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Risks for CAP

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350672/rebounds-after-discharge-from-the-emergency-department-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-focus-on-the-usefulness-of-severity-scoring-systems
#1
Rodolfo Ferrari, Pierluigi Viale, Paolo Muratori, Fabrizio Giostra, Daniela Agostinelli, Roberto Lazzari, Riccardo Voza, Mario Cavazza
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is common cause of hospital admission and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Severity scoring systems are used to predict risk profile, outcome and mortality, and to help decisions about management strategies. Aim of the work and Methods: To critically analyze pneumonia "rebound" cases, once discharged from the emergency department (ED) and afterwards admitted. We conducted an observational clinical study in the acute setting of a university teaching hospital, prospectively analyzing, in a 1 year period, demographic, medical, clinical and laboratory data, and the outcome...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341122/impacts-of-methane-on-carbon-dioxide-storage-in-brine-formations
#2
Mohamad R Soltanian, Mohammad A Amooie, David R Cole, Thomas H Darrah, David E Graham, Susan M Pfiffner, Tommy J Phelps, Joachim Moortgat
In the context of geological carbon sequestration (GCS), carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is often injected into deep formations saturated with a brine that may contain dissolved light hydrocarbons, such as methane (CH4 ). In this multicomponent multiphase displacement process, CO2 competes with CH4 in terms of dissolution, and CH4 tends to exsolve from the aqueous into a gaseous phase. Because CH4 has a lower viscosity than injected CO2 , CH4 is swept up into a 'bank' of CH4 -rich gas ahead of the CO2 displacement front...
January 16, 2018: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#3
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336364/mechanism-of-chronic-stress-induced-reduced-atherosclerotic-medial-area-and-increased-plaque-instability-in-rabbit-models-of-chronic-stress
#4
Ze-Mou Yu, Xiao-Tao Deng, Ruo-Mei Qi, Lu-Yan Xiao, Chong-Qing Yang, Tao Gong
BACKGROUND: Chronic stress contributes to increased risks of atherosclerotic diseases including heart disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. However, its underline mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism via which chronic stress exerts its effect on atherosclerosis (AS). METHODS: Fifty male New Zealand white rabbits were used. Aortic balloon-injury model was applied. Both social stress and physical stress methods were adopted to establish chronic stress models...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332316/how-do-i-implement-a-whole-blood-program-for-massively-bleeding-patients
#5
Mark H Yazer, Andrew P Cap, Philip C Spinella, Louis Alarcon, Darrell J Triulzi
Building on the successful military experience, interest has been rekindled in transfusing whole blood (WB) early in the resuscitation of traumatically injured civilians, often before their ABO group is known. WB efficiently provides treatment for shock and coagulopathy, as well as platelet hemostatic function, to patients losing large volumes of blood. Unlike group O uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs), group O WB contains a substantial amount of plasma, which is incompatible with the RBCs of all non-group O recipients...
January 14, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327212/a-composite-of-functional-status-and-pneumonia-severity-index-improves-the-prediction-of-pneumonia-mortality-in-older-patients
#6
Francisco Sanz, María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Estrella Fernández, Luis Force, María José Pérez-Lozano, Vicente Martín, Mikel Egurrola, Jesús Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Diana Toledo, Ángela Domínguez
BACKGROUND: The baseline health status may be a determinant of interest in the evolution of pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the predictive ability of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) mortality by combining the Barthel Index (BI) and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) in patients aged ≥ 65 years. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MAIN MEASURES: In this prospective, observational, multicenter analysis of comorbidities, the clinical data, additional examinations and severity of CAP were measured by the PSI and functional status by the BI...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326316/fibronectin-containing-extra-domain-a-induces-plaque-destabilization-in-the-innominate-artery-of-aged-apolipoprotein-e-deficient-mice
#7
Prakash Doddapattar, Manish Jain, Nirav Dhanesha, Steven R Lentz, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: Fibronectin containing extra domain A (Fn-EDA) is an endogenous ligand of TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) and is abundant in the extracellular matrix of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in human and mice. Irrespective of sex, deletion of Fn-EDA reduces early atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. However, the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerosis remains poorly characterized. We determined the contribution of Fn-EDA in advanced atherosclerotic lesions of aged (1-year-old) Apoe-/- mice...
January 11, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#8
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320984/prevalence-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-of-uropathogens-from-cases-of-urinary-tract-infections-uti-in-shashemene-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#9
Wubalem Desta Seifu, Alemayehu Desalegn Gebissa
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) remains to be one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in developing countries. And a widespread use of antibiotics against uropathogens has led to the emergence of antibiotic resistant species. A laboratory based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shashemene referral hospital to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogens. METHODS: We have collected 384 clean catch mid-stream urine samples from all suspected UTI outpatients using sterile screw capped container...
January 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316193/thrombocytopenia-in-high-risk-patients-with-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#10
E Pontara, A Banzato, E Bison, M G Cattini, G Baroni, G Denas, A Calligaro, P Marson, T Tison, A Ruffatti, V Pengo
BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia is the most common non-criteria hematologic feature in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). This condition is more common in catastrophic APS (CAPS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in a large series of high-risk patients with APS and to assess the behavior of platelet count during CAPS. METHODS/PATIENTS: This is a cross sectional study in which we analyzed the platelet count of a homogeneous group of high-risk APS patients (triple positive)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314351/epidemiology-of-dermatophyte-infections-among-school-children-in-menoufia-governorate-egypt
#11
Azza G A Farag, Mostafa A Hammam, Reda A Ibrahim, Reda Z Mahfouz, Nada F Elnaidany, Masroor Qutubuddin, Rehab R E Tolba
BACKGROUND: Most superficial mycotic infections of human skin are due to dermatophytes. Children are frequently affected due to different predisposing factors, particularly overcrowding in classrooms. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of dermatophytes infections and their related risk factors among school children in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six public primary and preparatory schools were randomly selected and their pupils (n= 3464) were asked to complete a predesigned questionnaire covering both personal data and suspected risk factors for superficial dermatophyte infections...
January 4, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313302/combined-effects-of-insecticide-exposure-and-predation-risk-on-freshwater-detritivores
#12
Andreia C M Rodrigues, Maria D Bordalo, Oksana Golovko, Olga Koba, Carlos Barata, Amadeu M V M Soares, João L T Pestana
Insecticides usually present in low concentrations in streams are known to impair behaviour and development of non-target freshwater invertebrates. Moreover, there is growing awareness that the presence of natural stressors, such as predation risk may magnify the negative effects of pesticides. This is because perception of predation risk can by itself lead to changes on behaviour and physiology of prey species. To evaluate the potential combined effects of both stressors on freshwater detritivores we studied the behavioural and developmental responses of Chironomus riparius to chlorantraniliprole (CAP) exposure under predation risk...
January 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283962/variability-of-child-access-prevention-laws-and-pediatric-firearm-injuries
#13
Emma C Hamilton, Charles C Miller, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Mary T Austin
BACKGROUND: State-level Child Access Prevention (CAP) laws impose criminal liability on adults who negligently allow children access to firearms. CAP laws can be further divided into strong CAP laws which impose criminal liability for negligently stored firearms and weak CAP laws that prohibit adults from intentionally, knowingly, and/or recklessly providing firearms to a minor.We hypothesized that strong CAP laws would be associated with a greater reduction in pediatric firearm injuries than weak CAP laws...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283905/efficacy-and-safety-of-flexible-endoscopic-management-of-zenker-s-diverticulum
#14
Deepanshu Jain, Abhinav Sharma, Manan Shah, Upen Patel, Nirav Thosani, Shashideep Singhal
Zenker's diverticulum (ZD), a pulsion diverticulum of hypopharynx is a rare but treatable cause of morbidity in geriatric population. Traditionally a surgical disease but due to its associated high morbidity, flexible endoscopy has become a lucrative option. We reviewed 997 patients from 23 original studies who underwent flexible endoscopic diverticulotomy (FED) of ZD. Composite technical and clinical success rate for the study cohort was 99.4% and 87.9%, respectively. Composite failure rate was 10.0% but close to half of them (45...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277174/characteristics-of-managed-entry-agreements-in-australia
#15
Maxine F Robinson, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Tracy Merlin, Elizabeth Roughead
OBJECTIVES: Australia relies on managed entry agreements (MEAs) for many medicines added to the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). Previous studies of Australian MEAs examined public domain documents and were not able to provide a comprehensive assessment of the types and operation of MEAs. This study used government documents approved for release to examine the implementation and administration of MEAs implemented January 2012 to May 2016. METHODS: We accessed documents for medicines with MEAs on the PBS between January 2012 and May 2016...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274686/fluid-structure-interaction-models-based-on-patient-specific-ivus-at-baseline-and-follow-up-for-prediction-of-coronary-plaque-progression-by-morphological-and-biomechanical-factors-a-preliminary-study
#16
Liang Wang, Dalin Tang, Akiko Maehara, Zheyang Wu, Chun Yang, David Muccigrosso, Jie Zheng, Richard Bach, Kristen L Billiar, Gary S Mintz
Plaque morphology and biomechanics are believed to be closely associated with plaque progression. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that integrating morphological and biomechanical risk factors would result in better predictive power for plaque progression prediction. A sample size of 374 intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) slices was obtained from 9 patients with IVUS follow-up data. 3D fluid-structure interaction models were constructed to obtain both structural stress/strain and fluid biomechanical conditions...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273019/perceived-social-risk-in-medical-decision-making-for-physical-child-abuse-a-mixed-methods-study
#17
Heather T Keenan, Kristine A Campbell, Kent Page, Lawrence J Cook, Tyler Bardsley, Lenora M Olson
BACKGROUND: The medical literature reports differential decision-making for children with suspected physical abuse based on race and socioeconomic status. Differential evaluation may be related to differences of risk indicators in these populations or differences in physicians' perceptions of abuse risk. Our objective was to understand the contribution of the child's social ecology to child abuse pediatricians' perception of abuse risk and to test whether risk perception influences diagnostic decision-making...
December 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246637/usefulness-of-midregional-pro-adrenomedullin-as-a-marker-of-organ-damage-and-predictor-of-mortality-in-patients-with-sepsis
#18
Enrique Bernal-Morell, Eva García-Villalba, Maricarmen Vera, Blanca Medina, Monica Martinez, Victoria Callejo, Salvador Valero, Cesar Cinesi, Pascual Piñera, Antonia Alcaraz, Irene Marin, Angeles Muñoz, Alfredo Cano
BACKGROUND: Midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis. In this paper, we examined the ability of MR-proADM to predict organ damage and long-term mortality in sepsis patients, compared to that of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and lactate. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort, enrolling severe sepsis or septic shock patients admitted to internal service department...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#19
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#20
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
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