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malaria polymorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646896/detection-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-kelch-13-gene-p553l-mutation-in-sporozoites-isolated-from-mosquito-salivary-glands-in-south-central-vietnam
#1
Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen Tuyen Quang, Richard Culleton, Satoru Kawai, Gaku Masuda, Kaoru Hori, Shusuke Nakazawa, Ron P Marchand
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against artemisinin in Southeast Asia. Mutations in the P. falciparum Kelch-13 (Pfk13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the prevalence of mutations in PfK13 from sporozoite-stage parasites isolated from the salivary glands of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquitoes were caught by human-landing catches at two locations within the Khanh Phu commune, South-Central Vietnam...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643631/the-anopheles-gambiae-2la-chromosome-inversion-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-falciparum-in-africa
#2
Michelle M Riehle, Tullu Bukhari, Awa Gneme, Wamdaogo M Guelbeogo, Boubacar Coulibaly, Abdrahamane Fofana, Adrien Pain, Emmanuel Bischoff, Francois Renaud, Abdoul H Beavogui, Sekou F Traore, N'Fale Sagnon, Kenneth D Vernick
Chromosome inversions suppress genetic recombination and establish co-adapted gene complexes, or supergenes. The 2La inversion is a widespread polymorphism in the Anopheles gambiae species complex, the major African mosquito vectors of human malaria. Here we show that alleles of the 2La inversion are associated with natural malaria infection levels in wild-captured vectors from West and East Africa. Mosquitoes carrying the more-susceptible allele (2L+(a)) are also behaviorally less likely to be found inside houses...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639487/mrp2-abcc2-c1515y-polymorphism-modulates-exposure-to-lumefantrine-during-artemether-lumefantrine-antimalarial-therapy
#3
Karin Vos, Carlotta Lo Sciuto, Rita Piedade, Michael Ashton, Anders Björkman, Billy Ngasala, Andreas Mårtensson, José Pedro Gil
AIM: To investigate the potential involvement of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporters MRP2 and MDR1 in the disposition of lumefantrine (LUM) among patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. MATERIALS & METHODS: The tag SNPs MDR1/ABCB1 C3435T and MRP2/ABCC2 C1515Y were determined in two artemether-LUM clinical trials, including a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study focused on the treatment phase (72 h), and an efficacy trial where day 7 (D7) LUM levels were measured...
June 22, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619120/g6pd-deficiency-alleles-in-a-malaria-endemic-region-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon
#4
Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Jonathan Curry, Laura Hinton, Natercia R M Silva, Lynn Grignard, Ligia A Gonçalves, Ana Rita Gomes, Sabrina Epiphanio, Chris Drakeley, Jim Huggett, Taane G Clark, Susana Campino, Claudio R F Marinho
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria...
June 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612053/micro-epidemiological-structuring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-in-regions-with-varying-transmission-intensities-in-africa
#5
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Teun Bousema, Kirk Rockett, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Isabella Oyier, Jennifer C Stevenson, Amrish Y Baidjoe, Etienne P de Villiers, Greg Fegan, Amanda Ross, Christina Hubbart, Anne Jeffreys, Thomas N Williams, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background: The first models of malaria transmission assumed a completely mixed and homogeneous population of parasites.  Recent models include spatial heterogeneity and variably mixed populations. However, there are few empiric estimates of parasite mixing with which to parametize such models. Methods: Here we genotype 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5199 P. falciparum isolates from two Kenyan sites and one Gambian site to determine the spatio-temporal extent of parasite mixing, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear regression to examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and relatedness in space and time for parasite pairs...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607799/major-polymorphisms-of-genes-involved-in-homocysteine-metabolism-in-malaria-patients-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#6
Noé Yameogo, Bapio Valérie Elvira Jean Télesphore Bazie, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Pouiré Yameogo, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Florencia Wenkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Jacques Simpore
This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S). The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605993/in-vitro-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-and-polymorphisms-in-pfg377-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates-from-mewat-india
#7
Vineeta Singh, Amit Kumar, Purva Gupta
The malaria infection is the interplay of several complex factors, among which drug resistance and gametocyte biology are the crucial ones. Measurements of the drug sensitivity assays and prevalence of gametocyte genes play a major role in malaria eradication programmes. The purpose of this study was to assess the current drug sensitivity profile in the field isolates and type the Pfg377 gene. In vitro drug sensitivity assay was used to assess the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates collected from Mewat (Haryana), located in Northern region of India to four anti-malarial drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605544/functional-analysis-reveals-geographical-variation-in-inhibitory-immune-responses-against-a-polymorphic-malaria-antigen
#8
Amy K Bei, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Daouda Ndiaye, Zul Premji, Mahamadou Diakite, Souleymane Mboup, Carole A Long, Manoj T Duraisingh
Background: PfRh2b is a P. falciparum invasion ligand that is a potential blood stage vaccine candidate antigen; however, a naturally occurring deletion within an immunogenic domain is present at high frequencies in Africa and has been associated with alternative invasion pathway usage. Standardized tools that provide antigenic specificity in in vitro assays are needed to functionally assess the neutralizing potential of humoral responses against malaria vaccine candidate antigens. Methods: Transgenic parasite lines were generated to express the PfRh2b deletion...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604122/blood-stage-malaria-vaccines-post-genome-strategies-for-the-identification-of-novel-vaccine-candidates
#9
Edward H Ntege, Eizo Takashima, Masayuki Morita, Hikaru Nagaoka, Tomoko Ishino, Takafumi Tsuboi
An efficacious malaria vaccine is necessary to advance the current control measures towards malaria elimination. To-date, only RTS,S/AS01, a leading pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine completed phase 3 trials, but with an efficacy of 28-36% in children, and 18-26% in infants, that waned over time. Blood-stage malaria vaccines protect against disease, and are considered effective targets for the logical design of next generation vaccines to improve the RTS,S field efficacy. Therefore, novel blood-stage vaccine candidate discovery efforts are critical, albeit with several challenges including, high polymorphisms in vaccine antigens, poor understanding of targets of naturally protective immunity, and difficulties in the expression of high AT-rich plasmodial proteins...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594879/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#10
Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Pierrette Melin, Patrick De Mol, Marie-Pierre Hayette
Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the surveillance and the containment of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains. We investigated resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo by surveying molecular polymorphisms in three genes: pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13 to explore possible emergence of amodiaquine, lumefantrine or artemisinin resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587995/duffy-blood-group-system-new-genotyping-method-and-distribution-in-a-brazilian-extra-amazonian-population
#11
Marina Lobato Martins, Adão Rogerio da Silva, Hadassa Campos Santos, Michelle Teodoro Alves, Luciana Cayres Schmidt, Stela Brener Vertchenko, Luci Maria SantAna Dusse, Maria Clara Fernandes da Silva Malta
Duffy blood group system is of interest in several fields of science including transfusion medicine, immunology and malariology. Although some methods have been developed for Duffy polymorphism genotyping, not all of them have been sufficiently described and validated, and all present limitations. At the same time, the frequency of Duffy alleles and antigens in some densely populated regions of the world are still missing. In this study we present new tests for genotyping the major alleles of the Duffy blood system and describe Duffy alleles and antigens in blood donors and transfusion-dependent patients in Minas Gerais, Brazil...
June 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573466/wolbachia-spreading-dynamics-in-mosquitoes-with-imperfect-maternal-transmission
#12
Bo Zheng, Moxun Tang, Jianshe Yu, Junxiong Qiu
Mosquitoes are primary vectors of life-threatening diseases such as dengue, malaria, and Zika. A new control method involves releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium Wolbachia into the natural areas to infect wild mosquitoes and block disease transmission. In this work, we use differential equations to describe Wolbachia spreading dynamics, focusing on the poorly understood effect of imperfect maternal transmission. We establish two useful identities and employ them to prove that the system exhibits monomorphic, bistable, and polymorphic dynamics, and give sufficient and necessary conditions for each case...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562749/a-meta-analysis-of-tlr4-and-tlr9-snps-implicated-in-severe-malaria
#13
Gunanidhi Dhangadamajhi, Avishek Kar, Ronnaly Rout, Prabin Dhangadamajhi
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical mediators of the inflammatory response to malarial infection, and gene polymorphisms affecting TLR function may be partially responsible for inter-individual variation in disease manifestation. However, there are inconsistencies in the associations of common genetic variants of TLR4 (D299G) and TLR9 (T-1237C and T-1486C) with malaria outcome. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify relevant and independent Plasmodium falciparum-infected case-control studies, and meta-analysis including six studies for each SNP was performed to obtain more precise estimates of the pooled effects of these variants...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546554/high-throughput-resistance-profiling-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-based-on-custom-dual-indexing-and-illumina-next-generation-sequencing-technology
#14
Sidsel Nag, Marlene D Dalgaard, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Johan Ursing, Marina Crespo, Lee O'Brien Andersen, Frank Møller Aarestrup, Ole Lund, Michael Alifrangis
Genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum can be used to indicate the parasite's susceptibility to antimalarial drugs as well as its geographical origin. Both of these factors are key to monitoring development and spread of antimalarial drug resistance. In this study, we combine multiplex PCR, custom designed dual indexing and Miseq sequencing for high throughput SNP-profiling of 457 malaria infections from Guinea-Bissau, at the cost of 10 USD per sample. By amplifying and sequencing 15 genetic fragments, we cover 20 resistance-conferring SNPs occurring in pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps, as well as the entire length of pfK13, and the mitochondrial barcode for parasite origin...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542247/genetic-polymorphism-of-merozoite-surface-protein-2-msp-2-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-pawe-district-north-west-ethiopia
#15
Hussein Mohammed, Moges Kassa, Ashenafi Assefa, Mekonnen Tadesse, Amha Kebede
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic regions, Plasmodium falciparum infection is characterized by extensive genetic diversity. Describing this diversity provides important information about the local malaria situation. This study was conducted to evaluate the extent of genetic diversity of P. falciparum in Pawe district, North West Ethiopia, using the highly polymorphic merozoite surface protein 2 gene. METHODS: Atotal of 92 isolates from patients with uncomplicated P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542123/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2014
#16
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541483/malaria-host-candidate-genes-validated-by-association-with-current-recent-and-historic-measures-of-transmission-intensity
#17
Nuno Sepúlveda, Alphaxard Manjurano, Susana G Campino, Martha Lemnge, John Lusingu, Raimos Olomi, Kirk A Rockett, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Taane G Clark, Eleanor M Riley, Chris J Drakeley
Background: Human malaria susceptibility is determined by multiple genetic factors. It is however unclear which genetic variants remain important over time. Methods: Genetic associations of 175 high quality polymorphisms within several malaria candidate genes were examined in a sample of 8,096 individuals from northeast Tanzania using altitude, seroconversion rates and parasite rates as proxies of historical, recent and current malaria transmission intensity. A principal component (PC) analysis was used to derive two alternative measures of overall malaria propensity of a location across different time scales...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533315/malaria-pathogenesis
#18
Danny A Milner
In the mosquito-human life cycle, the six species of malaria parasites infecting humans (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale wallickeri, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium malariae, and Plasmodium knowlesi) undergo 10 or more morphological states, replicate from single to 10,000+ cells, and vary in total population from one to many more than 10(6) organisms. In the human host, only a small number of these morphological stages lead to clinical disease and the vast majority of all malaria-infected patients in the world produce few (if any) symptoms in the human...
May 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533179/polymorphisms-in-pfdhfr-and-pfdhps-genes-after-five-years-of-artemisinin-combination-therapy-act-implementation-from-urban-kolkata-india
#19
Moytrey Chatterjee, Swagata Ganguly, Pabitra Saha, Subhasish K Guha, Ardhendu Kumar Maji
BACKGROUND: In India, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is now in use as a partner drug of ACT (AS+SP) to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 2010. Declined trend of AS+SP efficacy has been reported from north-eastern states of the country. It is not possible to determine the efficacy of SP alone from any study with ACT. So, this work was designed to study the pattern of polymorphisms in pfdhfr and pfdhps genes to predict the SP resistance status among parasite population of urban Kolkata after five years of ACT implementation...
May 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526056/the-blood-schizonticidal-activity-of-tafenoquine-makes-an-essential-contribution-to-its-prophylactic-efficacy-in-nonimmune-subjects-at-the-intended-dose-200%C3%A2-mg
#20
REVIEW
Geoffrey Dow, Bryan Smith
Tafenoquine (TQ) is an 8-aminoquinoline anti-malarial being developed for malaria prophylaxis. It has been generally assumed that TQ, administered prophylactically, acts primarily on the developing exoerythrocytic stages of malaria parasites (causal prophylaxis), and that polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes thought to impact the activity of other 8-aminoquinolines also inhibit this property of TQ. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a diagnostic test for CYP2D6 metabolizer status might be required. In field studies in which metabolic status was not an exclusion criteria, TQ has been shown to exhibit similar prophylactic efficacy as blood schizonticidal drugs (mefloquine)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
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