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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194937/encapsulating-therapeutic-proteins-with-polyzwitterions-for-lower-macrophage-non-specific-uptake-and-longer-circulation-time
#1
Xiaopei Zhang, Wei Chen, Xinyuan Zhu, Yunfeng Lu
Numerous efforts have been made to promote the efficiency of protein delivery through tuning the protein surface properties such as grafting polymers on protein surface, but limited successes have been achieved and their great clinical expectation has not yet been realized. The main reason is that proteins are readily recognized as foreign materials under physiological conditions due to the genetic distance between species, leading to rapid decrease in activity and clearance by mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS)...
February 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179531/toll-like-receptor-7-agonist-gs-9620-induces-hiv-expression-and-hiv-specific-immunity-in-cells-from-hiv-infected-individuals-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Angela Tsai, Alivelu Irrinki, Jasmine Kaur, Tomas Cihlar, George Kukolj, Derek D Sloan, Jeffrey P Murry
Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126602/the-effect-of-feed-supplementation-with-zinc-chelate-and-zinc-sulphate-on-selected-humoral-and-cell-mediated-immune-parameters-and-cytokine-concentration-in-broiler-chickens
#3
Łukasz Jarosz, Agnieszka Marek, Zbigniew Grądzki, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Marcin Kalinowski
The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO4 and ZnSO4(+) phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), CD25(+), MHC Class II, and BU-1(+) lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood...
September 14, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125666/mononuclear-phagocytes-are-dispensable-for-cardiac-remodeling-in-established-pressure-overload-heart-failure
#4
Bindiya Patel, Mohamed Ameen Ismahil, Tariq Hamid, Shyam S Bansal, Sumanth D Prabhu
BACKGROUND: Although cardiac and splenic mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), i.e., monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are key contributors to cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction, their role in pressure-overload remodeling is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that these immune cells are required for the progression of remodeling in pressure-overload heart failure (HF), and that MP depletion would ameliorate remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation, and assessed for alterations in MPs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108325/mononuclear-phagocytes-as-a-target-not-a-barrier-for-drug-delivery
#5
Seok-Beom Yong, Yoonsung Song, Hyung Jin Kim, Qurrat Ul Ain, Yong-Hee Kim
Mononuclear phagocytes have been generally recognized as a barrier to drug delivery. Recently, a new understanding of mononuclear phagocytes (MPS) ontogeny has surfaced and their functions in disease have been unveiled, demonstrating the need for re-evaluation of perspectives on mononuclear phagocytes in drug delivery. In this review, we described mononuclear phagocyte biology and focus on their accumulation mechanisms in disease sites with explanations of monocyte heterogeneity. In the 'MPS as a barrier' section, we summarized recent studies on mechanisms to avoid phagocytosis based on two different biological principles: protein adsorption and self-recognition...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102120/intestinal-mononuclear-phagocytes-in-health-and-disease
#6
Theodore J Sanders, Ulf Yrlid, Kevin J Maloy
The intestine is the tissue of the body with the highest constitutive exposure to foreign antigen and is also a common entry portal for many local and systemic pathogens. Therefore, the local immune system has the unenviable task of balancing efficient responses to dangerous pathogens with tolerance toward beneficial microbiota and food antigens. As in most tissues, the decision between tolerance and immunity is critically governed by the activity of local myeloid cells. However, the unique challenges posed by the intestinal environment have necessitated the development of several specialized mononuclear phagocyte populations with distinct phenotypic and functional characteristics that have vital roles in maintaining barrier function and immune homeostasis in the intestine...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#7
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036035/serum-interleukin-34-levels-are-elevated-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#8
Hongxu Wang, Ju Cao, Xiaofei Lai
Interleukin-34 (IL-34) was initially identified as an alternative ligand for the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to mediate the biology of mononuclear phagocytic cells. Recently, IL-34 was found to be associated with chronic inflammation, such as in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Both RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are multifactorial autoimmune diseases and are characterized by excessive immune and inflammatory responses. Thus, we investigated whether IL-34 is involved in the pathogenesis of SLE...
December 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029776/surface-distribution-and-biophysicochemical-properties-of-polymeric-micelles-bearing-gemini-cationic-and-hydrophilic-groups
#9
Zhicheng Pan, Danxuan Fang, Nijia Song, Yuanqing Song, Mingming Ding, Jiehua Li, Feng Luo, Hong Tan, Qiang Fu
Polymeric micelles containing cationic gemini quaternary ammonium (GQA) groups have shown enhanced cellular uptake and efficient drug delivery, while the incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) corona can potentially reduce the absorption of cationic carriers by opsonic proteins and subsequent uptake by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). To understand the interactions of GQA and PEG groups and their effects on the biophysicochemical characteristics of nanocarriers, a series of polyurethane micelles containing GQA and different molecular weights of PEG were prepared and carefully characterized...
January 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005032/-tick-borne-neuroinfections-clinical-characteristics-immunopathogenesis-and-new-pharmacotherapeutic-strategies
#10
A B Kon'kova-Reidman
AIM: To study the semiotics of neurological lesions in patients with tick-borne encephalitis, Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITBB) and mixed infection (MI), their immunopathogenesis, and the possibilities of current pathogenetic pharmacological correction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 220 patients with tick-borne encephalitis, ITBB, and MI concurrent with the syndromes of central nervous system lesions were examined. The immunological studies encompassed the examination of mononuclear cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the population and subpopulation composition of lymphocytes, and nitroxidergic processes in the serum and CSF from the total level of final stable nitric oxide metabolites...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003336/polysialic-acid-blocks-mononuclear-phagocyte-reactivity-inhibits-complement-activation-and-protects-from-vascular-damage-in-the-retina
#11
Marcus Karlstetter, Jens Kopatz, Alexander Aslanidis, Anahita Shahraz, Albert Caramoy, Bettina Linnartz-Gerlach, Yuchen Lin, Anika Lückoff, Sascha Fauser, Katharina Düker, Janine Claude, Yiner Wang, Johannes Ackermann, Tobias Schmidt, Veit Hornung, Christine Skerka, Thomas Langmann, Harald Neumann
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in the elderly population. Its pathophysiology is linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the complement system. Sialic acid polymers prevent ROS production of human mononuclear phagocytes via the inhibitory sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin-11 (SIGLEC11) receptor. Here, we show that low-dose intravitreal injection of low molecular weight polysialic acid with average degree of polymerization 20 (polySia avDP20) in humanized transgenic mice expressing SIGLEC11 on mononuclear phagocytes reduced their reactivity and vascular leakage induced by laser coagulation...
February 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992308/shielding-therapeutic-drug-carriers-from-the-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-a-review
#12
Nandhakumar Sathyamoorthy, Magharla Dasaratha Dhanaraju
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) defends the body against the invasion of microorganisms by phagocytosis. In the presence of opsonins, the invading matter is readily recognized by phagocytes because of the interaction between receptors on the phagocytic cell surfaces and the modified conformation of opsonins. The particulate carriers, which are otherwise capable of optimizing drug delivery, are subjected to opsonization and phagocytosis by the MPS immediately following intravenous administration. These drug carriers should remain in the bloodstream in order to spatially locate the drug to the target site and temporally control the drug's release from there on; however, they are devastated by opsonization by serum proteins...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935698/tailoring-nanostructure-morphology-for-enhanced-targeting-of-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#13
Sijia Yi, Sean David Allen, Yu-Gang Liu, Brian Zhou Ouyang, Xiaomo Li, Punn Augsornworawat, Edward Benjamin Thorp, Evan Alexander Scott
Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of heart disease, results from chronic vascular inflammation that is driven by diverse immune cell populations. Nanomaterials may function as powerful platforms for diagnostic imaging and controlled delivery of therapeutics to inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis, but efficacy is limited by nonspecific uptake by cells of the mononuclear phagocytes system (MPS). MPS cells located in the liver, spleen, blood, lymph nodes, and kidney remove from circulation the vast majority of intravenously administered nanomaterials regardless of surface functionalization or conjugation of targeting ligands...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830097/histoplasmosis-induced-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-an-adult-patient-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Ramona Vesna Untanu, Syed Akbar, Stephen Graziano, Neerja Vajpayee
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an aggressive and life-threating immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by persistent activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system leading to uncontrolled systemic hyperinflammatory response. The proliferation and activation of histiocytes and lymphocytes lead to production of large amounts of cytokines, also called cytokine storm. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues are directly involved while other organs are damaged by circulating cytokines. Primary HLH is attributed to genetic defects of the immune system and secondary HLH is usually seen in adults secondary to malignancy, infection, or autoimmune diseases...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829372/identification-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-hominissuis-secreted-proteins-using-an-in-vitro-system-mimicking-the-phagosomal-environment
#15
Jessica J Chinison, Lia Danelishvili, Rashmi Gupta, Sasha J Rose, Lmar M Babrak, Luiz E Bermudez
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis is a common intracellular pathogen that infects patients with HIV/AIDS and cause lung infection in patients with underlying lung pathology. M.avium preferably infects macrophages and uses diverse mechanisms to alter phagosome maturation. Once in the macrophage, the pathogen can alter the host cellular defenses by secreting proteins into the cytosol of host cells, but despite considerable research, only a few secreted effector proteins have been identified...
November 9, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827374/microbiota-induces-tonic-ccl2-systemic-levels-that-control-pdc-trafficking-in-steady-state
#16
M Swiecki, H L Miller, R Sesti-Costa, M Cella, S Gilfillan, M Colonna
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) detect viruses initiating antiviral type I interferon responses. The microbiota is known to shape immune responses, but whether it influences pDC homeostasis and/or function is poorly understood. By comparing pDCs in germ-free and specific pathogen-free mice, we found that the microbiota supports homeostatic trafficking by eliciting constitutive levels of the chemokine CCL2 that engages CCR2. Mononuclear phagocytes were required for tonic CCL2 levels. CCL2 was particularly important for trafficking of a CCR2(hi) subset of pDCs that produced proinflammatory cytokines and was prone to apoptosis...
November 9, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814941/deleting-an-nr4a1-super-enhancer-subdomain-ablates-ly6c-low-monocytes-while-preserving-macrophage-gene-function
#17
Graham D Thomas, Richard N Hanna, Neelakatan T Vasudevan, Anouk A Hamers, Casey E Romanoski, Sara McArdle, Kevin D Ross, Amy Blatchley, Deborah Yoakum, Bruce A Hamilton, Zbigniew Mikulski, Mukesh K Jain, Christopher K Glass, Catherine C Hedrick
Mononuclear phagocytes are a heterogeneous family that occupy all tissues and assume numerous roles to support tissue function and systemic homeostasis. Our ability to dissect the roles of individual subsets is limited by a lack of technologies that ablate gene function within specific mononuclear phagocyte sub-populations. Using Nr4a1-dependent Ly6C(low) monocytes, we present a proof-of-principle approach that addresses these limitations. Combining ChIP-seq and molecular approaches we identified a single, conserved, sub-domain within the Nr4a1 enhancer that was essential for Ly6C(low) monocyte development...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780020/murine-monocytes-origins-subsets-fates-and-functions
#18
Alexander Mildner, Goran Marinkovic, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are short-lived mononuclear phagocytes that circulate in the bloodstream and comprise two main subpopulations that in the mouse are best defined by the Ly6C marker. Intravascular functions of "classical" Ly6C+ monocytes and their interactions with other lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes in the circulation remain poorly understood. Rather, these cells are known to efficiently extravasate into tissues. Indeed, Ly6C+ monocytes and their descendants have emerged as a third, highly plastic and dynamic cellular system that complements the two classical, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments, i...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780016/monocyte-macrophage-and-dendritic-cell-development-the-human-perspective
#19
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
The maintenance of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) involves manifold pathways of ontogeny and homeostasis that have been the subject of intense study in recent years. The concept of a peripheral mononuclear phagocyte system continually renewed by blood-borne monocytes has been modified to include specialized DC pathways of development that do not involve monocytes, and longevity through self-renewal of tissue macrophages. The study of development remains difficult owing to the plasticity of phenotypes and misconceptions about the fundamental structure of hematopoiesis...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777575/activation-of-human-complement-system-by-dextran-coated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-is-not-affected-by-dextran-fe-ratio-hydroxyl-modifications-and-crosslinking
#20
Guankui Wang, Fangfang Chen, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, LinPing Wu, S Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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