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Risks for CAP

Lun Cai, Lei Yu, Sa Liu, Tongxun Li, Xiaoping Zhang, Wei Cui, Jie Du, Qinyi Zhang
Accumulating evidence shows that immune cells play an important role in carotid atherosclerotic plaque development. In this study, we assessed the association of 6 different natural killer T (NKT) cell subsets, based on CD57 and CD8 expression, with risk for development of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP). Molecular expression by peripheral NKT cells was evaluated in 13 patients with high-risk CAP and control without carotid stenosis (n = 18). High-risk CAP patients, compared with healthy subjects, had less percentage of CD57+CD8- NKT cell subsets (8...
October 24, 2016: Inflammation
Lakshmi Rasaratnam
Data sourcesPubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Web of Knowledge.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) or retrospective non-randomised trials (RNTs) of direct pulp capping in patients comparing mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with calcium hydroxide (CH) were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently abstracted data. Risk of bias for the RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and RNTs were assessed according to the methodological index for non-randomised studies...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
Karolina Niska, Narcyz Knap, Anna Kędzia, Maciej Jaskiewicz, Wojciech Kamysz, Iwona Inkielewicz-Stepniak
Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Nermina Buljubasic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Jin M Cheng, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Sanneke P M de Boer, Evelyn Regar, Robert-Jan M van Geuns, Patrick W J C Serruys, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide additional insight into the role of fibrinogen in coronary artery disease by investigating the associations between plasma fibrinogen with both degree and composition of coronary atherosclerosis as determined by virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina pectoris, preprocedural blood samples were drawn for fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 measurements, and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound of a nonculprit coronary artery was performed...
October 14, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
Sang-Min Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Jungyoup Lee, Joonghee Kim, Ji Eun Hwang, Young Sang Ko, Chulmin Ha, Sujin Jang, Hyunmi Park
OBJECTIVE: Red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, little is known about the effect of changes in RDW during treatment on mortality. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association between RDW changes and mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed using medical records of patients hospitalized for CAP from April 2008 to February 2014...
September 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Morgan Ballard, Florencia Jalikis, Gregor Krings, Rodney A Schmidt, Yunn-Yi Chen, Mara H Rendi, Suzanne M Dintzis, Kristin C Jensen, Robert B West, Richard K Sibley, Megan L Troxell, Kimberly H Allison
The 2013 CAP/ASCO HER2 Testing Guidelines Update modified HER2 FISH categories such that some cases with 'monosomy', 'co-amplification/polysomy', low-level increased HER2 signals or clustered heterogeneity now are considered amplified or equivocal. This study examines the frequency and clinico-pathologic characteristics of breast cancers with equivocal or 'non-classical' HER2 FISH results. Breast cancers (2001-2014) with HER2 FISH results, HER2 immunohistochemistry, ER, grade, and age from three institutions (Stanford, UCSF, UWMC) were collected...
October 14, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Ruth Dolado, Catherine Cooke, Francesc S Beltran
For group-living primates, social organization hinges upon multiple factors, including group size, group cohesion, and the group's age and sex composition. Fission-fusion dynamics reduce the risks of living in a large group, which can include feeding competition related to the seasonality of resources. Here we report on the group dynamics (i.e. formation of parties) of a population of red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) located in Sentier Nature forest, South Loango National Park, Gabon, and examine the role of fruit availability in episodes of fission-fusion and shifting range use during the peak fruiting season of 2014...
October 12, 2016: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
Mark W Kennedy, Enrico Fabris, Alexander J Ijsselmuiden, Holger Nef, Sebastian Reith, Javier Escaned, Fernando Alfonso, Niels van Royen, Wojtek Wojakowski, Adam Witkowski, Ciro Indolfi, Jan Paul Ottervanger, Harry Suryapranata, Elvin Kedhi
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a widely used tool for the identification of ischaemia-generating stenoses and to guide decisions on coronary revascularisation. However, the safety of FFR-based decisions in high-risk subsets, such as patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) or vulnerable stenoses presenting thin-cap fibro-atheroma (TCFA), is unknown. This study will examine the impact of optical coherence tomography (OCT) plaque morphological assessment and the identification of TCFA, in combination with FFR to better predict clinical outcomes in DM patients...
October 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Mohsen Mazidi, Peymane Vadadian, Peyman Rezaie, Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh, Habib Esmaeili, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan, Andre Pascal Kengne, Gordon A Ferns
AIM: We aimed to investigate the relationship between carotid Intima Media Thickness (CIMT) and physical activity levels (PAL), in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in indidiviuals with and without carotid artery plaque (CAP) defined using high-resolution ultrasound. METHOD: A sample of 506 subjects [215 (42.5%) males], aged 35-64 years was recruited from an urban population in Mashhad, Iran, using a stratified-cluster method as part of the Mashhad Stroke Heart Atherosclerosis Disorder (MASHAD) study cohort...
August 23, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Aryna Zanuzdana, Karla Köpke, Walter Haas
Influenza and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) impose a considerable annual burden on the German primary care system. Yet there is a lack of epidemiological data from the country's outpatient sector on groups at risk as well as on the complications of these diseases.The Robert Koch Institute (RKI) initiated the study to identify population groups at increased risk for influenza or CAP as well as related comorbidities and sequelae. We present the methodology of the study and the descriptive analysis of the patients...
September 30, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Catia Cilloniz, Adrian Ceccato, Alicia San Jose, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major health problem in elderly persons and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications relative to CAP in the elderly population, with a focus on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy and prevention. The data discussed in this review were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Expert Commentary: CAP can occur at any age, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Kazuaki Yamagata, Mitsutaka Sugimura, Miki Yoshida, Shinichi Sekine, Akiyo Kawano, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Hiroharu Maegawa, Hitoshi Niwa
Several trigeminal pain disorders show sex differences, and high levels of estrogens may underlie these differences. The interaction between transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and anoctamin 1 (ANO1) plays an important role in peripheral nociception. However, whether TRPV1 and ANO1 are involved in estrogen-modulated trigeminal pain sensitivity is unclear. In this study, we examined 17β-estradiol (E2) modulation of nociception through behavioral and immunohistological experiments following application of capsaicin (Cap), a selective TRPV1 agonist, onto the ocular surface in ovariectomized rats treated with high- (HE) or low-dose E2 (LE) for 2 days...
September 30, 2016: Endocrinology
Hendrik H G Hansen, Gert Jan de Borst, Michiel L Bots, Frans L Moll, Gerard Pasterkamp, Chris L de Korte
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid plaque rupture is a major cause of stroke. Key issue for risk stratification is early identification of rupture-prone plaques. A noninvasive technique, compound ultrasound strain imaging, was developed providing high-resolution radial deformation/strain images of atherosclerotic plaques. This study aims at in vivo validation of compound ultrasound strain imaging in patients by relating the measured strains to typical features of vulnerable plaques derived from histology after carotid endarterectomy...
September 29, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Diana Sbiti-Rohr, Alexander Kutz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Robert Thomann, Werner Zimmerli, Claus Hoess, Christoph Henzen, Beat Mueller, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) to predict mortality and adverse clinical outcomes for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) compared to standard risk scores such as the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of patients included in a previous randomised-controlled trial with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. SETTINGS: Patients with CAP included on admission to the emergency departments (ED) of 6 tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland...
2016: BMJ Open
Oleg Gorelik, Shimon Izhakian, Dana Barchel, Dorit Almoznino-Sarafian, Irma Tzur, Muhareb Swarka, Ilia Beberashvili, Leonid Feldman, Natan Cohen, Miriam Shteinshnaider
The prognostic significance of platelet count (PC) changes during hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has not been investigated. For 976 adults, clinical data during hospitalization for CAP and all-cause mortality following discharge were compared according to ΔPC (PC on discharge minus PC on admission): groups A (declining PC, ΔPC < -50 × 10(9)/l), B (stable PC, ΔPC ± 50 × 10(9)/l), and C (rising PC, ΔPC >50 × 10(9)/l), and according to the presence of thrombocytopenia, normal PC, and thrombocytosis on admission/discharge...
September 29, 2016: Platelets
Sari Lepistö, Noora Ellonen, Mika Helminen, Eija Paavilainen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the family health, functioning, social support and child maltreatment risk and associations between them in families expecting a baby. BACKGROUND: Finland was one of the first countries in banning corporal punishment against children over 30 years ago. Despite of this, studies have shown that parents physically abuse their children. In addition, professionals struggle in intervention of this phenomenon. Abusive parents should be recognized and helped before actual violent behaviour...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Milos Brankovic, K Martijn Akkerhuis, Nermina Buljubasic, Jin M Cheng, Rohit M Oemrawsingh, Hector M Garcia-Garcia, Evelyn Regar, Patrick W Serruys, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Eric Boersma, Isabella Kardys
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated whether plasma cystatin C (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are associated with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-derived characteristics of coronary atherosclerosis and 1-year adverse coronary events in patients with normal and mildly-to-moderately impaired kidney function. METHODS: Between 2008 and 2011, virtual histology (VH)-IVUS of a non-culprit coronary artery was performed in 581 patients undergoing coronary angiography...
September 17, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Yang Deng, Xiaodan Zhu, Dan Zheng, Ping Yan, Han Jiang
BACKGROUND: The authors of this study evaluated the effects of lasers on the outcome of direct pulp capping by means of a meta-analysis. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED: The authors completed a literature search on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, as well as a manual search of the reference lists of all identified articles since the introduction of lasers in endodontics in 1971 through May 30, 2016. The authors systematically evaluated the studies that met the inclusion criteria and performed a meta-analysis...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the American Dental Association
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