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mononuclear phagocyte system

Kun Taek Park, Mahmoud M ElNaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, John P Bannantine, Victoria Mack, Lindsay M Fry, William C Davis
Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC)...
2016: PloS One
Vivek Durai, Kenneth M Murphy
Dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in activating innate immune cells and initiating adaptive immune responses. The functions of DCs were originally obscured by their overlap with other mononuclear phagocytes, but new mouse models have allowed for the selective ablation of subsets of DCs and have helped to identify their non-redundant roles in the immune system. These tools have elucidated the functions of DCs in host defense against pathogens, autoimmunity, and cancer. This review will describe the mouse models generated to interrogate the role of DCs and will discuss how their use has progressively clarified our understanding of the unique functions of DC subsets...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Anna Polomska, Marc A Gauthier, Jean-Christophe Leroux
Drug nanocrystals (NCs) are colloidal dispersions composed almost entirely of drug. As such, there is substantial interest in targeting them to diseased tissues, where they can locally deliver high doses of the therapeutic. However, because of their uncontrolled dissolution characteristics in vivo and uptake by the monomolecular phagocyte system, achieving tumor accumulation is challenging. To address these issues, a layer-by-layer approach is adopted to coat paclitaxel NCs with alternating layers of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, using a PEGylated copolymer as the top layer...
October 17, 2016: Small
Bo Tian, Qiuhong Wang, Qianqian Su, Wei Feng, Fuyou Li
Triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA)-based upconversion nanocapsules (UCNCs) have great potential in biological and medical applications. However, there are numerous unresolved issues with respect to the safety of these novel nanomaterials. In this work, for the first time, we studied the in vivo biodistribution of UCNCs which were synthesized by co-loading platinum (II)-tetraphenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin (PtTPBP) and boron dipyrromethene derivative (BDP) into bovine serum albumin (BSA)-stabilized soybean oil droplets, and systematically assessed the potential toxicity of UCNCs both in vitro and in vivo...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Andrew T Lucas, Taylor F White, Allison M Deal, Leah B Herity, Gina Song, Charlene M Santos, William C Zamboni
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) has previously been shown to significantly affect the clearance, tumor delivery, and efficacy of nanoparticles (NPs). This study profiled MPS cell infiltration in murine preclinical tumor models and evaluated how these differences may affect tumor disposition of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in models sensitive and resistant to PLD. Significant differences in MPS presence existed between tumor types (e.g. ovarian versus endometrial), cell lines within the same tumor type, and location of tumor implantation (i...
October 5, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Nadine Reichhart, Sergio Crespo-Garcia, Nadine Haase, Michaela Golic, Sergej Skosyrski, Anne Rübsam, Christina Herrspiegel, Norbert Kociok, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Ralf Dechend, Olaf Strauss, Antonia M Joussen
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Although the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the progression of diabetic retinopathy, its influence therein has not been systematically evaluated. Here we test the suitability of a new translational model of diabetic retinopathy, the TetO rat, for addressing the role of angiotensin-II receptor 1 (AT1) blockade in experimental diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by tetracycline-inducible small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of the insulin receptor in rats, generating TetO rats...
October 4, 2016: Diabetologia
Christopher T Dee, Raghavendar T Nagaraju, Emmanouil I Athanasiadis, Caroline Gray, Laura Fernandez Del Ama, Simon A Johnston, Christopher J Secombes, Ana Cvejic, Adam F L Hurlstone
CD4(+) T cells are at the nexus of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of CD4(+) T cells, and it is unclear whether their differentiation into specialized subsets is conserved in early vertebrates. In this study, we have created transgenic zebrafish with vibrantly labeled CD4(+) cells allowing us to scrutinize the development and specialization of teleost CD4(+) leukocytes in vivo. We provide further evidence that CD4(+) macrophages have an ancient origin and had already emerged in bony fish...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lionel F Poulin, Mathias Chamaillard
The recent adoption of a unified nomenclature for the mononuclear phagocyte system has already led to the generation of novel strategies for specifically depleting a single subset of phagocytes in the presence of intact lymphoid structures. Herein, we provide a detailed description of how the various types of tissue phagocyte orchestrate the host's defense against enteric bacterial infections. From a bench-to-bedside perspective, we expect that this paradigm will accelerate the development of novel adjuvants and vaccines in human and veterinary microbiology...
September 20, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Lina Du, Junwei Jia, Pingju Ge, Yiguang Jin
Anti-HIV prodrugs are recently focused on due to their ability of self-assembly, macrophage targeting, and enhanced antiviral effects. Here, an amphiphilic prodrug of zidovudine, an anti-HIV nucleoside analogue, 5'-cholesteryl-ethyl-phosphoryl zidovudine (CEPZ) was synthesized. CEPZ showed some unique physicochemical properties. The solubility of CEPZ in the noncompetitive solvents chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF) was very high based on the hydrogen bonds between zidovudine groups, though CEPZ was sparing soluble in alcohols and almost insoluble in water...
September 8, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Manfred Nairz, Igor Theurl, Dominik Wolf, Günter Weiss
Iron deficiency and immune activation are the two most frequent causes of anemia, both of which are based on disturbances of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency anemia results from a reduction of the body's iron content due to blood loss, inadequate dietary iron intake, its malabsorption, or increased iron demand. Immune activation drives a diversion of iron fluxes from the erythropoietic bone marrow, where hemoglobinization takes place, to storage sites, particularly the mononuclear phagocytes system in liver and spleen...
October 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Ren-Peng Zhou, Xiao-Shan Wu, Ya-Ya Xie, Bei-Bei Dai, Wei Hu, Jin-Fang Ge, Fei-Hu Chen
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease, which is characterized by chronic, synovial inflammation affecting multiple joints, finally leading to extra articular lesions for which limited effective treatment options are currently available. Interleukin-34 (IL-34), recently discovered as the second colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) ligand, is a newly discovered cytokine. Accumulating evidence has disclosed crucial roles of IL-34 in proliferation and differentiation of mononuclear phagocyte lineage cells, osteoclastogenesis, and inflammation...
August 23, 2016: Immunology
Karim M Yatim, Minja Gosto, Rishab Humar, Amanda L Williams, Martin H Oberbarnscheidt
Bony fish are among the first vertebrates to possess an innate and adaptive immune system. In these species, the kidney has a dual function: filtering solutes similar to mammals and acting as a lymphoid organ responsible for hematopoiesis and antigen processing. Recent studies have shown that the mammalian kidney has an extensive network of mononuclear phagocytes, whose function is not fully understood. Here, we employed two-photon intravital microscopy of fluorescent reporter mice to demonstrate that renal dendritic cells encase the microvasculature in the cortex, extend dendrites into the peritubular capillaries, and sample the blood for antigen...
October 2016: Kidney International
Catriona T Prendergast, David E Sanin, Adrian P Mountford
In a murine model of repeated exposure of the skin to infective Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, events leading to the priming of CD4 cells in the skin draining lymph nodes were examined. The dermal exudate cell (DEC) population recovered from repeatedly (4x) exposed skin contained an influx of mononuclear phagocytes comprising three distinct populations according to their differential expression of F4/80 and MHC-II. As determined by gene expression analysis, all three DEC populations (F4/80-MHC-IIhigh, F4/80+MHC-IIhigh, F4/80+MHC-IIint) exhibited major up-regulation of genes associated with alternative activation...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Eunhee Kim, Sunghee Cho
Historically, the brain has been considered an immune-privileged organ separated from the peripheral immune system by the blood-brain barrier. However, immune responses do occur in the brain in neurological conditions in which the integrity of the blood-brain barrier is compromised, exposing the brain to peripheral antigens and endogenous danger signals. While most of the associated pathological processes occur in the central nervous system, it is now clear that peripheral immune cells, especially mononuclear phagocytes, that infiltrate into the injury site play a key role in modulating the progression of primary brain injury development...
August 2, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Meng Meng, Huiqing Sun, Yang Li, Yuan-Yuan Ren, Yongmin Zhang
The present study was designed to evaluate immune-modulating effects of the glycopeptide from Paecilomyces sinensis (CPS-II) by using mouse peritoneal macrophage and cytoxan (CTX) induced immunosuppression models. Our results from phagocytotic and mononuclear phagocytic system function assays showed that CPS-II stimulated phagocytosis of the phagocytes. A splenocyte proliferation assay showed that CPS-II acted to combine Concanavalin A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in splenocyte proliferation. The results demonstrated that CPS-II increased the indices of the thymus and spleen...
August 10, 2016: Food & Function
Christina S Hirsch, Roxana Rojas, Mianda Wu, Zahra Toossi
OBJECTIVE: Infection by MTB or exposure to MTB constituents is associated with intense microbial stimulation of the immune system, through both antigenic and TLR components, and induction of a milieu that is rich in pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we addressed the basis of induced regulatory T-cell (iT-reg) expansion in response to MTB stimulation, in the absence of prior T cell antigen responsiveness. METHODS: PBMC from HIV-1 un-infected TST negative and TST positive control subjects were stimulated by virulent MTB H37Rv lysate (L), a French press preparation of MTB that includes all bacterial components...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
Germán Coscelli, Roberto Bermúdez, Paolo Ronza, Ana Paula Losada, María Isabel Quiroga
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida represents one of the major threats in aquaculture, especially in salmonid fish and turbot farming. In order to fight bacterial infections, fish have an immune system composed by innate and specific cellular and humoral elements analogous to those present in mammals. However, innate immunity plays a primordial role against bacterial infections in teleost fish. Among these non-specific mechanisms, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) pathway and the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) produced by mononuclear phagocytes, are two of the main immune effectors to eliminate bacterial pathogens...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yongjun Huang, Dong Huang, Dawei Zhang, Yong Mou, Xiaochun Liu
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether FTY-720P could enhance the effect of allograft bone for bone defect repair by suppressing osteoclast formation and function. METHODS: Animal experiment: Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits were selected to establish the tibia defect model (1.5 cm in length) and were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Defect was not repaired in group A, defect was repaired with allograft bone in group B, with autogenous fibula in group C, and with allograft bone and FTY-720P in group D...
April 2016: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Surachet Benjathummarak, Ratchanok Kumsiri, Supaporn Nuamtanong, Thareerat Kalambaheti, Jitra Waikagul, Nareerat Viseshakul, Yaowapa Maneerat
BACKGROUND: Third (infective)-stage Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae (L3) mainly cause human gnathostomiasis. G. spinigerum L3 migrate throughout the subcutaneous tissues, vital organs, and central nervous system and can cause various pathogenesis including sudden death. Interestingly, G. spinigerum L3 can survive and evade host cellular immunity for months or years. The effects of G. spinigerum excretory-secretory (ES) products involved in larval migration and immune-evasive strategies are unknown...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
S Singla, K Harjai, K Raza, S Wadhwa, O P Katare, S Chhibber
Phage therapy has been at the centre of attraction for combating multi-drug resistant strains. However, less stability and rapid clearance of phage by mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) restricts its use in humans. In the present study, aim was to develop a liposomal delivery system for bacteriophage that can assure efficient phage delivery and retention at the site of infection. Different ratios of cholesterol, lipids and surfactant along with different charge inducers were employed to prepare liposomes. Phage was then entrapped in the liposomes and characterized on the basis of morphology, size, entrapment efficiency and stability...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
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