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patchy alopecia

Frane Banovic, Keith E Linder, Maarja Uri, Michael A Rossi, Thierry Olivry
BACKGROUND: Generalized discoid lupus erythematosus (GDLE) is a newly recognized canine variant of chronic cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) that is not well characterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: We report herein the signalment, clinical signs, treatment outcome, histopathology and immunological findings of 10 dogs with GDLE. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: (i) a >3 month history of generalized skin lesions indicating a chronic or recurrent nature; (ii) skin lesions resembling those of human GDLE; (iii) histopathology of CLE (lymphocyte-rich interface dermatitis)...
October 16, 2016: Veterinary Dermatology
Ola Ahmed Bakry, Shawky M El Farargy, Maathir K El Shafiee, Amira Soliman
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, recurrent, autoimmune hair disorder. It has been found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with many autoimmune diseases. AIMS: The current study aimed to estimate serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in patients with AA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included 60 patients with AA and 60 age, gender, skin phototype, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects as a control group...
September 2016: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
A E Macbeth, J Tomlinson, A G Messenger, K Moore-Millar, C Michaelides, A R Shipman, J M Kassim, J R Brockley, W Szczecinska, P Farrant, R Robinson, J Rodgers, J Chambers, S Upadhyaya, M Harries
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is a common hair loss disorder that results in patchy to complete hair loss. Many uncertainties exist around the most effective treatments for this condition. OBJECTIVES: To identify uncertainties in alopecia areata management and treatment that are important to both service users (people with hair loss, carers and relatives) and healthcare professionals. METHODS: An alopecia areata priority setting partnership was established between patients, their carers and relatives, and healthcare professionals to identify the most important uncertainties in alopecia areata...
October 1, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Amir Hooshang Ehsani, Arghavan Azizpour, Pedram Noormohammadpoor, Hasan Seirafi, Farshad Farnaghi, Kambiz Kamyab-Hesari, Mehdi Sharifi, Maryam Nasimi
BACKGROUND: Alopecia can be a manifestation of mycosis fungoides (MF); however, the prevalence is unknown. AIMS: We sought to describe the clinicopathologic presentation of alopecia in patients with diagnosis of MF. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with biopsy-proven MF, who were evaluated at our cancer center from 2002 to 2012, was performed to identify patients with alopecia. RESULTS: Five patients with alopecia were identified from reviewing of 157 patients with MF...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Ingrid Herskovitz, Mariya Miteva
Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA) is the most common scarring alopecia among African American women. Data about epidemiology, etiology, genetic inheritance, and management are scarce and come from individual reports or small series. CCCA has been associated with hot combing and traumatic hair styling for years; however, studies fail to confirm it as the sole etiologic factor. It has been shown in a small series that CCCA can be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, with a partial penetrance and a strong modifying effect of hairstyling and sex...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
Hans Wolff, Tobias W Fischer, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi
BACKGROUND: Hair loss is caused by a variety of hair growth disorders, each with its own pathogenetic mechanism. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, on the current German and European guidelines, and on the authors' clinical and scientific experience. RESULTS: Excessive daily hair loss (effluvium) may be physiological, as in the postpartum state, or pathological, due for example to thyroid disturbances, drug effects, iron deficiency, or syphilis...
May 27, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
D Saceda-Corralo, R Grimalt, P Fernández-Crehuet, A Clemente, C Bernárdez, M J García-Hernandez, S Arias-Santiago, A R Rodrigues-Barata, A Rodríguez-Pichardo, E García-Lora, P Jaén, F M Camacho, S Vañó-Galván
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata on the beard area (BAA) is a common clinical manifestation, but there are no studies about its characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, comorbidities, clinical presentation, evolution, diagnostic findings and therapeutic choices in a series of patients with BAA. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre review included patients diagnosed with BAA as the first and unique clinical manifestation with at least 12 months of follow-up...
August 8, 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Julien Lanoue, Karen B Jacobson, Kohtaro Ooka, Chanpreet Singh, Olga Camacho-Vanegas, John A Martignetti, Jacob Levitt, Robert G Phelps
An 11-year-old Tanzanian girl presented with diffuse verrucous lesions of varying morphology, scarring alopecia, and keloid scars over the face with a predilection for the ears. Physical examination revealed dark keratoderma and patches of hypopigmentation near the midline of the dorsal trunk (Figure 1a). Her forearms were densely covered by verrucous lesions with the exception of a clear linear patch on the dorsal aspect of the left forearm (Figure 1b). The perioral area was notable for white spires projecting from verrucous papules (Figure 1c) while the oral mucosa and teeth appeared normal on visual examination...
2016: Skinmed
Ali Jabbari, Jane E Cerise, James C Chen, Julian Mackay-Wiggan, Madeleine Duvic, Vera Price, Maria Hordinsky, David Norris, Raphael Clynes, Angela M Christiano
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease typified by nonscarring hair loss with a variable clinical course. In this study, we conducted whole genome gene expression analysis of 96 human scalp skin biopsy specimens from AA or normal control subjects. Based on gene expression profiling, samples formed distinct clusters based on the presence or absence of disease as well as disease phenotype (patchy disease compared with alopecia totalis or universalis). Differential gene expression analysis allowed us to robustly demonstrate graded immune activity in samples of increasing phenotypic severity and generate a quantitative gene expression scoring system that classified samples based on interferon and cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune signatures critical for disease pathogenesis...
May 2016: EBioMedicine
A K Gupta, J L Carviel, W Abramovits
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune-triggered non-scarring hair loss is a feature of alopecia areata (AA). Initially patchy and often self-limited, severe hair loss forms include the complete loss of scalp hair or alopecia totalis (AT) and complete loss of all hair or alopecia universalis (AU). For AT and AU a reliable treatment has remained elusive. The targeted kinase inhibitor tofacitinib, in current use for treatment of other immune diseases, has been hypothesized as a viable option for AA, AT and AU therapy and a few case reports support this...
August 2016: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Gwenaëlle Colaianni, Francoise Poot
Alopecia areata (patchy hairloss) often indicates to the dermatologist the existence of psychological disorders, mostly anxiety and depression. Psychosomatic conditions are usually associated with difficulty in expressing emotions, as is the case in alexithymia, and this difficulty is often seen in patients with alopecia areata. This case study aims to show how to help these patients connect with their emotions and how the somatic symptom can become meaningful by using a unifying approach, which challenges the beliefs, the rules and the interactions of both the individual and the family, as well as the emotions expressed or suppressed...
August 23, 2016: Acta Dermato-venereologica
Yukiyasu Arakawa, Tomoko Nomiyama, Norito Katoh
Three hundred and eight nanometer excimer light therapy has recently been reported to be effective against patchy alopecia areata (AA) in several clinical studies. However, these studies only included a few patients with severe forms of AA, and all of them exhibited poor outcomes. We further investigated the use of excimer light as a therapeutic option for cases of alopecia universalis (AU) that are resistant to other treatments. Eleven treatment-resistant AU patients were treated with a 308-nm excimer light at 2-week intervals for more than 16 sessions...
April 30, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
Piotr Brzezinski, Ewelina Cywinska, Anca Chiriac
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common dermatological disease characterized by patchy areas of nonscarring alopecia. Trichotillomania (TT) is an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder defined by the urge to pull out his/her hair. We describe a case of AA coexisting with TT. A 6-year-old male child presented with a localized patch of hair loss in the occipital area of 2 years duration. Dermoscopy revealed numerous exclamation mark hairs along with signs of scratching and bleeding. A detailed medical anamnesis and thorough examination of the child during the consultation put in evidence TT...
January 2016: International Journal of Trichology
Aline Blanco Barbosa, Aline Donati, Neusa S Valente, Ricardo Romiti
Acute traction alopecia is a diagnostic challenge when the external factor is not suspected or admitted. We report two female patients with non-scarring patchy alopecia resulting from traction of video-electroencephalogram electrodes in which the clinical diagnosis of alopecia areata was suspected. Associated diffuse hair disorders might be implicated in these cases. The correct diagnosis of traction alopecia is important in order to avoid unnecessary treatments.
October 2015: International Journal of Trichology
Jeffrey Kinard, Kathy Tieu, Sandra Kimmer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Journal of Family Practice
Anusha P Panthagani, Michael J Tidman
Dermatophyte fungi are confined to the keratin layer of the epidermis and include three genera: Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton. These infections can be transmitted by human contact (anthropophilic), from the soil (geophilic) and by animal (zoophilic) spread. Dermatophyte infections usually present as an erythematous, scaly eruption, which may or may not be itchy. Asymmetry is an important clinical clue to fungal infection, as is annular morphology. Examination under ultraviolet (Wood's light) can be helpful...
October 2015: Practitioner
Lynne J Goldberg, Leslie A Castelo-Soccio
Alopecia is a disorder that affects all patients, young and old. Many diagnoses, particularly the scarring alopecias, are more common in adults; however, others, such as tinea capitis, are more common in children, and some, such as alopecia areata, often affect both age groups. The approach to, and evaluation of, an alopecia patient is thus highly dependent on his or her age. In adults with diffuse, non-scarring hair loss, a part-width examination can help detect pattern hair loss, the most common cause of diffuse loss in this age group...
November 2015: Clinics in Dermatology
Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Nicholas Gulati, Kathleen M Bonifacio, Norma Kunjravia, Xiuzhong Zheng, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Avner Shemer, Emma Guttman-Yassky, James G Krueger
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common inflammatory disease targeting the anagen-stage hair follicle. Different cytokines have been implicated in the disease profile, but their pathogenic role is not yet fully determined. We studied biopsies of pretreatment lesional and non-lesional (NL) scalp and post-treatment (intra-lesional steroid injection) lesional scalp of 6 patchy patients with AA using immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed increases in CD3(+) , CD8(+) T cells, CD11c(+) dendritic cells and CD1a(+) Langerhans cells within and around hair follicles of pretreatment lesional scalp, which decreased upon treatment...
April 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Stephen E P Smith, Rachel L G Maus, Tessa R Davis, John P Sundberg, Diana Gil, Adam G Schrum
Aiming to decipher immunological mechanisms of the autoimmune disorder alopecia areata (AA), we hypothesized that interleukin-6 (IL-6) might be associated with juvenile-onset AA, for which there is currently no experimental model. Upon intramuscular transgenesis to overexpress IL-6 in pregnant female C57BL/6 (B6) mice, we found that the offspring displayed an initial normal and complete juvenile hair growth cycle, but developed alopecia around postnatal day 18. This alopecia was patchy and reversible (non-scarring) and was associated with upregulation of Ulbp1 expression, the only mouse homolog of the human AA-associated ULBP3 gene...
March 2016: Experimental Dermatology
Mauricio Salinas-Santander, Celia Sánchez-Domínguez, Cristina Cantú-Salinas, Hugo Gonzalez-Cárdenas, Ana Cecilia Cepeda-Nieto, Ricardo M Cerda-Flores, Rocío Ortiz-López, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani
Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin condition in which hair is lost from certain or all areas of the body. This condition has been described as an immune-mediated complex genetic disease, characterized by the presence of lymphocytes that are directed to the hair follicles in the anagen phase. The gene encoding the protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22), which is exclusively expressed in immune cells, has been considered as a risk factor associated with a number of autoimmune diseases. In AA, the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs2476601, has been identified as a risk factor in several populations...
November 2015: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
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