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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139475/intestinal-epithelial-cell-specific-rar%C3%AE-depletion-results-in-aberrant-epithelial-cell-homeostasis-and-underdeveloped-immune-system
#1
H B Jijon, L Suarez-Lopez, O E Diaz, S Das, J De Calisto, M B Yaffe, M J Pittet, J R Mora, Y Belkaid, R J Xavier, E J Villablanca
Retinoic acid (RA), a dietary vitamin A metabolite, is crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. RA acts on intestinal leukocytes to modulate their lineage commitment and function. Although the role of RA has been characterized in immune cells, whether intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) rely on RA signaling to exert their immune-regulatory function has not been examined. Here we demonstrate that lack of RA receptor α (RARα) signaling in IECs results in deregulated epithelial lineage specification, leading to increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells...
November 15, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124533/syngeneic-and-xenogeneic-transplantations-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modify-the-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-by-blood-mononuclears-of-mice
#2
E V Agaeva, V N Petrov, A G Konoplyannikov, O E Popovkina, L A Lepekhina, E V Sayapina, I V Semenkova
In vivo modifying effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells of humans and laboratory mice on ROS production by mouse blood mononuclears are studied by luminol-dependent zymosan-induced chemiluminescence after syngeneic and xenogeneic transplantation into systemic blood flow. The chemiluminescent activity of mouse blood mononuclears has increased early (1 day) after syngeneic (mouse mesenchymal stromal cells) and xenogeneic (human mesenchymal stromal cells) transplantation. Later, 7-21 days after syngeneic and xenogeneic transplantation, the chemiluminescent activity of mouse mononuclears is suppressed...
November 9, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122661/leakage-kinetics-of-the-liposomal-chemotherapeutic-agent-doxil-the-role-of-dissolution-protonation-and-passive-transport-and-implications-for-mechanism-of-action
#3
Luisa M Russell, Margot Hultz, Peter C Searson
Doxil, a liposomal formulation of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin, is FDA-approved for multiple indications. Doxil liposomes are designed to retain doxorubicin in circulation, minimize clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system, and limit uptake in healthy tissue. Although pharmacokinetic data and survival statistics from clinical trials provide insight into distribution and efficacy, many details of the mechanism of action remain unresolved, despite the importance in translating liposome-based drug delivery systems to other molecules and cargo...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109731/gm-csf-monocyte-derived-cells-and-langerhans-cells-as-part-of-the-dendritic-cell-family
#4
REVIEW
Manfred B Lutz, Herbert Strobl, Gerold Schuler, Nikolaus Romani
Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mph) share many characteristics as components of the innate immune system. The criteria to classify the multitude of subsets within the mononuclear phagocyte system are currently phenotype, ontogeny, transcription patterns, epigenetic adaptations, and function. More recently, ontogenetic, transcriptional, and proteomic research approaches uncovered major developmental differences between Flt3L-dependent conventional DCs as compared with Mphs and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs), the latter mainly generated in vitro from murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) or human CD14(+) peripheral blood monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094168/systemic-biodistribution-and-intravitreal-pharmacokinetic-properties-of-bevacizumab-ranibizumab-and-aflibercept-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#5
John Byron Christoforidis, Karen Briley, Katherine Binzel, Prayna Bhatia, Lai Wei, Krishan Kumar, Michael Vinzenz Knopp
Purpose: To determine the intravitreal pharmacokinetic properties and to study the systemic biodistribution characteristics of I-124-labeled bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept with positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in a nonhuman primate model. Methods: Three groups with four owl monkeys per group underwent intravitreal injection with 1.25 mg/0.05 mL I-124 bevacizumab, 0.5 mg/0.05 mL I-124 ranibizumab, or 2.0 mg/0.05 mL I-124 aflibercept in the right eye of each subject...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078062/two-probiotic-bacillus-spores-enhance-cellular-immunity-in-balb-c-mice
#6
Li Gong, Qin Huang, Aikun Fu, Yanping Wu, Ya-Li Li, Xiaogang Xu, Yi Huang, Dong-You Yu, Wei-Fen Li
Previous studies found that Bacillus subtilis BS02 (B. subtilis BS02) and B. subtilis subsp. natto BS04 (B. subtilis natto BS04) isolated in our laboratory could activate immune response of murine macrophages in vitro. This study aims to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with Bacillus spores on the systemic cellular immune response in BALB/C mice. Results showed that both B. subtilis BS02 and B. subtilis natto BS04 enhanced the phagocytic function of mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) and the cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells...
October 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073216/prolonged-immune-alteration-following-resolution-of-acute-inflammation-in-humans
#7
Madhur P Motwani, Justine Newson, Simon Kwong, Angela Richard-Loendt, Romain Colas, Jesmond Dalli, Derek W Gilroy
Acute inflammation is an immediate response to infection and injury characterised by the influx of granulocytes followed by phagocytosing mononuclear phagocytes. Provided the antigen is cleared and the immune system of the host is fully functional, the acute inflammatory response will resolve. Until now it is considered that resolution then leads back to homeostasis, the physiological state tissues experienced before inflammation occurred. Using a human model of acute inflammation driven by intradermal UV killed Escherichia coli, we found that bacteria and granulocyte clearance as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine catabolism occurred by 72h...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071190/accumulation-of-111-in-labelled-egf-au-peg-nanoparticles-in-egfr-positive-tumours-is-enhanced-by-coadministration-of-targeting-ligand
#8
Lei Song, Sarah Able, Errin Johnson, Katherine A Vallis
The successful use of targeted radionuclide therapy in the treatment of solid tumours may be limited by radioresistance, which necessitates delivery of a high dose of radioactivity. Nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery systems possess a large surface area for attachment of radioisotopes and so offer a solution to this challenge. However, tumour uptake may be limited by rapid hepatic clearance of NP via the mononuclear phagocyte system. Liver uptake is further compounded when epidermal growth factor (EGF) is used as a targeting ligand, as EGF-tagged NP bind the EGF receptor (EGFR), which is expressed to a moderate extent by hepatocytes...
2017: Nanotheranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063342/microradiopharmaceutical-for-metastatic-melanoma
#9
Thiago Goulart Rosa, Sofia Nascimento Dos Santos, Terezina de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Daniele Dal Molim Ghisleni, Thereza Christina Barja-Fidalgo, Eduardo Ricci-Junior, Mohammed Al-Qahtani, Jan Kozempel, Emerson Soares Bernardes, Ralph Santos-Oliveira
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to develop, characterize and test (in vivo) dacarbazine microparticles that may be labeled with 99mTc and Ra-223 for both use: diagnostic and therapy of metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We developed by double emulsion solvent evaporation methodology the microparticle. The characterization has been done using, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The labeling with 99mTc and Ra-223 has been done by the direct labeling process...
October 23, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062065/a-chloroquine-induced-macrophage-preconditioning-strategy-for-improved-nanodelivery
#10
Joy Wolfram, Sara Nizzero, Haoran Liu, Feng Li, Guodong Zhang, Zheng Li, Haifa Shen, Elvin Blanco, Mauro Ferrari
Site-specific localization is critical for improving the therapeutic efficacy and safety of drugs. Nanoparticles have emerged as promising tools for localized drug delivery. However, over 90% of systemically injected nanocarriers typically accumulate in the liver and spleen due to resident macrophages that form the mononuclear phagocyte system. In this study, the clinically approved antimalarial agent chloroquine was shown to reduce nanoparticle uptake in macrophages by suppressing endocytosis. Pretreatment of mice with a clinically relevant dose of chloroquine substantially decreased the accumulation of liposomes and silicon particles in the mononuclear phagocyte system and improved tumoritropic and organotropic delivery...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044377/heparosan-coated-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#11
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038658/the-peyer-s-patch-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-at-steady-state-and-during-infection
#12
REVIEW
Clément Da Silva, Camille Wagner, Johnny Bonnardel, Jean-Pierre Gorvel, Hugues Lelouard
The gut represents a potential entry site for a wide range of pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Consequently, it is protected by one of the largest and most diversified population of immune cells of the body. Its surveillance requires the constant sampling of its encounters by dedicated sentinels composed of follicles and their associated epithelium located in specialized area. In the small intestine, Peyer's patches (PPs) are the most important of these mucosal immune response inductive sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028284/tissue-factor-bearing-microparticles-and-inflammation-a-potential-mechanism-for-the-development-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
K Date, C Ettelaie, A Maraveyas
Cancer is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE); the exact mechanisms for the induction of VTE remain to be fully elucidated, yet it is widely acknowledged that tissue factor-positive microparticles (TF-MPs) may play a significant role. However, TF-MPs have yet to be accepted as a bona fide biomarker for cancer-associated VTE, as the presence of elevated TF-MPs levels is not always accompanied by thrombosis; interestingly in certain cases, particularly in pancreatic cancer, VTE seems to be more likely in the context of acute inflammation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972735/peptide-brush-polymers-and-nanoparticles-with-enzyme-regulated-structure-and-charge-for-inducing-or-evading-macrophage-cell-uptake
#14
Lisa Adamiak, Mollie A Touve, Clare L M LeGuyader, Nathan C Gianneschi
Cellular uptake by macrophages and ensuing clearance by the mononuclear phagocyte system stands as a significant biological barrier for nanoparticle therapeutics. While there is a growing body of work investigating the design principles essential for imparting nanomaterials with long-circulating characteristics and macrophage evasion, there is still a widespread need for examining stimuli-responsive systems, particularly well-characterized soft materials, which differ in their physiochemical properties prior to and after an applied stimulus...
October 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953351/suppressing-nanoparticle-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-interactions-of-two-dimensional-gold-nanorings-for-improved-tumor-accumulation-and-photothermal-ablation-of-tumors
#15
Yijing Liu, Zhantong Wang, Yi Liu, Guizhi Zhu, Orit Jacobson, Xiao Fu, Ruiliang Bai, Xiaoying Lin, Nan Lu, Xiangyu Yang, Wenpei Fan, Jibin Song, Zhe Wang, Guocan Yu, Fuwu Zhang, Heather Kalish, Gang Niu, Zhihong Nie, Xiaoyuan Chen
The clearance of nanoparticles (NPs) by mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) from blood leads to high liver and spleen uptake and negatively impacts their tumor delivery efficiency. Here we systematically evaluated the in vitro and in vivo nanobio interactions of a two-dimensional (2D) model, gold (Au) nanorings, which were compared with Au nanospheres and Au nanoplates of similar size. Among different shapes, Au nanorings achieved the lowest MPS uptake and highest tumor accumulation. Among different sizes, 50 nm Au nanorings showed the highest tumor delivery efficiency...
October 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941641/targeting-tumor-associated-macrophages-the-new-challenge-for-nanomedicine
#16
REVIEW
Fernando Torres Andón, Elisabeth Digifico, Akihiro Maeda, Marco Erreni, Alberto Mantovani, María José Alonso, Paola Allavena
The engineering of new nanomedicines with ability to target and kill or re-educate Tumor Associated Macrophages (TAMs) stands up as a promising strategy to induce the effective switching of the tumor-promoting immune suppressive microenvironment, characteristic of tumors rich in macrophages, to one that kills tumor cells, is anti-angiogenic and promotes adaptive immune responses. Alternatively, the loading of monocytes/macrophages in blood circulation with nanomedicines, may be used to profit from the high infiltration ability of myeloid cells and to allow the drug release in the bulk of the tumor...
September 20, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940183/an-increased-cd25-positive-intestinal-regulatory-t-lymphocyte-population-is-dependent-on-cox-2-activity-in-the-apc-min-model
#17
Olusola O Faluyi, Paul Fitch, Sarah E M Howie
Only mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC) appears to respond well to PD-1 inhibition at the present time. Emerging evidence suggests a role for micro-environmental factors such as CD25+ve cells modulating response to PD-1 inhibition. In the Apc(Min/+) model of familial adenomatous polyposis (MMR-proficient CRC), increased Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression by cells which include alternatively-activated mononuclear phagocytes promotes intestinal tumorigenesis by mechanisms which may include immune suppression...
September 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919742/intracellular-disposition-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-in-macrophages-intracellular-uptake-exocytosis-and-intercellular-transport
#18
Li Qun Jiang, Ting Yu Wang, Thomas J Webster, Hua-Jian Duan, Jing Ying Qiu, Zi Ming Zhao, Xiao Xing Yin, Chun Li Zheng
Biodegradable nanomaterials have been widely used in numerous medical fields. To further improve such efforts, this study focused on the intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles (CsNPs) in macrophages, a primary cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Such interactions with the MPS determine the nanoparticle retention time in the body and consequently play a significant role in their own clinical safety. In this study, various dye-labeled CsNPs (about 250 nm) were prepared, and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912781/microrna-dynamic-regulators-of-macrophage-polarization-and-plasticity
#19
REVIEW
Jezrom Bokcaerin Self-Fordham, Afsar Raza Naqvi, Juhi Raju Uttamani, Varun Kulkarni, Salvador Nares
The ability of a healthy immune system to clear the plethora of antigens it encounters incessantly relies on the enormous plasticity displayed by the comprising cell types. Macrophages (MΦs) are crucial member of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that constantly patrol the peripheral tissues and are actively recruited to the sites of injury and infection. In tissues, infiltrating monocytes replenish MΦ. Under the guidance of the local micro-milieu, MΦ can be activated to acquire specialized functional phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863932/tissue-iron-quantification-in-chronic-liver-diseases-using-mri-shows-a-relationship-between-iron-accumulation-in-liver-spleen-and-bone-marrow
#20
M França, L Martí-Bonmatí, G Porto, S Silva, S Guimarães, Á Alberich-Bayarri, J R Vizcaíno, H Pessegueiro Miranda
AIM: To investigate iron loading within the liver, pancreas, spleen, and bone marrow using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) transverse relaxation rate (R2*), in patients with diffuse liver diseases; to evaluate the relationships between iron accumulation in these tissue compartments; and to assess the association between tissue iron overload and the pattern of hepatic cellular iron distribution (hepatocytes versus Kupffer cells). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-six patients with diffuse liver diseases had MRI-derived R2* values, using a multi-echo chemical-shift encoded MRI sequence, of the liver, pancreas, spleen, and vertebral bone marrow...
August 29, 2017: Clinical Radiology
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