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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806961/molecular-analysis-demonstrates-high-prevalence-of-chloroquine-resistance-but-no-evidence-of-artemisinin-resistance-in-plasmodium-falciparum-in-the-chittagong-hill-tracts-of-bangladesh
#1
Mohammad Shafiul Alam, Benedikt Ley, Maisha Khair Nima, Fatema Tuj Johora, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Kamala Thriemer, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Ric N Price, Wasif A Khan
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance is present in the Greater Mekong region and poses a significant threat for current anti-malarial treatment guidelines in Bangladesh. The aim of this molecular study was to assess the current status of drug resistance in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh near the Myanmar border. METHODS: Samples were obtained from patients enrolled into a Clinical Trial (NCT02389374) conducted in Alikadam, Bandarban between August 2014 and January 2015...
August 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797235/polymorphisms-of-plasmodium-falciparum-k13-propeller-gene-among-migrant-workers-returning-to-henan-province-china-from-africa
#2
Chengyun Yang, Hongwei Zhang, Ruimin Zhou, Dan Qian, Ying Liu, Yuling Zhao, Suhua Li, Bianli Xu
BACKGROUND: Henan Province has been in the malaria elimination stage, with all reports of the disease being imported since 2012 and over 90% coming from Africa. Surveillance and population studies are essential for the early detection and subsequent prevention of the spread of drug resistance. The K13-propeller gene was recently identified as a proposed molecular marker of artemisinin (ART) resistance. In this study, we detected mutations of the K13-propeller gene in samples taken from imported malaria cases in Henan Province from 2012 to 2015...
August 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793894/prevalence-of-polymorphisms-in-glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-sickle-haemoglobin-and-nitric-oxide-synthase-genes-and-their-relationship-with-incidence-of-uncomplicated-malaria-in-iganga-uganda
#3
Catherine Nassozi Lwanira, Fred Kironde, Mark Kaddumukasa, Göte Swedberg
BACKGROUND: Host genetics play an important role in Plasmodium falciparum malaria susceptibility. However, information on host genetic factors and their relationships with malaria in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda is limited. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of selected host genetic markers and their relationship to malaria incidence in the vaccine trial site of Iganga, Uganda. In a 1-year longitudinal cohort study, 423 children aged below 9 years were recruited and their malaria episodes were investigated...
August 9, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777043/diagnostic-potential-of-monoclonal-antibodies-developed-against-c-terminal-polypeptide-of-p-falciparum-histidine-rich-protein2-pfhrp2-in-malaria-infected-patients-from-india
#4
Reena Verma, Sara Chandy, N S Jayaprakash, Anand Manoharan, M A Vijayalakshmi, Krishnan Venkataraman
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum has become a major health burden in most tropical and developing countries. P. falciparum Histidine Rich Protein2 (PfHRP2), which exhibits polymorphism, is being widely used as a diagnostic marker. Recently, we reported the development of monoclonal antibodies against conserved C-terminal 105 amino acids of PfHRP2 for malaria diagnosis. Now, in this study, the diagnostic performance of two anti-C-terminal PfHRP2 mAbs (b10c1 and Aa3c10) were evaluated with 100 blood samples from clinically identified malaria patients from seven different geographical centers in India...
August 4, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768767/iron-is-a-substrate-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-transporter-pfcrt-in-xenopus-oocytes
#5
Naziha Bakouh, Sebastiano Bellanca, Britta Nyboer, Sonia Moliner Cubel, Zoubida Karim, Cecilia P Sanchez, Wilfred D Stein, Gabrielle Planelles, Michael Lanzer
The chloroquine resistance transporter of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, PfCRT, is an important determinant of resistance to several quinoline and quinoline-like antimalarial drugs. PfCRT also plays an essential role in the physiology of the parasite during development inside erythrocytes. However, the function of this transporter besides its role in drug resistance is still unclear. Using electrophysiological and flux experiments conducted on PfCRTexpressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, we show here that both wild type PfCRT and a PfCRT variant associated with chloroquine resistance transport both ferrous and ferric iron, albeit with different kinetics...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759591/genome-wide-diversity-and-differentiation-in-new-world-populations-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-vivax
#6
Thais C de Oliveira, Priscila T Rodrigues, Maria José Menezes, Raquel M Gonçalves-Lopes, Melissa S Bastos, Nathália F Lima, Susana Barbosa, Alexandra L Gerber, Guilherme Loss de Morais, Luisa Berná, Jody Phelan, Carlos Robello, Ana Tereza R de Vasconcelos, João Marcelo P Alves, Marcelo U Ferreira
BACKGROUND: The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax. METHODS: We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747223/return-of-chloroquine-sensitivity-to-africa-surveillance-of-african-plasmodium-falciparum-chloroquine-resistance-through-malaria-imported-to-china
#7
Feng Lu, Meihua Zhang, Richard L Culleton, Sui Xu, Jianxia Tang, Huayun Zhou, Guoding Zhu, Yaping Gu, Chao Zhang, Yaobao Liu, Weiming Wang, Yuanyuan Cao, Julin Li, Xinlong He, Jun Cao, Qi Gao
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) was the cornerstone of anti-malarial treatment in Africa for almost 50 years, but has been widely withdrawn due to the emergence and spread of resistance. Recent reports have suggested that CQ-susceptibility may return following the cessation of CQ usage. Here, we monitor CQ sensitivity and determine the prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in the CQ resistance transporter gene (pfcrt) of Plasmodium falciparum isolates recently imported from Africa to China...
July 26, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719312/molecular-epidemiology-of-malaria-in-cameroon-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-xxxi-kelch-13-propeller-sequences-in-plasmodium-falciparum-isolates-before-and-after-implementation-of-artemisinin-based-combination-therapy
#8
Joseph Allico Djaman, Dagnogo Olefongo, Aristide Berenger Ako, Jocelyne Roman, Vincent Foumane Ngane, Leonardo K Basco, Rachida Tahar
Artemisinin-resistant malaria has not been reported from Africa, but resistance can possibly spread from Asia or arise independently in Africa. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Africa can be monitored by molecular assay of Kelch 13 (K13) propeller sequences. A total of 251 archived DNA samples of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 2002, 2003, and 2006 in Yaounde, Cameroon, and 47 samples collected in 2006 and 2013 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were analyzed for K13-propeller sequence polymorphism...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716086/dynamics-in-multiplicity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-among-children-with-asymptomatic-malaria-in-central-ghana
#9
Akua Kyerewaa Botwe, Kwaku Poku Asante, George Adjei, Samuel Assafuah, David Dosoo, Seth Owusu-Agyei
BACKGROUND: The determinants of malaria parasite virulence is not entirely known, but the outcome of malaria infection (asymptomatic or symptomatic) has been associated with carriage of distinct parasite genotypes. Alleles considered important for erythrocyte invasion and selected as candidate targets for malaria vaccine development are increasingly being shown to have distinct characteristics in infection outcomes. Any unique/distinct patterns or alleles linked to infection outcome should be reproducible for a given malaria-cohort regardless of location, time or intervention...
July 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703132/association-of-a-functional-tnf-variant-with-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-in-a-congolese-population
#10
T N Nguyen, S Baaklini, F Koukouikila-Koussounda, M Ndounga, M Torres, L Pradel, F Ntoumi, P Rihet
Several studies have provided evidence of both helpful and harmful effects of TNF on the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection. Several TNF polymorphisms that are located within non-coding regions have been associated with parasitaemia, mild malaria or severe malaria. We investigated the association of TNF1304 (rs3093664), TNF-308 (rs1800629), TNF-238 (rs361525) and TNF-244 (rs673) with mild malaria and symptomatic maximum parasitaemia in a population-based design (n=310). We obtained nominal evidence for an association between symptomatic maximum parasitaemia and TNF-308, TNF-238, and TNF-244 on the one hand, and between the number of mild malaria attacks and TNF-244 on the other hand...
July 13, 2017: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702028/immunization-with-the-malaria-diversity-covering-blood-stage-vaccine-candidate-plasmodium-falciparum-apical-membrane-antigen-1-dico-in-complex-with-its-natural-ligand-pfron2-does-not-improve-the-in-vitro-efficacy
#11
Holger Spiegel, Alexander Boes, Rolf Fendel, Andreas Reimann, Stefan Schillberg, Rainer Fischer
The blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) can induce strong parasite growth-inhibitory antibody responses in animals but has not achieved the anticipated efficacy in clinical trials. Possible explanations in humans are the insufficient potency of the elicited antibody responses, as well as the high degree of sequence polymorphisms found in the field. Several strategies have been developed to improve the cross-strain coverage of PfAMA1-based vaccines, whereas innovative concepts to increase the potency of PfAMA1-specific IgG responses have received little attention even though this may be an essential requirement for protective efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653041/plasmodium-falciparum-genotypes-in-matched-peripheral-placental-and-umbilical-cord-blood-in-an-area-characterised-by-unstable-malaria-transmission-in-eastern-sudan
#12
Omar E Fadlelseed, Maha E Osman, Nahla M Shamseldin, Amar B Elhussein, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: There are few published studies on Plasmodium falciparum genotypes in peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood in areas characterised by unstable malaria transmission. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate P. falciparum genotypes in matched peripheral, placental and umbilical cord blood in eastern Sudan. Thick blood smears and P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and 2 (MSP2) genes as polymorphic markers in polymerase chain reactions were investigated in 3 kinds of samples of 153 pregnant women at delivery...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646896/detection-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-kelch-13-gene-p553l-mutation-in-sporozoites-isolated-from-mosquito-salivary-glands-in-south-central-vietnam
#13
Yoshimasa Maeno, Nguyen Tuyen Quang, Richard Culleton, Satoru Kawai, Gaku Masuda, Kaoru Hori, Shusuke Nakazawa, Ron P Marchand
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance against artemisinin in Southeast Asia. Mutations in the P. falciparum Kelch-13 (Pfk13) gene are associated with artemisinin resistance in vitro and in vivo. We investigated the prevalence of mutations in PfK13 from sporozoite-stage parasites isolated from the salivary glands of Anopheles dirus mosquitoes. METHODS: Mosquitoes were caught by human-landing catches at two locations within the Khanh Phu commune, South-Central Vietnam...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643631/the-anopheles-gambiae-2la-chromosome-inversion-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-falciparum-in-africa
#14
Michelle M Riehle, Tullu Bukhari, Awa Gneme, Wamdaogo M Guelbeogo, Boubacar Coulibaly, Abdrahamane Fofana, Adrien Pain, Emmanuel Bischoff, Francois Renaud, Abdoul H Beavogui, Sekou F Traore, N'Fale Sagnon, Kenneth D Vernick
Chromosome inversions suppress genetic recombination and establish co-adapted gene complexes, or supergenes. The 2La inversion is a widespread polymorphism in the Anopheles gambiae species complex, the major African mosquito vectors of human malaria. Here we show that alleles of the 2La inversion are associated with natural malaria infection levels in wild-captured vectors from West and East Africa. Mosquitoes carrying the more-susceptible allele (2L+(a)) are also behaviorally less likely to be found inside houses...
June 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639487/mrp2-abcc2-c1515y-polymorphism-modulates-exposure-to-lumefantrine-during-artemether-lumefantrine-antimalarial-therapy
#15
Karin Vos, Carlotta Lo Sciuto, Rita Piedade, Michael Ashton, Anders Björkman, Billy Ngasala, Andreas Mårtensson, José Pedro Gil
AIM: To investigate the potential involvement of the hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporters MRP2 and MDR1 in the disposition of lumefantrine (LUM) among patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. MATERIALS & METHODS: The tag SNPs MDR1/ABCB1 C3435T and MRP2/ABCC2 C1515Y were determined in two artemether-LUM clinical trials, including a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study focused on the treatment phase (72 h), and an efficacy trial where day 7 (D7) LUM levels were measured...
July 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612053/micro-epidemiological-structuring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-populations-in-regions-with-varying-transmission-intensities-in-africa
#16
Irene Omedo, Polycarp Mogeni, Teun Bousema, Kirk Rockett, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Isabella Oyier, Jennifer C Stevenson, Amrish Y Baidjoe, Etienne P de Villiers, Greg Fegan, Amanda Ross, Christina Hubbart, Anne Jeffreys, Thomas N Williams, Dominic Kwiatkowski, Philip Bejon
Background: The first models of malaria transmission assumed a completely mixed and homogeneous population of parasites.  Recent models include spatial heterogeneity and variably mixed populations. However, there are few empiric estimates of parasite mixing with which to parametize such models. Methods: Here we genotype 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5199 P. falciparum isolates from two Kenyan sites and one Gambian site to determine the spatio-temporal extent of parasite mixing, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and linear regression to examine the relationship between genetic relatedness and relatedness in space and time for parasite pairs...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607799/major-polymorphisms-of-genes-involved-in-homocysteine-metabolism-in-malaria-patients-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#17
Noé Yameogo, Bapio Valérie Elvira Jean Télesphore Bazie, Abdoul Karim Ouattara, Pouiré Yameogo, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaore, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Florencia Wenkuuni Djigma, Simplice Damintoti Karou, Jacques Simpore
This study analyzed the four main polymorphisms of the genes in homocysteine metabolism in malaria patients. Forty-two randomly selected subjects, diagnosed positive for Plasmodium falciparum, were included. The four genotypes were detected by real-time PCR using the MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, and MTRR 66A>G detection kit (Sacace Biotechnologies REF: T01002-96-S). The results revealed frequencies of 90% 677CC, 10% 677CT, and 00% 677TT for MTHFR C677T; 78.6% 1298AA, 19% 1298AC, and 2...
2017: Malaria Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605993/in-vitro-sensitivity-to-antimalarial-drugs-and-polymorphisms-in-pfg377-gene-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates-from-mewat-india
#18
Vineeta Singh, Amit Kumar, Purva Gupta
The malaria infection is the interplay of several complex factors, among which drug resistance and gametocyte biology are the crucial ones. Measurements of the drug sensitivity assays and prevalence of gametocyte genes play a major role in malaria eradication programmes. The purpose of this study was to assess the current drug sensitivity profile in the field isolates and type the Pfg377 gene. In vitro drug sensitivity assay was used to assess the susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates collected from Mewat (Haryana), located in Northern region of India to four anti-malarial drugs...
June 12, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605544/functional-analysis-reveals-geographical-variation-in-inhibitory-immune-responses-against-a-polymorphic-malaria-antigen
#19
Amy K Bei, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Jeffrey D Dvorin, Kazutoyo Miura, Ababacar Diouf, Daouda Ndiaye, Zul Premji, Mahamadou Diakite, Souleymane Mboup, Carole A Long, Manoj T Duraisingh
Background: PfRh2b is a P. falciparum invasion ligand that is a potential blood stage vaccine candidate antigen; however, a naturally occurring deletion within an immunogenic domain is present at high frequencies in Africa and has been associated with alternative invasion pathway usage. Standardized tools that provide antigenic specificity in in vitro assays are needed to functionally assess the neutralizing potential of humoral responses against malaria vaccine candidate antigens. Methods: Transgenic parasite lines were generated to express the PfRh2b deletion...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594879/molecular-surveillance-of-plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-artemisinin-based-combination-therapies-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Dieudonné Makaba Mvumbi, Thierry Lengu Bobanga, Jean-Marie Ntumba Kayembe, Georges Lelo Mvumbi, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma Situakibanza, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Pierrette Melin, Patrick De Mol, Marie-Pierre Hayette
Malaria is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite progress achieved over the past decade in the fight against malaria, further efforts have to be done such as in the surveillance and the containment of Plasmodium falciparum resistant strains. We investigated resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies currently in use in Democratic Republic of Congo by surveying molecular polymorphisms in three genes: pfcrt, pfmdr1 and pfk13 to explore possible emergence of amodiaquine, lumefantrine or artemisinin resistance in Democratic Republic of Congo...
2017: PloS One
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