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mononuclear phagocyte system

Srikant Rangaraju, Syed Ali Raza, Noel Xiang'An Li, Ranjita Betarbet, Eric B Dammer, Duc Duong, James J Lah, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
In the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are innate immune mononuclear phagocytes (CNS MPs) that can phagocytose infectious particles, apoptotic cells, neurons, and pathological protein aggregates, such as Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While CD11b+ CD45low microglia account for the majority of CNS MPs, a small population of CD11b+ CD45high CNS MPs is also recognized in AD that surround Aβ plaques. These transcriptionally and pathologically unique CD45high cells have unclear origin and undefined phagocytic characteristics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vahid Mirshafiee, Bingbing Sun, Chong Hyun Chang, Yu-Pei Liao, Wen Jiang, Jinhong Jiang, Xiangsheng Liu, Xiang Wang, Tian Xia, Andre E Nel
The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. Not only did we observe differences between KC and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition metal oxides (TMOs, e...
March 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Olivier Grémy, Laurent Miccoli, Faustine Lelan, Sandra Bohand, Michel Cherel, Marie Mougin-Degraef
In this study, we assessed the efficacy of unilamellar 110-nm liposomes encapsulating the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) in plutonium-exposed rats. Rats were contaminated by intravenous administration of the soluble citrate form of plutonium. The comparative effects of liposomal and free DTPA at similar doses were examined in terms of limitation of alpha activity burden in rats receiving various treatment regimens. Liposomal DTPA given at 1 h after contamination more significantly prevented the accumulation of plutonium in tissues than did free DTPA...
March 12, 2018: Radiation Research
Georgina J Clark, Pablo A Silveira, P Mark Hogarth, Derek N J Hart
Dendritic cells (DC) are bone marrow derived leucocytes that are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system. They are the surveillance cells of the body, found in all tissues and, as specialised antigen presenting cells, they direct immune responses. DC interact with the environment through membrane molecules. The membrane molecules form a landscape that defines DC as leucocytes, shows that DC are part of the mononuclear phagocytic system, interacts with the environment and directs interactions with other cells...
February 27, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Benoit Stijlemans, Patrick De Baetselier, Stefan Magez, Jo A Van Ginderachter, Carl De Trez
African trypanosomosis (AT) is a chronically debilitating parasitic disease of medical and economic importance for the development of sub-Saharan Africa. The trypanosomes that cause this disease are extracellular protozoan parasites that have developed efficient immune escape mechanisms to manipulate the entire host immune response to allow parasite survival and transmission. During the early stage of infection, a profound pro-inflammatory type 1 activation of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), involving classically activated macrophages (i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
H N Sarjan, H N Yajurvedi
The objective was to find out whether severity of stress effects on immunity increases with duration of exposure and recovery depends on duration of exposure. Adult male rats (n = 30) were subjected to restraint (1 h) followed by forced swimming exercise (15 min) after a gap of 4 h daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and allowed to recover for 6 weeks after each exposure period. Exposure of rats to stress resulted in duration dependent significant decreases in leukocyte count, phagocytic indices of neutrophils, number of bone marrow stem cells and serum levels of IL-12 and increases in apoptotic index of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum levels of IL-10...
February 23, 2018: Immunology Letters
Susanta Pahari, Gurpreet Kaur, Shikha Negi, Mohammad Aqdas, Deepjyoti K Das, Hilal Bashir, Sanpreet Singh, Mukta Nagare, Junaid Khan, Javed N Agrewala
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) constitutes dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. This system contributes to various functions that are essential for maintaining homeostasis, activation of innate immunity, and bridging it with the adaptive immunity. Consequently, MPS is highly important in bolstering immunity against the pathogens. However, MPS is the frontline cells in destroying Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ), yet the bacterium prefers to reside in the hostile environment of macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arthur Mortha, Kyle Burrows
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an essential component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are developmentally rooted in the lymphoid lineage and can diverge into at least three transcriptionally distinct lineages. ILCs seed both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and are locally self-maintained in tissue-resident pools. Tissue-resident ILCs execute important effector functions making them key regulator in tissue homeostasis, repair, remodeling, microbial defense, and anti-tumor immunity. Similar to T lymphocytes, ILCs possess only few sensory elements for the recognition of non-self and thus depend on extrinsic cellular sensory elements residing within the tissue...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vijith Vijayan, Frank A D T G Wagener, Stephan Immenschuh
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, plays a critical role in inflammation and iron homeostasis. Regulatory functions of HO-1 are mediated via the catalytic breakdown of heme, which is an iron-containing tetrapyrrole complex with potential pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory effects. The HO reaction produces the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds carbon monoxide (CO) and biliverdin, subsequently converted into bilirubin, along with iron, which is reutilized for erythropoiesis...
February 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Yiming Zhou, Zhifei Dai
The application of nanotechnology in tumor treatment has boomed the vigorous development in cancer nanomedicine. In spite of the great success has been achieved in this field, the nanomedicine has not realized its full potential owing to a delivery barrier, the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), which cuts off more than 95 % of the administrated nanoparticles. This results in an extremely low drug delivery efficacy to the tumor, leading to poor therapeutic outcomes. Moreover, the excessive injection of nanoparticles also raises toxicity concern caused by the accumulation of nanomaterials in the organs like liver and spleen...
February 13, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Limeng Wang, Zhihua Yang, Long Xu, Xiujie Pan, Xingyu Liu, Junwei Zhao, Xiang Li, Maoxiang Zhu, Jianping Xie
Crotonaldehyde is a ubiquitous air pollutant in the environment. It is reported to be harmful to the biosystems in vivo and in vitro. The exposure to crotonaldehyde irritates the mucous membranes and induces edema, hyperemia, cell necrosis, inflammation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in the lungs. However, the effects of crotonaldehyde on the immune system have not been reported. In the present study, 6-8 weeks old male Wistar rats were exposed to crotonaldehyde by intratracheal instillation at doses of 4, 8, and 16 μL/kg body weight (b...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Pamela Ferrari, Mariana Migliorini Parisi, Rafael Colombo, Matheus Becker, Gabriel Fries, Bruna Maria Ascoli, Luiza Paul Géa, Márcia Kauer-Sant Anna, Flávio Kapczinski, Fábio Klamt, Fátima T C R Guma, Adriane Ribeiro Rosa, Florencia M Barbé-Tuana
Objective: Evidence has suggested that immune imbalance is involved with bipolar disorder (BD); however, its precise mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated whether biochemical changes in the serum from BD patients could modulate the phenotype of cultured macrophages. Methods: Eighteen subjects with BD and five healthy individuals were included in this study. The human monocyte cell line U-937 was activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and polarization was induced with RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% serum from each patient for 24 hours...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Camille Wagner, Johnny Bonnardel, Clément Da Silva, Liesbet Martens, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Hugues Lelouard
In mammals, macrophages (MF) are present in virtually all tissues where they serve many different functions linked primarily to the maintenance of homeostasis, innate defense against pathogens, tissue repair and metabolism. Although some of these functions appear common to all tissues, others are specific to the homing tissue. Thus, MF become adapted to perform particular functions in a given tissue. Accordingly, MF express common markers but also sets of tissue-specific markers linked to dedicated functions...
January 31, 2018: Cellular Immunology
Christopher B Toomey, Michael Landowski, Mikael Klingeborn, Una Kelly, John Deans, Holly Dong, Ons Harrabi, Thomas Van Blarcom, Yik Andy Yeung, Ruslan Grishanin, John C Lin, Daniel R Saban, Catherine Bowes Rickman
Purpose: A large body of evidence supports a central role for complement activation in the pathobiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), including plasma complement component 5a (C5a). Interestingly, C5a is a chemotactic agent for monocytes, a cell type also shown to contribute to AMD. However, the role monocytes play in the pathogenesis of "dry" AMD and the pharmacologic potential of targeting C5a to regulate these cells are unclear. We addressed these questions via C5a blockade in a unique model of early/intermediate dry AMD and large panel flow cytometry to immunophenotype monocytic involvement...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Federica Lovisari, Valeria Terzi, Monica G Lippi, Paolo R Brioschi, Roberto Fumagalli
RATIONALE: We present a case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) with severe pulmonary complication and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) hospitalized in our intensive care unit (ICU) in 2014; distinctive trait of this case has been the challenging diagnosis, with a bone marrow biopsy always negative, the severe pulmonary complication with ARDS and severe pulmonary hypertension, and the ferritin temporal kinetics that precisely followed the clinical course of disease...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lee A Meier, Jennifer L Auger, Brianna J Engelson, Hannah M Cowan, Elise R Breed, Mayra I Gonzalez-Torres, Joshua D Boyer, Mayank Verma, Aubyn Marath, Bryce A Binstadt
Background -Valvular heart disease (VHD) is common and affects the mitral valve (MV) most frequently. Despite the prevalence of mitral valve disease (MVD), the cellular and molecular pathways that initiate and perpetuate it are not well understood. Methods -K/B.g7 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice spontaneously develop systemic autoantibody-associated autoimmunity, leading to fully-penetrant fibro-inflammatory MVD and arthritis. We used multiparameter flow cytometry, intracellular cytokine staining, and immunofluorescent staining to characterize the cells in inflamed K/B...
January 31, 2018: Circulation
Isabelle C Arnold, Xiaozhou Zhang, Sabine Urban, Mariela Artola-Borán, Markus G Manz, Karen M Ottemann, Anne Müller
The gastric lamina propria is largely uncharted immunological territory. Here we describe the evolution and composition of the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic lamina propria mononuclear phagocyte system during the steady state and infection with the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We show that monocytes, CX3CR1hi macrophages, and CD11b+ dendritic cells are recruited to the infected stomach in a CCR2-dependent manner. All three populations, but not BATF3-dependent CD103+ DCs, sample red fluorescent protein (RFP)+Helicobacter pylori (H...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
Shu Zhen Chong, Maximilien Evrard, Chi Ching Goh, Lai Guan Ng
Monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages have been classically categorized into the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) based on their similar functional and phenotypic characteristics. While an increasing amount of research has revealed substantial ontogenic and functional differences among these cells, the reasons behind their heterogeneity and strategic positioning in specific niches throughout the body are yet to be fully elucidated. In this review, we outline how recent advances in intravital imaging studies have dissected this phenomenon and have allowed us to appreciate how MPS cells exploit their regional niches to specialize and maximize their functional properties...
December 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
Min Wu, Dajun Sun, Katherine Tyner, Wenlei Jiang, Rodney Rouse
Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV) iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit®) and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG) products...
December 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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