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malaria polymorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329160/maternal-microchimerism-predicts-increased-infection-but-decreased-disease-due-to-p-falciparum-during-early-childhood
#1
Whitney E Harrington, Sami B Kanaan, Atis Muehlenbachs, Robert Morrison, Philip Stevenson, Michal Fried, Patrick E Duffy, J Lee Nelson
BACKGROUND: A mother's infection with placental malaria (PM) can affect her child's susceptibility to malaria, although the mechanism remains unclear. The fetus acquires a small amount of maternal cells and DNA known as maternal microchimerism (MMc), and we hypothesized that PM increases MMc and that MMc alters risk of P. falciparum malaria during infancy. METHODS: In a nested cohort from Muheza, Tanzania, we evaluated the presence and level of cord blood MMc in offspring of women with and without PM...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327148/drug-resistance-mediating-plasmodium-falciparum-polymorphisms-and-clinical-presentations-of-parasitaemic-children-in-uganda
#2
Stephen Tukwasibwe, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melissa Conrad, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Samuel L Nsobya, Bryan Greenhouse, Philip J Rosenthal
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum genetic polymorphisms that mediate altered drug sensitivity may impact upon virulence. In a cross-sectional study, Ugandan children with infections mutant at pfcrt K76T, pfmdr1 N86Y, or pfmdr1 D1246Y had about one-fourth the odds of symptomatic malaria compared to those with infections with wild type (WT) sequences. However, results may have been confounded by greater likelihood in those with symptomatic disease of higher density mixed infections and/or recent prior treatment that selected for WT alleles...
March 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288644/tollip-gene-variant-is-associated-with-plasmodium-vivax-malaria-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#3
Larissa W Brasil, Laila R A Barbosa, Felipe J de Araujo, Allyson G da Costa, Luan D O da Silva, Suzana K Pinheiro, Anne C G de Almeida, Andrea Kuhn, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Gisely C de Melo, Wuelton M Monteiro, Marcus V G de Lacerda, Rajendranath Ramasawmy
BACKGROUND: Toll-interacting protein is a negative regulator in the TLR signaling cascade, particularly by impeding the TLR2 and, TLR4 pathway. Recently, TOLLIP was shown to regulate human TLR signaling pathways. Two common TOLLIP polymorphisms (rs5743899 and rs3750920) were reported to be influencing IL-6, TNF and IL-10 expression. In this study, TOLLIP variants were investigated to their relation to Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: This cohort study was performed in the municipalities of Careiro and, Manaus, in Western Brazilian Amazon...
March 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288632/unexpected-selections-of-plasmodium-falciparum-polymorphisms-in-previously-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-areas-after-monthly-presumptive-administration-of-three-different-anti-malarial-drugs-in-liberia-1976-78
#4
Irina T Jovel, Anders Björkman, Cally Roper, Andreas Mårtensson, Johan Ursing
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect on malaria prevalence, village specific monthly administrations of pyrimethamine, chlorproguanil, chloroquine or placebo were given to children in four previously treatment-naïve Liberian villages, 1976-78. Plasmodium falciparum in vivo resistance developed to pyrimethamine only. Selection of molecular markers of P. falciparum resistance after 2 years of treatment are reported. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 191 study children in a survey in 1978...
March 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274886/increased-susceptibility-of-blood-type-o-individuals-to-develop-anemia-in-plasmodium-vivax-infection
#5
Sarah Stela Resende, Vanessa Gonçalves Milagres, Daniel Gonçalves Chaves, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes, Luzia Helena Carvalho, Tais Nobrega Sousa, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito
Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P...
March 6, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264857/the-malaria-taqman-array-card-87-assays-for-plasmodium-falciparum-drug-resistance-speciation-and-genotyping-in-a-single-reaction
#6
Suporn Pholwat, Jie Liu, Suzanne Stroup, Shevin Jacob, Patrick Banura, Christopher Moore, Fang Huang, Miriam Laufer, Eric Houpt, Jennifer Guler
Antimalarial drug resistance exacerbates the global disease burden and complicates eradication efforts. To facilitate the surveillance of resistance markers in malaria-endemic countries, we developed a suite of TaqMan assays for known resistance markers and compartmentalized them into a single array card (TAC). We included 87 assays for species identification, the detection of Plasmodium falciparum mutations associated with chloroquine, atovaquone, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, and artemisinin resistance, and neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261200/vaccination-with-altered-peptide-ligands-of-a-plasmodium-berghei-circumsporozoite-protein-cd8-t-cell-epitope-a-model-to-generate-t-cells-resistant-to-immune-interference-by-polymorphic-epitopes
#7
Gabriela Minigo, Katie L Flanagan, Robyn M Slattery, Magdalena Plebanski
Many pathogens, including the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, display high levels of polymorphism within T-cell epitope regions of proteins associated with protective immunity. The T-cell epitope variants are often non-cross-reactive. Herein, we show in a murine model, which modifies a protective CD8 T-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of Plasmodium berghei (SYIPSAEKI), that simultaneous or sequential co-stimulation with two of its putative similarly non-cross-reactive altered peptide ligand (APL) epitopes (SYIPSAEDI or SYIPSAEAI) has radically different effects on immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237491/homozygosity-for-the-cd1e-02-allele-is-associated-with-a-resistance-to-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-infection-in-gabonese-school-children
#8
Landry-Erik Mombo, Francine Ntoumi, Cyrille Bisseye, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Pascal Millet, Ryad Tamouza
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible association between polymorphisms in CD1 genes and both asymptomatic and mild Plasmodium falciparum infection. METHODS: Two clusters of 85 school children, from the village of Dienga (Gabon) were investigated. The first group was analysed for the prevalence and the multiplicity of asymptomatic P. falciparum infection, whereas the second group was screened for the frequency of malarial attacks. RESULTS: Our findings showed that homozygosity for the CD1E*02 allele was associated with a low frequency of malarial attacks...
February 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#9
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193289/microgeographical-structure-in-the-major-neotropical-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi-using-microsatellites-and-snp-markers
#10
Melina Campos, Jan E Conn, Diego Peres Alonso, Joseph M Vinetz, Kevin J Emerson, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, throughout the Amazon Basin, landscape modification contributing to profound ecological change has proceeded at an unprecedented rate. Deforestation that accompanies human activities can significantly change aspects of anopheline biology, though this may be site-specific. Such local changes in anopheline biology could have a great impact on malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate population genetics of the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, from a microgeographical perspective...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183358/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-the-primary-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae-in-china-inferred-by-cox1-gene
#11
Xinyu Feng, Libin Huang, Lin Lin, Manni Yang, Yajun Ma
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a primary vector for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most regions of China. A comprehensive understanding of genetic variation and structure of the mosquito would be of benefit to the vector control and in a further attempt to contribute to malaria elimination in China. However, there is only inadequate population genetic data pertaining to An. sinensis currently. METHODS: Genetic variations and structure among populations of An. sinensis was examined and analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of a 662 nt variable region of the mitochondrial cox1 gene among 15 populations from 20 collection sites in China...
February 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174312/selective-whole-genome-amplification-is-a-robust-method-that-enables-scalable-whole-genome-sequencing-of-plasmodium-vivax-from-unprocessed-clinical-samples
#12
Annie N Cowell, Dorothy E Loy, Sesh A Sundararaman, Hugo Valdivia, Kathleen Fisch, Andres G Lescano, G Christian Baldeviano, Salomon Durand, Vince Gerbasi, Colin J Sutherland, Debbie Nolder, Joseph M Vinetz, Beatrice H Hahn, Elizabeth A Winzeler
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens from clinical samples is a highly sensitive tool used to gain a deeper understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and drug resistance mechanisms of many infections. However, WGS of organisms which exhibit low densities in their hosts is challenging due to high levels of host genomic DNA (gDNA), which leads to very low coverage of the microbial genome. WGS of Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed form of malaria, is especially difficult because of low parasite densities and the lack of an ex vivo culture system...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169112/the-economics-of-malaria-vaccine-development
#13
Magdalena Plebanski, Katie L Flanagan
Vaccines that do not take a comprehensive endpoint view of the pathogen population they want to tackle early in their developmental process, may find it financially prohibitive to redesign them once they have progressed down a costly regulatory and human trial pathway. Specifically, the lead malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S has limited ability to tackle parasite polymorphism and may induce sex-specific nonspecific effects (NSEs).
March 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163236/evolution-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-7-msp7-family-in-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-a-comparative-approach
#14
Andreína I Castillo, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante
Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) are a diverse group found in many species of vertebrate hosts. These parasites invade red blood cells in a complex process comprising several proteins, many encoded by multigene families, one of which is merozoite surface protein 7 (msp7). In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the most geographically widespread human-infecting species, differences in the number of paralogs within multigene families have been previously explained, at least in part, as potential adaptations to the human host...
February 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153009/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-vivax-metacaspase-1-and-plasmodium-vivax-multi-drug-resistance-1-genes-of-field-isolates-from-mauritania-sudan-and-oman
#15
Fatimata Sow, Guillaume Bonnot, Bilal Rabah Ahmed, Sidi Mohamed Diagana, Hachim Kebe, Mohamedou Koita, Ba Malado Samba, Said K Al-Mukhaini, Majed Al-Zadjali, Seif S Al-Abri, Osama A M Ali, Abdallah M Samy, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Musab M Ali Albsheer, Bruno Simon, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Eskild Petersen, Stéphane Picot
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the second most important human malaria parasite, widely spread across the world. This parasite is associated with important issues in the process toward malaria elimination, including potential for relapse and increased resistance to chloroquine. Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistant (pvmdr1) is suspected to be a marker of resistance although definitive evidence is lacking. Progress has been made in knowledge of biological factors affecting parasite growth, including mechanisms of regulated cell death and the suspected role of metacaspase...
February 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151952/genomic-footprints-of-selective-sweeps-from-metabolic-resistance-to-pyrethroids-in-african-malaria-vectors-are-driven-by-scale-up-of-insecticide-based-vector-control
#16
Kayla G Barnes, Gareth D Weedall, Miranda Ndula, Helen Irving, Themba Mzihalowa, Janet Hemingway, Charles S Wondji
Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139719/a-functional-il22-polymorphism-rs2227473-is-associated-with-predisposition-to-childhood-cerebral-malaria
#17
Sandrine Marquet, Ianina Conte, Belco Poudiougou, Laurent Argiro, Hélia Dessein, Charlène Couturier, Florence Burté, Aboubacar A Oumar, Biobele J Brown, Abdoualye Traore, Nathaniel K Afolabi, Abdoulaye Barry, Samuel Omokhodion, Wuraola A Shokunbi, Olugbemiro Sodeinde, Ogobara Doumbo, Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes, Alain J Dessein
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125584/the-real-mccoil-a-method-for-the-concurrent-estimation-of-the-complexity-of-infection-and-snp-allele-frequency-for-malaria-parasites
#18
Hsiao-Han Chang, Colin J Worby, Adoke Yeka, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Moses R Kamya, Sarah G Staedke, Grant Dorsey, Maxwell Murphy, Daniel E Neafsey, Anna E Jeffreys, Christina Hubbart, Kirk A Rockett, Roberto Amato, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Caroline O Buckee, Bryan Greenhouse
As many malaria-endemic countries move towards elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, effective tools for monitoring malaria epidemiology are urgent priorities. P. falciparum population genetic approaches offer promising tools for understanding transmission and spread of the disease, but a high prevalence of multi-clone or polygenomic infections can render estimation of even the most basic parameters, such as allele frequencies, challenging. A previous method, COIL, was developed to estimate complexity of infection (COI) from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, but relies on monogenomic infections to estimate allele frequencies or requires external allele frequency data which may not available...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119047/variable-number-of-tandem-repeats-of-9-plasmodium-vivax-genes-among-southeast-asian-isolates
#19
Bo Wang, Myat Htut Nyunt, Seung-Gyu Yun, Feng Lu, Yang Cheng, Jin-Hee Han, Kwon-Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Chae-Seung Lim, Jun Cao, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui, Eun-Taek Han
The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P...
January 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117431/culture-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-selects-for-convergent-loss-of-function-mutants
#20
Antoine Claessens, Muna Affara, Samuel A Assefa, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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