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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335015/cryptic-diversity-in-an-atlantic-forest-malaria-vector-from-the-mountains-of-south-east-brazil
#1
Guilherme de Rezende Dias, Thais Tenorio Soares Fujii, Bernardo Fernandes Fogel, Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Teresa Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento, André Nóbrega Pitaluga, Carlos José Carvalho-Pinto, Antonio Bernardo Carvalho, Alexandre Afrânio Peixoto, Luísa Damazio Pitaluga Rona
BACKGROUND: Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii is the primary vector of human and simian malarias in Brazilian regions covered by the Atlantic Rainforest. Previous studies found that An. cruzii presents high levels of behavioural, chromosomal and molecular polymorphisms, which led to the hypothesis that it may be a complex of cryptic species. Here, An. cruzii specimens were collected in five sites in South-East Brazil located at different altitudes on the inner and coastal slopes of two mountain ranges covered by Atlantic Rainforest, known as Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueria...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332155/prevalence-of-the-pfdhfr-and-pfdhps-mutations-among-asymptomatic-pregnant-women-in-southeast-nigeria
#2
Ekpereonne Esu, Costanza Tacoli, Prabhanjan Gai, Nicole Berens-Riha, Michael Pritsch, Thomas Loescher, Martin Meremikwu
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Resistance to SP is related to mutations in the dhfr and dhps gene of Plasmodium falciparum. This study determined the prevalence of Pfdhfr and Pfdhps polymorphisms found in asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care in Calabar, Nigeria. From October 2013 to November 2014, asymptomatic pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics were enrolled after obtaining informed consent...
January 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328646/vibrational-properties-of-bulk-boric-acid-2a-and-3t-polymorphs-and-their-two-dimensional-layers-measurements-and-density-functional-theory-calculations
#3
Mauricelio Bezerra da Silva, Regina C R Santos, Paulo T C Freire, Ewerton W S Caetano, Valder N Freire
Boric acid (H3BO3) is being used effectively nowadays in traps/baits for the management of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse species of mosquitoes, which are the main spreading vectors worldwide for diseases like malaria, dengue and zika. Previously, we have published results on the structural, electronic and optical properties of its molecular triclinic H3BO3-2A and trigonal H3BO3-3T polymorphs within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Due to the renewed importance of these materials, the focus of this work is on the vibrational properties of the bulk boric acid 2A and 3T polymorphs...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318942/high-prevalence-of-dihydrofolate-reductase-gene-mutations-in-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites-among-pregnant-women-in-nigeria-after-reported-use-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine
#4
Olusola Ojurongbe, Christian N Nguetse, Samuel A Fayemiwo, Catherine O Falade, Taiwo A Ojurongbe, Bolaji N Thomas, Christian G Meyer, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
This study assesses the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia positivity and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) mutations in parasite isolates among pregnant women in Southwest Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia was confirmed by microscopy and nested PCR in 200 pregnant women attending antenatal care. The prevalence of pfdhfr polymorphisms was determined by direct sequencing of the gene fragments containing the C50R, N51I, C59R, S108N, and I164L mutations. Information on the use of antimalarial drugs and methods applied to prevent malaria were obtained by a questionnaire...
January 10, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316929/molecular-identification-of-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine-resistance-in-malaria-infected-women-who-received-intermittent-preventive-treatment-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#5
Emrah Ruh, Jean Paul Bateko, Turgut Imir, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan
BACKGROUND: Point mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes which confer resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) occur at increasing rates. The present study aimed to identify Pfdhfr and Pfdhps mutations in P. falciparum isolates recovered from women who received two doses of SP during pregnancy in Bandundu, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: A total of 48 women with confirmed P...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316927/global-sequence-diversity-of-the-lactate-dehydrogenase-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#6
Phumin Simpalipan, Sittiporn Pattaradilokrat, Pongchai Harnyuttanakorn
BACKGROUND: Antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been recommended by the World Health Organization for use in remote areas to improve malaria case management. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Plasmodium falciparum is one of the main parasite antigens employed by various commercial RDTs. It has been hypothesized that the poor detection of LDH-based RDTs is attributed in part to the sequence diversity of the gene. To test this, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of the P...
January 9, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279840/pro-inflammatory-cytokine-response-and-genetic-diversity-in-merozoite-surface-protein-2-of-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-from-nigeria
#7
Olusola Ajibaye, Akinniyi A Osuntoki, Albert Ot Ebuehi, Bamidele A Iwalokun, Emmanuel O Balogun, Kathleen N Egbuna
Background: Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-2 (msp-2) and associated parasite genetic diversity which varies between malaria-endemic regions remain a limitation in malaria vaccine development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in immunity against malaria, understanding the influence of genetic diversity on cytokine response is important for effective vaccine design. Methods: P. falciparum isolates obtained from 300 Nigerians with uncomplicated falciparum malaria at Ijede General Hospital, Ijede (IJE), General Hospital Ajeromi, Ajeromi (AJE) and Saint Kizito Mission Hospital, Lekki, were genotyped by nested polymerase chain reaction of msp-2 block 3 while ELISA was used to determine the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to describe the genetic diversity of P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261755/interaction-between-environment-nutrient-derived-metabolites-and-immunity-a-possible-role-in-malaria-susceptibility-resistance-in-fulani-and-dogon-of-mali
#8
Karim Traore, Mahamadou A Thera, Anne-Lise Bienvenu, Charles Arama, Guillaume Bonnot, Adeline Lavoignat, Ogobara K Doumbo, Stephane Picot
The role of some nutrient-derived metabolites on the innate and adaptive immune responses is now established. Global research approach investigating the interplay between environment, lifestyle and the host's immune responses is crucial in the understanding of malaria susceptibility. Advanced Glycation end products (AGE), which are food-derived metabolites result from the link between reducing sugar and amino group of proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. The level of exposure to AGEs varies depending on the type of diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260689/drug-resistant-polymorphisms-and-copy-numbers-in-plasmodium-falciparum-mozambique-2015
#9
Himanshu Gupta, Eusebio Macete, Helder Bulo, Crizolgo Salvador, Marian Warsame, Eva Carvalho, Didier Ménard, Pascal Ringwald, Quique Bassat, Sonia Enosse, Alfredo Mayor
One of the fundamental steps toward malaria control is the use of antimalarial drugs. The success of antimalarial treatment can be affected by the presence of drug-resistant populations of Plasmodium falciparum. To assess resistance, we used molecular methods to examine 351 P. falciparum isolates collected from 4 sentinel sites in Mozambique for K13, pfmdr1, pfcrt, and pfdhps polymorphisms and for plasmepsin2 (pfpm2) and pfmdr1 copy numbers. We found multiple copies of pfpm2 in 1.1% of isolates. All isolates carried K13 wild-type alleles (3D7-like), except 4 novel polymorphisms (Leu619Leu, Phe656Ile, Val666Val, Gly690Gly)...
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249333/beyond-hemoglobin-screening-for-malaria-host-factors
#10
REVIEW
Elizabeth S Egan
Severe malaria is caused by the Apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and results in significant global morbidity and mortality, particularly among young children and pregnant women. P. falciparum exclusively infects human erythrocytes during clinical illness, and several natural erythrocyte polymorphisms are protective against severe malaria. Since erythrocytes are enucleated and lack DNA, genetic approaches to understand erythrocyte determinants of malaria infection have historically been limited. This review highlights recent advances in the use of hematopoietic stem cells to facilitate genetic screening for malaria host factors...
December 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229635/plasmodium-falciparum-recrudescence-two-years-after-a-first-treated-uncomplicated-infection-without-return-in-a-malaria-endemic-area
#11
Denis Malvy, Marylin Torrentino-Madamet, Coralie L'Ollivier, Marie-Catherine Receveur, Fakhri Jeddi, Laurence Delhaes, Renaud Piarroux, Pascal Millet, Bruno Pradines
We report here evidence, confirmed by the lack of travel activity outside of France and genetic diversity analysis using polymorphic microsatellite markers, that Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection effectively treated with an artemisinin-based combination can remain dormant and relapse during pregnancy at least 2 years after treatment.
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224404/edip-the-epitope-dilution-phenomenon-lessons-learnt-from-a-malaria-vaccine-antigen-and-its-applicability-to-polymorphic-antigens
#12
Kwadwo Asamoah Kusi, Bart W Faber, Gerrit Koopman, Edmond Joseph Remarque
Polymorphism in vaccine antigens poses major challenges to vaccinologists. The Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) poses such a challenge. We found that immunization with a mixture of three variants yielded functional antibody levels to all variants comparable to levels induced by monovalent immunization. The mechanism behind the observed broadening was shown to be an increase in the fraction of cross-reactive antibodies, most likely because strain-specific epitopes are present at lower frequency relative to conserved epitopes...
December 11, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215067/profiling-invasive-plasmodium-falciparum-merozoites-using-an-integrated-omics-approach
#13
Krishan Kumar, Prakash Srinivasan, Michael J Nold, J Kathleen Moch, Karine Reiter, Dan Sturdevant, Thomas D Otto, R Burke Squires, Raul Herrera, Vijayaraj Nagarajan, Julian C Rayner, Stephen F Porcella, Scott J Geromanos, J David Haynes, David L Narum
The symptoms of malaria are brought about by blood-stage parasites, which are established when merozoites invade human erythrocytes. Our understanding of the molecular events that underpin erythrocyte invasion remains hampered by the short-period of time that merozoites are invasive. To address this challenge, a Plasmodium falciparum gamma-irradiated long-lived merozoite (LLM) line was developed and investigated. Purified LLMs invaded erythrocytes by an increase of 10-300 fold compared to wild-type (WT) merozoites...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187975/evolutionary-structure-of-plasmodium-falciparum-major-variant-surface-antigen-genes-in-south-america-implications-for-epidemic-transmission-and-surveillance
#14
Virginie Rougeron, Kathryn E Tiedje, Donald S Chen, Thomas S Rask, Dionicia Gamboa, Amanda Maestre, Lise Musset, Eric Legrand, Oscar Noya, Erhan Yalcindag, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle, Karen P Day
Strong founder effects resulting from human migration out of Africa have led to geographic variation in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites (MS) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. This is particularly striking in South America where two major founder populations of P. falciparum have been identified that are presumed to have arisen from the transatlantic slave trade. Given the importance of the major variant surface antigen of the blood stages of P. falciparum as both a virulence factor and target of immunity, we decided to investigate the population genetics of the genes encoding "Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1" (Pf EMP1) among several countries in South America, in order to evaluate the transmission patterns of malaria in this continent...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186116/immune-evasion-of-plasmodium-falciparum-by-rifin-via-inhibitory-receptors
#15
Fumiji Saito, Kouyuki Hirayasu, Takeshi Satoh, Christian W Wang, John Lusingu, Takao Arimori, Kyoko Shida, Nirianne Marie Q Palacpac, Sawako Itagaki, Shiroh Iwanaga, Eizo Takashima, Takafumi Tsuboi, Masako Kohyama, Tadahiro Suenaga, Marco Colonna, Junichi Takagi, Thomas Lavstsen, Toshihiro Horii, Hisashi Arase
Malaria is among the most serious infectious diseases affecting humans, accounting for approximately half a million deaths each year. Plasmodium falciparum causes most life-threatening cases of malaria. Acquired immunity to malaria is inefficient, even after repeated exposure to P. falciparum, but the immune regulatory mechanisms used by P. falciparum remain largely unknown. Here we show that P. falciparum uses immune inhibitory receptors to achieve immune evasion. RIFIN proteins are products of a polymorphic multigene family comprising approximately 150-200 genes per parasite genome that are expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes...
December 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186111/genetic-diversity-of-the-african-malaria-vector-anopheles-gambiae
#16
(no author information available yet)
The sustainability of malaria control in Africa is threatened by the rise of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit the disease. To gain a deeper understanding of how mosquito populations are evolving, here we sequenced the genomes of 765 specimens of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii sampled from 15 locations across Africa, and identified over 50 million single nucleotide polymorphisms within the accessible genome. These data revealed complex population structure and patterns of gene flow, with evidence of ancient expansions, recent bottlenecks, and local variation in effective population size...
December 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178921/plasmodium-falciparum-kelch-13-mutations-and-treatment-response-in-patients-in-hpa-pun-district-northern-kayin-state-myanmar
#17
Craig A Bonnington, Aung Pyae Phyo, Elizabeth A Ashley, Mallika Imwong, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Daniel M Parker, Stephane Proux, Nicholas J White, Francois Nosten
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance, linked to polymorphisms in the Kelch gene on chromosome 13 of Plasmodium falciparum (k13), has outpaced containment efforts in South East Asia. For national malaria control programmes in the region, it is important to establish a surveillance system which includes monitoring for k13 polymorphisms associated with the clinical phenotype. METHODS: Between February and December 2013, parasite clearance was assessed in 35 patients with uncomplicated P...
November 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175392/genetic-ancestry-effects-on-the-distribution-of-toll-like-receptors-tlrs-gene-polymorphisms-in-a-population-of-the-atlantic-forest-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#18
Lilian O Guimarães, Miklos Maximiliano Bajay, Eliana F Monteiro, Gerhard Wunderlich, Sidney E Santos, Karin Kirchgatter
The innate immune system governed by toll-like receptors (TLRs) provides the first line of defense against pathogens. Surface-localized TLR1 and TLR6 are known to detect parasite components. TLR encoding genes were shown to display signatures of recent positive selection in Europeans and might be involved in local adaptation at immune-related genes. To verify the influence of Brazilian population admixture on the distribution of polymorphisms in TLRs, we analyzed the genotype frequencies of 24 polymorphisms distributed across five TLR genes in a Southeastern Brazilian population where autochthonous cases of malaria occur in small foci of transmission...
November 23, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167197/rare-pfcsp-c-terminal-antibodies-induced-by-live-sporozoite-vaccination-are-ineffective-against-malaria-infection
#19
Stephen W Scally, Rajagopal Murugan, Alexandre Bosch, Gianna Triller, Giulia Costa, Benjamin Mordmüller, Peter G Kremsner, B Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L Hoffman, Elena A Levashina, Hedda Wardemann, Jean-Philippe Julien
Antibodies against the central repeat of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) inhibit parasite activity and correlate with protection from malaria. However, the humoral response to the PfCSP C terminus (C-PfCSP) is less well characterized. Here, we describe B cell responses to C-PfCSP from European donors who underwent immunization with live Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge) under chloroquine prophylaxis (PfSPZ-CVac), and were protected against controlled human malaria infection. Out of 215 PfCSP-reactive monoclonal antibodies, only two unique antibodies were specific for C-PfCSP, highlighting the rare occurrence of C-PfCSP-reactive B cells in PfSPZ-CVac-induced protective immunity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161848/complex-wolbachia-infection-dynamics-in-mosquitoes-with-imperfect-maternal-transmission
#20
Bo Zheng, Wenliang Guo, Linchao Hu, Mugen Huang, Jianshe Yu
Dengue, malaria, and Zika are dangerous diseases primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles stephensi. In the last few years, a new disease control method, besides pesticide spraying to kill mosquitoes, has been developed by releasing mosquitoes carrying bacterium Wolbachia into the natural areas to infect the wild population of mosquitoes and block disease transmission. The bacterium is transmitted by infected mothers and the maternal transmission was assumed to be perfect in virtually all previous models...
April 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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