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malaria polymorphism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#1
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193289/microgeographical-structure-in-the-major-neotropical-malaria-vector-anopheles-darlingi-using-microsatellites-and-snp-markers
#2
Melina Campos, Jan E Conn, Diego Peres Alonso, Joseph M Vinetz, Kevin J Emerson, Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, throughout the Amazon Basin, landscape modification contributing to profound ecological change has proceeded at an unprecedented rate. Deforestation that accompanies human activities can significantly change aspects of anopheline biology, though this may be site-specific. Such local changes in anopheline biology could have a great impact on malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate population genetics of the main malaria vector in Brazil, Anopheles darlingi, from a microgeographical perspective...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183358/genetic-diversity-and-population-structure-of-the-primary-malaria-vector-anopheles-sinensis-diptera-culicidae-in-china-inferred-by-cox1-gene
#3
Xinyu Feng, Libin Huang, Lin Lin, Manni Yang, Yajun Ma
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a primary vector for Plasmodium vivax malaria in most regions of China. A comprehensive understanding of genetic variation and structure of the mosquito would be of benefit to the vector control and in a further attempt to contribute to malaria elimination in China. However, there is only inadequate population genetic data pertaining to An. sinensis currently. METHODS: Genetic variations and structure among populations of An. sinensis was examined and analyzed based on the nucleotide sequences of a 662 nt variable region of the mitochondrial cox1 gene among 15 populations from 20 collection sites in China...
February 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174312/selective-whole-genome-amplification-is-a-robust-method-that-enables-scalable-whole-genome-sequencing-of-plasmodium-vivax-from-unprocessed-clinical-samples
#4
Annie N Cowell, Dorothy E Loy, Sesh A Sundararaman, Hugo Valdivia, Kathleen Fisch, Andres G Lescano, G Christian Baldeviano, Salomon Durand, Vince Gerbasi, Colin J Sutherland, Debbie Nolder, Joseph M Vinetz, Beatrice H Hahn, Elizabeth A Winzeler
: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of microbial pathogens from clinical samples is a highly sensitive tool used to gain a deeper understanding of the biology, epidemiology, and drug resistance mechanisms of many infections. However, WGS of organisms which exhibit low densities in their hosts is challenging due to high levels of host genomic DNA (gDNA), which leads to very low coverage of the microbial genome. WGS of Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed form of malaria, is especially difficult because of low parasite densities and the lack of an ex vivo culture system...
February 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169112/the-economics-of-malaria-vaccine-development
#5
Magdalena Plebanski, Katie L Flanagan
Vaccines that do not take a comprehensive endpoint view of the pathogen population they want to tackle early in their developmental process, may find it financially prohibitive to redesign them once they have progressed down a costly regulatory and human trial pathway. Specifically, the lead malaria vaccine candidate RTS,S has limited ability to tackle parasite polymorphism and may induce sex-specific nonspecific effects (NSEs).
February 3, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163236/evolution-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-7-msp7-family-in-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum-a-comparative-approach
#6
Andreína I Castillo, M Andreína Pacheco, Ananias A Escalante
Malaria parasites (genus Plasmodium) are a diverse group found in many species of vertebrate hosts. These parasites invade red blood cells in a complex process comprising several proteins, many encoded by multigene families, one of which is merozoite surface protein 7 (msp7). In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the most geographically widespread human-infecting species, differences in the number of paralogs within multigene families have been previously explained, at least in part, as potential adaptations to the human host...
February 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153009/genetic-diversity-of-plasmodium-vivax-metacaspase-1-and-plasmodium-vivax-multi-drug-resistance-1-genes-of-field-isolates-from-mauritania-sudan-and-oman
#7
Fatimata Sow, Guillaume Bonnot, Bilal Rabah Ahmed, Sidi Mohamed Diagana, Hachim Kebe, Mohamedou Koita, Ba Malado Samba, Said K Al-Mukhaini, Majed Al-Zadjali, Seif S Al-Abri, Osama A M Ali, Abdallah M Samy, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Musab M Ali Albsheer, Bruno Simon, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Eskild Petersen, Stéphane Picot
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the second most important human malaria parasite, widely spread across the world. This parasite is associated with important issues in the process toward malaria elimination, including potential for relapse and increased resistance to chloroquine. Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistant (pvmdr1) is suspected to be a marker of resistance although definitive evidence is lacking. Progress has been made in knowledge of biological factors affecting parasite growth, including mechanisms of regulated cell death and the suspected role of metacaspase...
February 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151952/genomic-footprints-of-selective-sweeps-from-metabolic-resistance-to-pyrethroids-in-african-malaria-vectors-are-driven-by-scale-up-of-insecticide-based-vector-control
#8
Kayla G Barnes, Gareth D Weedall, Miranda Ndula, Helen Irving, Themba Mzihalowa, Janet Hemingway, Charles S Wondji
Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139719/a-functional-il22-polymorphism-rs2227473-is-associated-with-predisposition-to-childhood-cerebral-malaria
#9
Sandrine Marquet, Ianina Conte, Belco Poudiougou, Laurent Argiro, Hélia Dessein, Charlène Couturier, Florence Burté, Aboubacar A Oumar, Biobele J Brown, Abdoualye Traore, Nathaniel K Afolabi, Abdoulaye Barry, Samuel Omokhodion, Wuraola A Shokunbi, Olugbemiro Sodeinde, Ogobara Doumbo, Delmiro Fernandez-Reyes, Alain J Dessein
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. This encephalopathy is characterized by coma and is thought to result from mechanical microvessel obstruction and an excessive activation of immune cells leading to pathological inflammation and blood-brain barrier alterations. IL-22 contributes to both chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases, and may have protective or pathogenic effects, depending on the tissue and disease state. We evaluated whether polymorphisms (n = 46) of IL22 and IL22RA2 were associated with CM in children from Nigeria and Mali...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125584/the-real-mccoil-a-method-for-the-concurrent-estimation-of-the-complexity-of-infection-and-snp-allele-frequency-for-malaria-parasites
#10
Hsiao-Han Chang, Colin J Worby, Adoke Yeka, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Moses R Kamya, Sarah G Staedke, Grant Dorsey, Maxwell Murphy, Daniel E Neafsey, Anna E Jeffreys, Christina Hubbart, Kirk A Rockett, Roberto Amato, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Caroline O Buckee, Bryan Greenhouse
As many malaria-endemic countries move towards elimination of Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, effective tools for monitoring malaria epidemiology are urgent priorities. P. falciparum population genetic approaches offer promising tools for understanding transmission and spread of the disease, but a high prevalence of multi-clone or polygenomic infections can render estimation of even the most basic parameters, such as allele frequencies, challenging. A previous method, COIL, was developed to estimate complexity of infection (COI) from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, but relies on monogenomic infections to estimate allele frequencies or requires external allele frequency data which may not available...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119047/variable-number-of-tandem-repeats-of-9-plasmodium-vivax-genes-among-southeast-asian-isolates
#11
Bo Wang, Myat Htut Nyunt, Seung-Gyu Yun, Feng Lu, Yang Cheng, Jin-Hee Han, Kwon-Soo Ha, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Chae-Seung Lim, Jun Cao, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Myat Phone Kyaw, Liwang Cui, Eun-Taek Han
The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P...
January 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117431/culture-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-selects-for-convergent-loss-of-function-mutants
#12
Antoine Claessens, Muna Affara, Samuel A Assefa, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
Cultured human pathogens may differ significantly from source populations. To investigate the genetic basis of laboratory adaptation in malaria parasites, clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates were sampled from patients and cultured in vitro for up to three months. Genome sequence analysis was performed on multiple culture time point samples from six monoclonal isolates, and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants emerging over time were detected. Out of a total of five positively selected SNPs, four represented nonsense mutations resulting in stop codons, three of these in a single ApiAP2 transcription factor gene, and one in SRPK1...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114990/recent-uptake-of-intermittent-preventive-treatment-during-pregnancy-with-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-is-associated-with-increased-prevalence-of-pfdhfr-mutations-in-bobo-dioulasso-burkina-faso
#13
Mamoudou Cisse, Gordon A Awandare, Alamissa Soulama, Halidou Tinto, Marie-Pierre Hayette, Robert T Guiguemdé
BACKGROUND: The impact of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) on mutant parasite selection has been poorly documented in Burkina Faso. This study sought first to explore the relationship between IPTp-SP and the presence of mutant parasites. Second, to assess the relationship between the mutant parasites and adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: From September to December 2010, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected during antenatal care visits and at delivery from 109 pregnant women with microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria infection...
January 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103905/spatio-temporal-analysis-of-the-genetic-diversity-and-complexity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-in-kedougou-southeastern-senegal
#14
Makhtar Niang, Laty G Thiam, Cheikh Loucoubar, Abdourahmane Sow, Bacary D Sadio, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: Genetic analyses of the malaria parasite population and its temporal and spatial dynamics could provide an assessment of the effectiveness of disease control strategies. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum has been poorly documented in Senegal, and limited data are available from the Kedougou Region. This study examines the spatial and temporal variation of the genetic diversity and complexity of P. falciparum infections in acute febrile patients in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal...
January 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077587/malaria-parasitemia-and-parasite-density-in-antiretroviral-treated-hiv-infected-adults-following-discontinuation-of-cotrimoxazole-prophylaxis
#15
Ronald K Ottichilo, Christina S Polyak, Bernard Guyah, Benson Singa, Josphat Nyataya, Krista Yuhas, Grace John-Stewart, John N Waitumbi
BACKGROUND:  Cotrimoxazole (CTX) discontinuation increases malaria incidence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Rates, quantity, and timing of parasitemia rebound following CTX remain undefined. METHODS:  Serial specimens from a trial of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) randomized to continue (the CTX arm) or discontinue (the STOP-CTX arm) were examined for malaria parasites by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071788/chromosome-inversions-and-ecological-plasticity-in-the-main-african-malaria-mosquitoes
#16
Diego Ayala, Pelayo Acevedo, Marco Pombi, Ibrahima Dia, Daniela Boccolini, Carlo Costantini, Frédéric Simard, Didier Fontenille
Chromosome inversions have fascinated the scientific community, mainly because of their role in the rapid adaption of different taxa to changing environments. However, the ecological traits linked to chromosome inversions have been poorly studied. Here, we investigated the roles played by 23 chromosome inversions in the adaptation of the four major African malaria mosquitoes to local environments in Africa. We studied their distribution patterns by using spatially explicit modeling and characterized the ecogeographical determinants of each inversion range...
January 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069653/the-molecular-epidemiology-of-pf-k13-mutations-in-senegal-using-targeted-amplicon-deep-sequencing
#17
Eldin Talundzic, Yaye D Ndiaye, Awa B Deme, Christian Olsen, Dhruviben S Patel, Shweta Biliya, Rachel Daniels, Fredrik O Vannberg, Sarah K Volkman, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, Daouda Ndiaye
The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) resistance to artemisinin in Southeast Asia threatens malaria control and elimination activities worldwide. Multiple polymorphisms in the Pf kelch gene found in chromosome 13 (Pfk13) have been associated with artemisinin resistance. Surveillance of potential drug resistance loci within a population that may emerge under increasing drug pressure is an important public health activity. In this context, P. falciparum infections from an observational surveillance study in Senegal were genotyped using targeted amplicon deep sequencing (TADS) for Pfk13 polymorphisms...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067620/characterisation-of-the-opposing-effects-of-g6pd-deficiency-on-cerebral-malaria-and-severe-malarial-anaemia
#18
Geraldine M Clarke, Kirk Rockett, Katja Kivinen, Christina Hubbart, Anna E Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Muminatou Jallow, David J Conway, Kalifa A Bojang, Margaret Pinder, Stanley Usen, Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof, Giorgio Sirugo, Ousmane Toure, Mahamadou A Thera, Salimata Konate, Sibiry Sissoko, Amadou Niangaly, Belco Poudiougou, Valentina D Mangano, Edith C Bougouma, Sodiomon B Sirima, David Modiano, Lucas N Amenga-Etego, Anita Ghansah, Kwadwo A Koram, Michael D Wilson, Anthony Enimil, Jennifer Evans, Olukemi K Amodu, Subulade Olaniyan, Tobias Apinjoh, Regina Mugri, Andre Ndi, Carolyne M Ndila, Sophie Uyoga, Alexander Macharia, Norbert Peshu, Thomas N Williams, Alphaxard Manjurano, Nuno Sepúlveda, Taane G Clark, Eleanor Riley, Chris Drakeley, Hugh Reyburn, Vysaul Nyirongo, David Kachala, Malcolm Molyneux, Sarah J Dunstan, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Ngoc Quyen, Cao Quang Thai, Tran Tinh Hien, Laurens Manning, Moses Laman, Peter Siba, Harin Karunajeewa, Steve Allen, Angela Allen, Timothy Me Davis, Pascal Michon, Ivo Mueller, Síle F Molloy, Susana Campino, Angeliki Kerasidou, Victoria J Cornelius, Lee Hart, Shivang S Shah, Gavin Band, Chris Ca Spencer, Tsiri Agbenyega, Eric Achidi, Ogobara K Doumbo, Jeremy Farrar, Kevin Marsh, Terrie Taylor, Dominic P Kwiatkowski
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is believed to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but the precise nature of the protective effecthas proved difficult to define as G6PD deficiency has multiple allelic variants with different effects in males and females, and it has heterogeneous effects on the clinical outcome of P. falciparum infection. Here we report an analysis of multiple allelic forms of G6PD deficiency in a large multi-centre case-control study of severe malaria, using the WHO classification of G6PD mutations to estimate each individual's level of enzyme activity from their genotype...
January 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049516/genetic-clustering-and-polymorphism-of-the-merozoite-surface-protein-3-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-clinical-isolates-from-peninsular-malaysia
#19
Jeremy Ryan De Silva, Yee Ling Lau, Mun Yik Fong
BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. However, to date no detailed studies have been carried out on P. knowlesi MSP3 gene (pkmsp3). The present study investigates the genetic diversity, and haplotypes groups of pkmsp3 in P...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044042/influence-of-the-pfmdr1-gene-on-in-vitro-sensitivities-of-piperaquine-in-thai-isolates-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Mathirut Mungthin, Ekularn Watanatanasup, Naruemon Sitthichot, Nantana Suwandittakul, Rommanee Khositnithikul, Stephen A Ward
Piperaquine combined with dihydroartemisinin is one of the artemisinin derivative combination therapies, which can replace artesunate-mefloquine in treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of Thai Plasmodium falciparum isolates against piperaquine and the influence of the pfmdr1 gene on in vitro response. One hundred and thirty-seven standard laboratory and adapted Thai isolates of P. falciparum were accessed for in vitro piperaquine sensitivity...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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