancer and diabetes, but the mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Boarded-up housing may indirectly impact residents' health by affecting their food environment. We evaluated the association between changes in vacancy rates and changes in the density of unhealthy food outlets as a proportion of all food outlets, termed the food swamp index, in Baltimore, MD (USA) from 2001 to 2012, using neighborhood fixed-effects linear regression models...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155802/investigation-of-common-low-frequency-and-rare-genome-wide-variation-in-anorexia-nervosa
#6
L M Huckins, K Hatzikotoulas, L Southam, L M Thornton, J Steinberg, F Aguilera-McKay, J Treasure, U Schmidt, C Gunasinghe, A Romero, C Curtis, D Rhodes, J Moens, G Kalsi, D Dempster, R Leung, A Keohane, R Burghardt, S Ehrlich, J Hebebrand, A Hinney, A Ludolph, E Walton, P Deloukas, A Hofman, A Palotie, P Palta, F J A van Rooij, K Stirrups, R Adan, C Boni, R Cone, G Dedoussis, E van Furth, F Gonidakis, P Gorwood, J Hudson, J Kaprio, M Kas, A Keski-Rahonen, K Kiezebrink, G-P Knudsen, M C T Slof-Op 't Landt, M Maj, A M Monteleone, P Monteleone, A H Raevuori, T Reichborn-Kjennerud, F Tozzi, A Tsitsika, A van Elburg, D A Collier, P F Sullivan, G Breen, C M Bulik, E Zeggini
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder presenting with dangerously low body weight, and a deep and persistent fear of gaining weight. To date, only one genome-wide significant locus associated with AN has been identified. We performed an exome-chip based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 2158 cases from nine populations of European origin and 15 485 ancestrally matched controls. Unlike previous studies, this GWAS also probed association in low-frequency and rare variants. Sixteen independent variants were taken forward for in silico and de novo replication (11 common and 5 rare)...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146853/genome-sequences-of-four-subcluster-l2-mycobacterium-phages-finemlucis-miley16-wilder-and-zakai
#7
Christopher D Herren, Alexandra Peister, Timothy S Breton, Maggie S Hill, Marcy S Anderson, Adeline W Chang, Sydney B Klein, Mackenzie M Thornton, Stacy J Vars, Kasey E Wagner, Paige L Wiebe, Thomas G Williams, Coraima P Yanez, Jasanta M Ackles, Darius Artis, Ryan J Brazier, Ronald J Bryant, Kerel O Callwood, Isaiah H Carter, Cameron L DeBose, Christian D Edwards, Isaiah C Ezemba, Renshal R Joaquin, Zakai M Meghoo-Peddie, Ziha G Meghoo-Peddie, Ryan W Moore, Christopher E Smith, Adam J Turner, Raymond L Vorters, Jeffrey J Wider, Liesel L Krout, Mia S Comis, Madison J Davick, Eli E Michaud, Bailey E Shevenell, Sarah E Stanley, Chelsey I Frank, Jacob R Montgomery, Lawrence S Blumer, Jean A Doty, Martha Smith-Caldas, Welkin H Pope, Steven G Cresawn, Daniel A Russell, Rebecca A Garlena, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Graham F Hatfull
Four subcluster L2 mycobacteriophages, Finemlucis, Miley16, Wilder, and Zakai, that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 were isolated. The four phages are closely related to each other and code for 12 to 14 tRNAs and 130 to 132 putative protein-coding genes, including tyrosine integrases, cro, immunity repressors, and excise genes involved in the establishment of lysogeny.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122864/complete-genome-sequences-of-mycobacteriophages-clautastrophe-kingsolomon-krypton555-and-nicholas
#8
Hui-Min Chung, Tom D'Elia, Joseph F Ross, Samuel M Alvarado, Molly-Catherine Brantley, Lydia P Bricker, Courtney R Butler, Carson Crist, Julia M Dane, Brett W Farran, Sierra Hobbs, Michelle Lapak, Conner Lovell, Nicholas Ludergnani, Allison McMullen, Sohail A Mirza, Noah Thrift, Donald P Vaughan, Grace Worley, Amara Ejikemeuwa, May Zaw, Claude F Albritton, Sarah C Bertrand, Shanzay S Chaudhry, Vzair A Cheema, Camilla Do, Michael L Do, Huyen M Duong, Dalia H El-Desoky, Kelsey M Green, Rhea N Lee, Lauren A Thornton, James M Vu, Mah Noor Zahra, Steven G Cresawn, Ty H Stoner, Rebecca A Garlena, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Welkin H Pope, Daniel A Russell, Graham F Hatfull
We report here the complete genome sequences of four subcluster L3 mycobacteriophages newly isolated from soil samples, using Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 as the host. Comparative genomic analyses with four previously described subcluster L3 phages reveal strong nucleotide similarity and gene conservation, with several large insertions/deletions near their right genome ends.
November 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106691/developmental-effects-of-cannabidiol-and-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-in-zebrafish
#9
Dennis R Carty, Cammi Thornton, James Gledhill, Kristine L Willett
Cannabidiol (CBD) has gained much attention in the past several years for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy, such as Dravet Syndrome. While CBD has shown anecdotal efficacy in reducing seizure frequency, little is known regarding the potential adverse side-effects of CBD on physiology, development, organogenesis, or behavior. The goal of this project is to compare the relative morphological, behavioral, and gene expression phenotypes resulting after a developmental exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or CBD...
November 2, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077507/multi-ethnic-meta-analysis-identifies-rai1-as-a-possible-obstructive-sleep-apnea-related-quantitative-trait-locus-in-men
#10
Han Chen, Brian E Cade, Kevin J Gleason, Andrew C Bjonnes, Adrienne M Stilp, Tamar Sofer, Matthew P Conomos, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Raanan Arens, Ali Azarbarzin, Graeme I Bell, Jennifer E Below, Sung Chun, Daniel S Evans, Ralf Ewert, Alexis C Frazier-Wood, Sina A Gharib, José Haba-Rubio, Erika W Hagen, Raphael Heinzer, David R Hillman, W Craig Johnson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jacqueline M Lane, Emma K Larkin, Seung Ku Lee, Jingjing Liang, Jose S Loredo, Sutapa Mukherjee, Lyle J Palmer, George J Papanicolaou, Thomas Penzel, Paul E Peppard, Wendy S Post, Alberto R Ramos, Ken Rice, Jerome I Rotter, Scott A Sands, Neomi A Shah, Chol Shin, Katie L Stone, Beate Stubbe, Jae-Hoon Sul, Mehdi Tafti, Kent D Taylor, Alexander Teumer, Timothy A Thornton, Gregory J Tranah, Chaolong Wang, Heming Wang, Simon C Warby, D Andrew Wellman, Phyllis C Zee, Craig L Hanis, Cathy C Laurie, Daniel J Gottlieb, Sanjay R Patel, Xiaofeng Zhu, Shamil R Sunyaev, Richa Saxena, Xihong Lin, Susan Redline
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common heritable disorder displaying marked sexual dimorphism in disease prevalence and progression. Previous genetic association studies have identified a few genetic loci associated with OSA and related quantitative traits, but they have only focused on single ethnic groups and a large proportion of the heritability remains unexplained. The apnea hypopnea index (AHI) is a commonly used quantitative measure characterizing OSA severity. Since OSA differs by sex, and the pathophysiology of obstructive events differ in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, we hypothesized that additional genetic association signals would be identified by analyzing the NREM/REM-specific AHI and by conducting sex-specific analyses in multi-ethnic samples...
October 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045833/intestinal-fork-head-regulates-nutrient-absorption-and-promotes-longevity
#11
Ekin Bolukbasi, Mobina Khericha, Jennifer C Regan, Dobril K Ivanov, Jennifer Adcott, Miranda C Dyson, Tobias Nespital, Janet M Thornton, Nazif Alic, Linda Partridge
Reduced activity of nutrient-sensing signaling networks can extend organismal lifespan, yet the underlying biology remains unclear. We show that the anti-aging effects of rapamycin and reduced intestinal insulin/insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling (IIS) require the Drosophila FoxA transcription factor homolog Fork Head (FKH). Intestinal FKH induction extends lifespan, highlighting a role for the gut. FKH binds to and is phosphorylated by AKT and Target of Rapamycin. Gut-specific FKH upregulation improves gut barrier function in aged flies...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#12
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971003/the-processing-of-animacy-information-is-disrupted-as-a-function-of-callous-unemotional-traits-in-youth-with-disruptive-behavior-disorders
#13
Laura C Thornton, Elizabeth A Penner, Zachary T Nolan, Christopher J Adalio, Stephen Sinclair, Harma Meffert, Soonjo Hwang, R James R Blair, Stuart F White
Atypical amygdala responses to emotional stimuli have been consistently reported in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs; Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder). However, responding to animacy stimuli has not been systematically investigated. Yet, the amygdala is known to be responsive to animacy stimuli and impairment in responsiveness to animacy information may have implications for social cognitive development. Twenty-nine youth with DBDs and 20 typically developing youth, matched for IQ, age (Mage  = 14...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952672/long-term-follow-up-of-patients-with-spontaneous-clearance-of-hepatitis-c-does-viral-clearance-mean-cure
#14
M Iqbal, P A McCormick, M Cannon, N Murphy, P Flanagan, J E Kennelly, L Thornton
Up to 40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies are negative for HCV RNA at initial evaluation. If there is a risk of viral re-activation, long term follow-up is required with attendant financial, psychological and medical implications. We investigated the risk of re-activation in the Irish anti-D cohort. Information was obtained from the national hepatitis C database which includes data on patients infected by anti-D immunoglobulin in two large outbreaks, 1977-9 and 1991-94. As part of a screening programme, starting in 1994, 64,907 females exposed to anti-D immunoglobulin were evaluated...
June 9, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943747/african-american-and-black-caribbean-feelings-of-closeness-to-africans
#15
Michael C Thornton, Robert Joseph Taylor, Linda M Chatters, Ivy Forsythe-Brown
African American and Black Caribbean relations dominate research on interactions across black ethnic divides. Using National Survey of American Life data, we explore a different aspect of black interethnic attitudes: how close these groups feel toward Africans. African Americans and Black Caribbeans were largely similar in their feelings of closeness to Africans. For Black Caribbeans, younger and male respondents, those reporting higher levels of financial strain, living in the northeast and persons who immigrated to the United States at least 11 years ago, report feeling especially close to Africans...
2017: Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938063/severe-fetal-growth-restriction-at-26-32-weeks-key-messages-from-the-truffle-study
#16
EDITORIAL
C M Bilardo, K Hecher, G H A Visser, A T Papageorghiou, N Marlow, B Thilaganathan, A Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, T Todros, K Marsal, T Frusca, B Arabin, C Brezinka, J B Derks, A Diemert, J J Duvekot, E Ferrazzi, W Ganzevoort, P Martinelli, E Ostermayer, D Schlembach, H Valensise, J Thornton, H Wolf, C Lees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926400/hepatitis-b-hepatitis-c-and-mortality-among-hiv-positive-individuals
#17
Alicia C Thornton, Sophie Jose, Sanjay Bhagani, David Chadwick, David Dunn, Richard Gilson, Janice Main, Mark Nelson, Alison Rodger, Chris Taylor, Elaney Youssef, Clifford Leen, Mark Gompels, Stephen Kegg, Achim Schwenk, Caroline Sabin
OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of all-cause, liver-related, and AIDS-related mortality among individuals who are HIV-monoinfected with those coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. DESIGN: An ongoing observational cohort study collating routinely collected clinical data on HIV-positive individuals attending for care at HIV treatment centres throughout the United Kingdom. METHODS: Individuals were included if they had been seen for care from 2004 onwards and had tested for HBV and HCV...
November 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917217/post-operative-c-reactive-protein-profile-following-abdominal-wall-reconstruction-with-transversus-abdominis-posterior-components-separation
#18
A Pearce, L Thornton, P A Sutton, C J Walsh
INTRODUCTION: Abdominal wall reconstruction using posterior component separation with transversus abdominis release (AWTAR) produces a unique post-operative CRP profile, when compared to routine elective colorectal operations. Therefore, we aim to establish the normal post-operative C-reactive protein (poCRP) profile following AWRTAR and reduce the unnecessary invasive interventions in patients already at greater risk of septic complications. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of daily poCRP levels was performed both for patients who underwent uncomplicated AWRTAR (n=12), and a comparator group of uncomplicated open right hemicolectomies (RH) matched for age and sex (n=24)...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912373/the-association-of-sleep-duration-and-quality-with-ckd-progression
#19
Ana C Ricardo, Kristen Knutson, Jinsong Chen, Lawrence J Appel, Lydia Bazzano, Eunice Carmona-Powell, Janet Cohan, Manjula Kurella Tamura, Susan Steigerwalt, John Daryl Thornton, Matthew Weir, Nicolas F Turek, Mahboob Rahman, Eve Van Cauter, James P Lash
Evidence suggests that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, but the influence of sleep duration and quality on CKD progression is unknown. We examined the association of habitual sleep duration and quality with CKD progression in 431 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants, of whom 48% were women and 50% had diabetes (mean age of 60 years old, mean eGFR =38 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCR] =0.20 g/g). We assessed sleep duration and quality by 5-7 days of wrist actigraphy and self-report...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859985/the-normal-trachea-is-cleaned-by-muc5b-mucin-bundles-from-the-submucosal-glands-coated-with-the-muc5ac-mucin
#20
Anna Ermund, Lauren N Meiss, Ana M Rodriguez-Pineiro, Andrea Bähr, Harriet E Nilsson, Sergio Trillo-Muyo, Caroline Ridley, David J Thornton, Jeffrey J Wine, Hans Hebert, Nikolai Klymiuk, Gunnar C Hansson
To understand the mucociliary clearance system, mucins were visualized by light, confocal and electron microscopy, and mucus was stained by Alcian blue and tracked by video microscopy on tracheal explants of newborn piglets. We observed long linear mucus bundles that appeared at the submucosal gland openings and were transported cephalically. The mucus bundles were shown by mass spectrometry and immunostaining to have a core made of MUC5B mucin and were coated with MUC5AC mucin produced by surface goblet cells...
October 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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