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mononuclear phagocyte system

Isabelle C Arnold, Xiaozhou Zhang, Sabine Urban, Mariela Artola-Borán, Markus G Manz, Karen M Ottemann, Anne Müller
The gastric lamina propria is largely uncharted immunological territory. Here we describe the evolution and composition of the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic lamina propria mononuclear phagocyte system during the steady state and infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We show that monocytes, CX3CR1hi macrophages, and CD11b+ dendritic cells are recruited to the infected stomach in a CCR2-dependent manner. All three populations, but not BATF3-dependent CD103+ DCs, sample red fluorescent protein (RFP)+Helicobacter pylori (H...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Shu Zhen Chong, Maximilien Evrard, Chi Ching Goh, Lai Guan Ng
Monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages have been classically categorized into the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) based on their similar functional and phenotypic characteristics. While an increasing amount of research has revealed substantial ontogenic and functional differences among these cells, the reasons behind their heterogeneity and strategic positioning in specific niches throughout the body are yet to be fully elucidated. In this review, we outline how recent advances in intravital imaging studies have dissected this phenomenon and have allowed us to appreciate how MPS cells exploit their regional niches to specialize and maximize their functional properties...
December 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
Min Wu, Dajun Sun, Katherine Tyner, Wenlei Jiang, Rodney Rouse
Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit®) and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) products...
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Jiaming Hu, Yan Sheng, Junfeng Shi, Bohao Yu, Zhiqiang Yu, Guochao Liao
The major limitation in the improving polymeric nanoparticles into an efficient gene/drug delivery carrier is the rapid opsonization, phagocytic uptake by mononuclear phagocyte system and subsequent clearance from the bloodstream. The prolonged circulation time of nanoparticles in the blood is a prerequisite to realizing a controlled and targeted (passive or active targeting) release of the encapsulated gene/drug at the desired site of action. In this review, the factors such as biological barriers and physical barriers including particle size, shape, zeta potential, and hydrophilicity will be discussed, which can cause effects on blood clearance and organ accumulation...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
H Wiig, F C Luft, J M Titze
The role of salt in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension is not well understood. According to the current understanding, the central mechanism for blood pressure (BP) regulation relies on classical studies linking BP and Na+ balance, placing the kidney at the very centre of long-term BP regulation. To maintain BP homeostasis, the effective circulating fluid volume and thereby body Na+ content has to be maintained within very narrow limits. From recent work in humans and rats, the notion has emerged that Na+ could be stored somewhere in the body without commensurate water retention to buffer free extracellular Na+ and that previously unidentified extrarenal, tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms are operative regulating the release and storage of Na+ from a kidney-independent reservoir...
November 28, 2017: Acta Physiologica
Ana Luque, Inmaculada Serrano, Josep M Aran
Complement and dendritic cells (DCs) share many functional features that drive the outcome of immune-inflammatory processes. Both have a sentinel function, acting as danger sensors specialized for a rapid, comprehensive and selective action against potential threats without damaging the healthy host cells. But while complement has been considered as a "master alarm" system poised for direct pathogen killing, DCs are regarded as "master regulators" or orchestrators of a vast range of effector immune cells for an effective immune response against threatening insults...
November 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Qingyun Li, Ben A Barres
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages in the brain are mononuclear phagocytes that are increasingly recognized to be essential players in the development, homeostasis and diseases of the central nervous system. With the availability of new genetic, molecular and pharmacological tools, considerable advances have been made towards our understanding of the embryonic origins, developmental programmes and functions of these cells. These exciting discoveries, some of which are still controversial, also raise many new questions, which makes brain macrophage biology a fast-growing field at the intersection of neuroscience and immunology...
November 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
H B Jijon, L Suarez-Lopez, O E Diaz, S Das, J De Calisto, M B Yaffe, M J Pittet, J R Mora, Y Belkaid, R J Xavier, E J Villablanca
Retinoic acid (RA), a dietary vitamin A metabolite, is crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. RA acts on intestinal leukocytes to modulate their lineage commitment and function. Although the role of RA has been characterized in immune cells, whether intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) rely on RA signaling to exert their immune-regulatory function has not been examined. Here we demonstrate that lack of RA receptor α (RARα) signaling in IECs results in deregulated epithelial lineage specification, leading to increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
E V Agaeva, V N Petrov, A G Konoplyannikov, O E Popovkina, L A Lepekhina, E V Sayapina, I V Semenkova
In vivo modifying effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells of humans and laboratory mice on ROS production by mouse blood mononuclears are studied by luminol-dependent zymosan-induced chemiluminescence after syngeneic and xenogeneic transplantation into systemic blood flow. The chemiluminescent activity of mouse blood mononuclears has increased early (1 day) after syngeneic (mouse mesenchymal stromal cells) and xenogeneic (human mesenchymal stromal cells) transplantation. Later, 7-21 days after syngeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, the chemiluminescent activity of mouse mononuclears is suppressed...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Luisa M Russell, Margot Hultz, Peter C Searson
Doxil, a liposomal formulation of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, is FDA-approved for multiple indications. Doxil liposomes are designed to retain doxorubicin in circulation, minimize clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system, and limit uptake in healthy tissue. Although pharmacokinetic data and survival statistics from clinical trials provide insight into distribution and efficacy, many details of the mechanism of action remain unresolved, despite the importance in translating liposome-based drug delivery systems to other molecules and cargo...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Manfred B Lutz, Herbert Strobl, Gerold Schuler, Nikolaus Romani
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mph) share many characteristics as components of the innate immune system. The criteria to classify the multitude of subsets within the mononuclear phagocyte system are currently phenotype, ontogeny, transcription patterns, epigenetic adaptations, and function. More recently, ontogenetic, transcriptional, and proteomic research approaches uncovered major developmental differences between Flt3L-dependent conventional DCs as compared with Mphs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), the latter mainly generated in vitro from murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) or human CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
John Byron Christoforidis, Karen Briley, Katherine Binzel, Prayna Bhatia, Lai Wei, Krishan Kumar, Michael Vinzenz Knopp
Purpose: To determine the intravitreal pharmacokinetic properties and to study the systemic biodistribution characteristics of I-124-labeled bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in a nonhuman primate model. Methods: Three groups with four owl monkeys per group underwent intravitreal injection with 1.25 mg/0.05 mL I-124 bevacizumab, 0.5 mg/0.05 mL I-124 ranibizumab, or 2.0 mg/0.05 mL I-124 aflibercept in the right eye of each subject...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Li Gong, Qin Huang, Aikun Fu, Yanping Wu, Ya-Li Li, Xiaogang Xu, Yi Huang, Dong-You Yu, Wei-Fen Li
Previous studies found that Bacillus subtilis BS02 (B. subtilis BS02) and B. subtilis subsp. natto BS04 (B. subtilis natto BS04) isolated in our laboratory could activate immune response of murine macrophages in vitro. This study aims to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus spores on the systemic cellular immune response in BALB/C mice. Results showed that both B. subtilis BS02 and B. subtilis natto BS04 enhanced the phagocytic function of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells...
October 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Madhur P Motwani, Justine Newson, Simon Kwong, Angela Richard-Loendt, Romain Colas, Jesmond Dalli, Derek W Gilroy
Acute inflammation is an immediate response to infection and injury characterised by the influx of granulocytes followed by phagocytosing mononuclear phagocytes. Provided the antigen is cleared and the immune system of the host is fully functional, the acute inflammatory response will resolve. Until now it is considered that resolution then leads back to homeostasis, the physiological state tissues experienced before inflammation occurred. Using a human model of acute inflammation driven by intradermal UV killed Escherichia coli, we found that bacteria and granulocyte clearance as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine catabolism occurred by 72h...
2017: PloS One
Lei Song, Sarah Able, Errin Johnson, Katherine A Vallis
The successful use of targeted radionuclide therapy in the treatment of solid tumours may be limited by radioresistance, which necessitates delivery of a high dose of radioactivity. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems possess a large surface area for attachment of radioisotopes and so offer a solution to this challenge. However, tumour uptake may be limited by rapid hepatic clearance of NP via the mononuclear phagocyte system. Liver uptake is further compounded when epidermal growth factor (EGF) is used as a targeting ligand, as EGF-tagged NP bind the EGF receptor (EGFR), which is expressed to a moderate extent by hepatocytes...
2017: Nanotheranostics
Thiago Goulart Rosa, Sofia Nascimento Dos Santos, Terezina de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Daniele Dal Molim Ghisleni, Thereza Christina Barja-Fidalgo, Eduardo Ricci-Junior, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Jan Kozempel, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to develop, characterize and test (in vivo) dacarbazine microparticles that may be labeled with 99mTc and Ra-223 for both use: diagnostic and therapy of metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We developed by double emulsion solvent evaporation methodology the microparticle. The characterization has been done using, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The labeling with 99mTc and Ra-223 has been done by the direct labeling process...
October 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
Joy Wolfram, Sara Nizzero, Haoran Liu, Feng Li, Guodong Zhang, Zheng Li, Haifa Shen, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari
Site-specific localization is critical for improving the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools for localized drug delivery. However, over 90% of systemically injected nanocarriers typically accumulate in the liver and spleen due to resident macrophages that form the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this study, the clinically approved antimalarial agent chloroquine was shown to reduce nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by suppressing endocytosis. Pretreatment of mice with a clinically relevant dose of chloroquine substantially decreased the accumulation of liposomes and silicon particles in the mononuclear phagocyte system and improved tumoritropic and organotropic delivery...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
Clément Da Silva, Camille Wagner, Johnny Bonnardel, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Hugues Lelouard
The gut represents a potential entry site for a wide range of pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Consequently, it is protected by one of the largest and most diversified population of immune cells of the body. Its surveillance requires the constant sampling of its encounters by dedicated sentinels composed of follicles and their associated epithelium located in specialized area. In the small intestine, Peyer's patches (PPs) are the most important of these mucosal immune response inductive sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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