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Ketogenic diets

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144225/prevalence-of-genetic-disorders-and-glut1-deficiency-in-a-ketogenic-diet-clinic
#1
Stacy Hewson, Ledia Brunga, Matilde Fernandez Ojeda, Elizabeth Imhof, Jaina Patel, Maria Zak, Elizabeth J Donner, Jeff Kobayashi, Gajja S Salomons, Saadet Mercimek-Andrews
Between July of 2012 and December of 2014, 39 patients were enrolled prospectively to investigate the prevalence of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency in a ketogenic diet clinic. None of them had GLUT1 deficiency. All patients seen in the same clinic within the same period were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 18 of these 85 patients had a genetic diagnosis, including GLUT1 deficiency, pathogenic copy number variants, congenital disorder of glycosylation, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type II, mitochondrial disorders, tuberous sclerosis, lissencephaly, and SCN1A-, SCN8A-, and STXBP1-associated epileptic encephalopathies...
November 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130289/development-and-pilot-testing-of-a-parent-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-measure-for-children-on-the-ketogenic-diet-the-ketoqol
#2
Katie Barwick, Tamara Parker, Nicole Murphy, Alwyn Todd, Michael Leveritt, Shelley A Wilkinson
AIM: The aim of the present study was to develop a parent-reported tool that will measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children following ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for refractory epilepsy once it has been pilot tested and analysed. METHODS: Parents of children following KD therapies for epilepsy were recruited through a public hospital in Queensland, Australia, in 2012 and 2014. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted in 2012 with 13 parents who described changes seen in their child's HRQoL while on the KD...
November 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124439/lennox-gastaut-syndrome-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Ali A Asadi-Pooya
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is considered an epileptic encephalopathy and is defined by a triad of multiple drug-resistant seizure types, a specific EEG pattern showing bursts of slow spike-wave complexes or generalized paroxysmal fast activity, and intellectual disability. The prevalence of LGS is estimated between 1 and 2% of all patients with epilepsy. The etiology of LGS is often divided into two groups: identifiable (genetic-structural-metabolic) in 65 to 75% of the patients and LGS of unknown cause in others...
November 9, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118350/ageing-improvement-in-age-related-cognitive-functions-and-life-expectancy-by-ketogenic-diets
#4
Arne Astrup, Mads Fiil Hjorth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108901/keto-adaptation-enhances-exercise-performance-and-body-composition-responses-to-training-in-endurance-athletes
#5
Fionn T McSwiney, Bruce Wardrop, Parker N Hyde, Richard A Lafountain, Jeff S Volek, Lorna Doyle
BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4 wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. METHODS: Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33 ± 11y, body mass 80 ± 11kg; BMI 24.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n = 11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat = 65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n = 9, 6:17:77)...
November 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105987/a-ketone-ester-drink-lowers-human-ghrelin-and-appetite
#6
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Malgorzata Cyranka, Kieran Clarke, Heidi de Wet
OBJECTIVE: The ketones d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are elevated during prolonged fasting or during a "ketogenic" diet. Although weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be associated with decreased appetite and altered gut hormone levels, it is unknown whether such changes are caused by elevated blood ketones. This study investigated the effects of an exogenous ketone ester (KE) on appetite. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, subjects with normal weight (n = 15) consumed 1...
November 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103429/immunotherapeutics-in-pediatric-autoimmune-central-nervous-system-disease-agents-and-mechanisms
#7
Margherita Nosadini, Stefano Sartori, Suvasini Sharma, Russell C Dale
Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102513/translating-mechanism-based-strategies-to-break-the-obesity-cancer-link-a-narrative-review
#8
Laura A Smith, Ciara H O'Flanagan, Laura W Bowers, Emma H Allott, Stephen D Hursting
Prevalence of obesity, an established risk factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically over the past 50 years in the United States and across the globe. Relative to normoweight cancer patients, obese cancer patients often have poorer prognoses, resistance to chemotherapies, and are more likely to develop distant metastases. Recent progress on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer connection suggests that obesity exerts pleomorphic effects on pathways related to tumor development and progression and, thus, there are multiple opportunities for primary prevention and treatment of obesity-related cancers...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093663/selection-and-characterization-of-palmitic-acid-responsive-patients-with-an-oxphos-complex-i-defect
#9
Tom E J Theunissen, Mike Gerards, Debby M E I Hellebrekers, Florence H van Tienen, Rick Kamps, Suzanne C E H Sallevelt, Elvira N M M-D Hartog, Hans R Scholte, Robert M Verdijk, Kees Schoonderwoerd, Irenaeus F M de Coo, Radek Szklarczyk, Hubert J M Smeets
Mitochondrial disorders are genetically and clinically heterogeneous, mainly affecting high energy-demanding organs due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Currently, effective treatments for OXPHOS defects, with complex I deficiency being the most prevalent, are not available. Yet, clinical practice has shown that some complex I deficient patients benefit from a high-fat or ketogenic diet, but it is unclear how these therapeutic diets influence mitochondrial function and more importantly, which complex I patients could benefit from such treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080083/evaluation-of-metformin-effects-in-the-chronic-phase-of-spontaneous-seizures-in-pilocarpine-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#10
Soraya Mehrabi, Nima Sanadgol, Mahmood Barati, Ali Shahbazi, Gelareh Vahabzadeh, Mitra Barzroudi, Morteza Seifi, Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, Fereshteh Golab
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common form of drug-resistant epilepsy that sometimes responds to dietary manipulation such as the 'ketogenic diet'. Here we have investigated the effects of metformin in the rat pilocaroin model of TLE. Male rats were treated with intra peritoneal injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride, in dose of 360 mg/kg to induce status epilepticus (SE). At 45 day after induction of SE, metformin was injected intraperitoneally in dose of 250 mg/kg/day for 5 days. We show that metformin potently reduces the progression of seizures and blocks seizure-induced over-expression of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)...
October 27, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078087/epilepsy-in-tuberous-sclerosis-patients-in-sweden-healthcare-utilization-treatment-morbidity-and-mortality-using-national-register-data
#11
Karl-Olof Welin, Peter Carlqvist, Anders Svensson, Rikard Althin, Erik Eklund, Olof Rask
PURPOSE: This study is designed to estimate the prevalence of epilepsy associated with TSC in Sweden and to describe treatment, morbidity, and mortality of TSC patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Register data for 2004-2014 was obtained from the National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden. Patients with TSC were identified using ICD-10 codes. Epilepsy was identified using ICD-10 codes, interventions aimed to treat epilepsy, or prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs...
October 7, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077838/dietary-manipulations-that-induce-ketosis-activate-the-hpa-axis-in-male-rats-and-mice-a-potential-role-for-fibroblast-growth-factor-21
#12
Karen K Ryan, Amy E B Packard, Karlton R Larson, Jayna Stout, Sarah M Fourman, Abigail M K Thompson, Kristen Ludwick, Kirk M Habegger, Kerstin Stemmer, Nobuyuki Itoh, Diego Perez-Tilve, Matthias H Tschöp, Randy J Seeley, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
In response to an acute threat to homeostasis or well-being, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is engaged. A major outcome of this HPA axis activation is the mobilization of stored energy, to fuel an appropriate behavioral and/ or physiological response to the perceived threat. Importantly, the extent of HPA axis activity is thought to be modulated by an individual's nutritional environment. In this study, we report that nutritional manipulations signaling a relative depletion of dietary carbohydrates, thereby inducing nutritional ketosis, acutely and chronically activate the HPA axis...
October 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069983/short-term-and-long-term-efficacy-of-classical-ketogenic-diet-and-modified-atkins-diet-in-children-and-adolescents-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Shahabeddin Rezaei, Ahmed Abdulahi Abdurahman, Amene Saghazadeh, Reza Shervin Badv, Maryam Mahmoudi
OBJECTIVES: Classical ketogenic diet (KD) and modified Atkins diet (MAD) are two types of KD commonly used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy throughout the world. Studies have shown the efficacy of these diets. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis study has to date compared the efficacy of KD and MAD in a time trend. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to compare the short-term and long-term efficacy of classical KD and MAD in children and adolescents with epilepsy and to determine the efficacy of classical KD and MAD at multiple time points and in a time trend...
October 25, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058362/the-ketone-body-metabolite-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-induces-an-antidepression-associated-ramification-of-microglia-via-hdacs-inhibition-triggered-akt-small-rhogtpase-activation
#14
Chao Huang, Peng Wang, Xing Xu, Yaru Zhang, Yu Gong, Wenfeng Hu, Minhui Gao, Yue Wu, Yong Ling, Xi Zhao, Yibin Qin, Rongrong Yang, Wei Zhang
Direct induction of macrophage ramification has been shown to promote an alternative (M2) polarization, suggesting that the ramified morphology may determine the function of immune cells. The ketone body metabolite β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) elevated in conditions including fasting and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) can reduce neuroinflammation. However, how exactly BHB impacts microglia remains unclear. We report that BHB as well as its producing stimuli fasting and KD induced obvious ramifications of murine microglia in basal and inflammatory conditions in a reversible manner, and these ramifications were accompanied with microglial profile toward M2 polarization and phagocytosis...
October 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056525/ketogenic-diet-attenuates-neuronal-injury-via-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-pathways-in-pentylenetetrazol-kindled-seizures
#15
Bao-Hui Wang, Qun Hou, Yu-Qiang Lu, Meng-Meng Jia, Tao Qiu, Xiao-Hang Wang, Zheng-Xiang Zhang, Yan Jiang
Autophagy alterations have been observed in a variety of neurological disorders, however, very few studies have focused on autophagy alterations in epilepsy. The ketogenic diet (KD) likely ameliorates neuronal loss in several seizure models. However, whether this neuroprotective function occurs via starvation-induced autophagy and its prevalence in chronic kindled seizures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of autophagy following seizure under KD, and the potential mechanism involved...
October 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053577/electrographic-changes-accompanying-recurrent-seizures-under-ketogenic-diet-treatment
#16
Chiara Lucchi, Maddalena Marchiò, Elisa Caramaschi, Carmela Giordano, Rocco Giordano, Azzurra Guerra, Giuseppe Biagini
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used to treat epilepsy refractory to antiepileptic drugs and other neurological disorders. In animal models, the KD was found to increase the threshold to seizures induced by different convulsive stimulations. However, in models in which suprathreshold stimuli were used, a paradoxical seizure worsening was consistently observed in KD-fed animals. To better define this phenomenon, we characterized the electrographic response to seizures induced in mice which were treated with the KD, and then corneally stimulated at 6-Hz in four different sessions...
October 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046197/-prospective-study-of-ketogenic-diet-in-treatment-of-children-with-global-developmental-delay
#17
Deng-Na Zhu, Ping Li, Jun Wang, Jun-Ying Yuan, Guang-Yu Zhang, Jiang-Fang Liang, Ming-Mei Wang, Yun-Xia Zhao, Shuang An, Na Ma, Dan-Dan Ma
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of ketogenic diet (KD) on neurobehavioral development, emotional and social behaviors, and life ability in children with global developmental delay (GDD). METHODS: A prospective case-control study was performed for hospitalized children with GDD, who were randomly divided into KD treatment group (n=40) and conventional treatment group (n=37). The children in both groups were given comprehensive rehabilitation training, and those in the KD treatment group were given modified Atkins diet in addition to the comprehensive rehabilitation training...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046155/impact-of-dietary-fats-on-brain-functions
#18
Rosanna Chianese, Roberto Coccurello, Andrea Viggiano, Marika Scafuro, Marco Fiore, Giangennaro Coppola, Francesca Felicia Operto, Silvia Fasano, Sophie Layé, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
Adequate dietary intake and nutritional status have important effects on brain functions and on brain health. Energy intake and specific nutrients excess or deficiency from diet differently affect cognitive processes, emotions, behaviour, neuroendocrine functions and synaptic plasticity with possible protective or detrimental effects on neuronal physiology. Lipids, in particular, play structural and functional roles in neurons. Here the importance of dietary fats and the need to understand the brain mechanisms activated by peripheral and central metabolic sensors...
October 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045796/the-modification-of-the-ketogenic-diet-mitigates-its-stunting-effects-in-rodents
#19
Arkadiusz Damian Liśkiewicz, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Anna Sługocka, Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Jan Wiaderkiewicz, Halina Jędrzejowska-Szypułka, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
The high fat and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (HFKD) is extensively studied within the fields of numerous diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders. Since most studies incorporate animal models, ensuring the quality of ketogenic rodent diets is important, both in the context of laboratory animal welfare as well as for the accuracy of the obtained results. In this study we implemented a modification to a commonly-used ketogenic rodent chow by replacing non-resorbable cellulose with wheat bran...
October 18, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044647/epilepsy-and-astrocyte-energy-metabolism
#20
Detlev Boison, Christian Steinhäuser
Epilepsy is a complex neurological syndrome characterized by neuronal hyperexcitability and sudden, synchronized electrical discharges that can manifest as seizures. It is now increasingly recognized that impaired astrocyte function and energy homeostasis play key roles in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Excessive neuronal discharges can only happen, if adequate energy sources are made available to neurons. Conversely, energy depletion during seizures is an endogenous mechanism of seizure termination. Astrocytes control neuronal energy homeostasis through neurometabolic coupling...
October 17, 2017: Glia
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