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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941199/capped-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-the-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-cyanide
#1
Sameh El Sayed, Maurizio Licchelli, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Félix Sancenón
The development of easy and affordable methods for the detection of cyanide is of great significance due to the high toxicity of this anion and the potential risks associated with its pollution. Herein, optical detection of cyanide in water has been achieved by using a hybrid organic-inorganic nanomaterial. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles were loaded with [Ru(bipy)3 ](2+) , functionalized with macrocyclic nickel(II) complex subunits, and capped with a sterically hindering anion (hexametaphosphate). Cyanide selectively induces demetallation of nickel(II) complexes and the removal of capping anions from the silica surface, allowing the release of the dye and the consequent increase in fluorescence intensity...
September 22, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930952/military-use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-combat-trauma-does-it-matter
#2
Jeffrey T Howard, Zsolt T Stockinger, Andrew P Cap, Jeffrey A Bailey, Kirby R Gross
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been previously reported to have a mortality benefit in civilian and combat-related trauma, and was thus added to the Joint Theater Trauma System Damage Control Resuscitation Clinical Practice Guideline. As part of ongoing system-wide performance improvement, the use of TXA has been closely monitored. The goal was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TXA use in military casualties and provide additional guidance for continued use. METHODS: A total of 3,773 casualties were included in this retrospective, observational study of data gathered from a trauma registry...
October 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918954/contemporary-management-of-vesicoureteral-reflux
#3
REVIEW
Perviz Hajiyev, Berk Burgu
CONTEXT: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management...
September 11, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917684/role-of-low-endothelial-shear-stress-and-plaque-characteristics-in-the-prediction-of-nonculprit-major-adverse-cardiac-events-the-prospect-study
#4
Peter H Stone, Akiko Maehara, Ahmet Umit Coskun, Charles C Maynard, Marina Zaromitydou, Gerasimos Siasos, Ioannis Andreou, Dimitris Fotiadis, Kostas Stefanou, Michail Papafaklis, Lampros Michalis, Alexandra J Lansky, Gary S Mintz, Patrick W Serruys, Charles L Feldman, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether low endothelial shear stress (ESS) adds independent prognostication for future major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in coronary lesions in patients with high-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS) from the United States and Europe. BACKGROUND: Low ESS is a proinflammatory, proatherogenic stimulus associated with coronary plaque development, progression, and destabilization in human-like animal models and in humans. Previous natural history studies including baseline ESS characterization investigated low-risk patients...
September 15, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914407/association-of-fetuin-b-with-markers-of-liver-fibrosis-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
Thomas Ebert, Nicolas Linder, Alexander Schaudinn, Harald Busse, Joachim Berger, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Volker Keim, Johannes Wiegand, Thomas Karlas
OBJECTIVE: The liver-derived plasma protein fetuin B is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and impaired glucose homeostasis in mice. However, its association with non-invasive ultrasound- and magnetic resonance (MR)-based markers of liver fibrosis and steatosis, the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score, liver biopsy, as well as rs738409 in PNPLA3, has not been elucidated in NAFLD, so far. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association of circulating fetuin B and transient elastography (TE), controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), (1)H-MR-spectroscopy, the ELF score, liver biopsy, as well as risk alleles in rs738409 in PNPLA3, was studied in 101 NAFLD patients as compared to 15 healthy controls...
September 15, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899444/use-of-implementation-science-for-a-sustained-reduction-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-high-volume-regional-burn-unit
#6
Geeta Sood, Julie Caffrey, Kelly Krout, Zeina Khouri-Stevens, Kevin Gerold, Stefan Riedel, Janet McIntyre, Lisa L Maragakis, Renee Blanding, Jonathan Zenilman, Richard Bennett, Peter Pronovost
OBJECTIVE We describe the use of implementation science at the unit level and organizational level to guide an intervention to reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in a high-volume, regional, burn intensive care unit (BICU). DESIGN A single center observational quasi-experimental study. SETTING A regional BICU in Maryland serving 300-400 burn patients annually. INTERVENTIONS In 2011, an organizational-level and unit-level intervention was implemented to reduce the rates of CLABSI in a high-risk patient population in the BICU...
September 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891235/financial-arrangements-for-health-systems-in-low-income-countries-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#7
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Elizabeth Paulsen, Simon Lewin, Agustín Ciapponi, Cristian A Herrera, Newton Opiyo, Tomas Pantoja, Gabriel Rada, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries...
September 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890433/evaluation-of-severity-score-guided-approaches-to-macrolide-use-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Aran Singanayagam, Stefano Aliberti, Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Francesco Blasi, James D Chalmers
International guidelines including those in the UK, Japan, Australia and South Africa recommend the avoidance of macrolides in patients with low-severity community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We hypothesised that severity scores are poor predictors of atypical pneumonia and response to macrolide therapy, and thus, inadequate tools for guiding antibiotic prescriptions.Secondary analysis of four independent prospective CAP datasets was conducted. The predictive values of the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) for clinically important groups of causative pathogens were evaluated...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888355/the-correlation-of-controlled-attenuation-parameter-results-with-ultrasound-identified-steatosis-in-real-world-clinical-practice
#9
Yi-Hao Yen, Jung-Fu Chen, Cheng-Kun Wu, Ming-Tsung Lin, Kuo-Chin Chang, Po-Lin Tseng, Ming-Chao Tsai, Jung-Ting Lin, Tsung-Hui Hu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a method for measuring steatosis based on FibroScan. Despite observer dependency, ultrasound (US) robustly diagnoses moderate and severe steatosis. Here, we aimed to evaluate the correlation of CAP with US-identified steatosis in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: CAP and US were performed for 1554 chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. CAP was performed by two technicians, and US was performed by 30 hepatologists...
September 6, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872276/prevalence-and-outcomes-of-hiv-1-diagnostic-challenges-during-universal-birth-testing-an-urban-south-african-observational-cohort
#10
Karl-Günter Technau, Ahmad Haeri Mazanderani, Louise Kuhn, Lucia Hans, Renate Strehlau, Elaine J Abrams, Martie Conradie, Ashraf Coovadia, Ndileka Mbete, Pamela M Murnane, Faeezah Patel, Stephanie Shiau, Caroline T Tiemessen, Gayle G Sherman
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing at birth aims to facilitate earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected neonates. Data from two years of universal birth testing implementation in a high-burden South African urban setting are presented to demonstrate the prevalence and outcomes of diagnostic challenges in this context. METHODS: HIV-exposed neonates born at Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital between 5 June 2014 and 31 August 2016 were routinely screened at birth for HIV-1 on whole blood samples using the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qualitative Test, version 2...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866424/transfer-of-antibiotics-from-wastewater-or-animal-manure-to-soil-and-edible-crops
#11
Min Pan, L M Chu
Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863866/rethinking-number-needed-to-vaccinate-for-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-older-adults-current-and-future-implications
#12
John M McLaughlin, David L Swerdlow, Raul E Isturiz, Luis Jodar
BACKGROUND: Number-needed-to-vaccinate (NNV) is increasingly used to inform decisions about vaccine use, but it is not calculated uniformly across studies. This study compared two methodologies for calculating NNV with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to prevent one case of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among US adults aged ≥65years: (i) using one-year absolute rate differences as was originally performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and (ii) using absolute risk reduction over 5years...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860737/risk-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-stratified-by-smoking-status-a-population-based-cohort-study-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Dionne Cw Braeken, Gernot Gu Rohde, Frits Me Franssen, Johanna Hm Driessen, Tjeerd P van Staa, Patrick C Souverein, Emiel Fm Wouters, Frank de Vries
BACKGROUND: Smoking increases the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and is associated with the development of COPD. Until now, it is unclear whether CAP in COPD is due to smoking-related effects, or due to COPD pathophysiology itself. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between COPD and CAP by smoking status. METHODS: In total, 62,621 COPD and 191,654 control subjects, matched by year of birth, gender and primary care practice, were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2005-2014)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851249/bacterial-pneumonia-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-with-or-without-hiv-co-infection-a-possible-definition-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-associated-pneumonia-apap
#14
Gianluca Cuomo, Giuseppina Brancaccio, Gianfranca Stornaiuolo, Daniela Manno, Giuseppe L Gaeta, Cristina Mussini, Massimo Puoti, Giovanni B Gaeta
Introducion: Bacterial infections frequently complicate liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors and clinical impact of bacterial pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacterial infection prevalence study: consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enroled over a six-month period in 13 Italian centres. Pneumonia and other infections were diagnosed by standard methods. Pneumonia study: cirrhotic patients with pneumonia were enroled for an additional six-month period and HIV-positive patients were included...
August 29, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842211/the-effects-of-beginning-population-based-psa-screening-at-age-40
#15
Christopher J Weight, Vikram M Narayan, Daniel Smith, Simon P Kim, R Jeffrey Karnes
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate population-based CaP testing of men in their 40s, given the paucity of prospective data evaluating the consequences of PSA testing in younger men for prostate cancer (CaP). METHODS: 1052 men in their 40s were followed longitudinally for prostate outcomes, from 1990 to 2010. A random subset of 268 men was selected to undergo biennial CaP testing including: PSA testing, transrectal ultrasound, and a digital rectal exam (DRE). A representative population of 609 men with a subset of 159 men who also began CaP testing in their 50s was also evaluated as a comparison group...
August 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837859/systematic-review-of-respiratory-viral-pathogens-identified-in-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-europe
#16
REVIEW
Y Alimi, W S Lim, L Lansbury, J Leonardi-Bee, J S Nguyen-Van-Tam
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important respiratory disease and the fifth leading cause of mortality in Europe. The development of molecular diagnostic tests has highlighted the contributions of respiratory viruses to the aetiology of CAP, suggesting the incidence of viral pneumonia may have been previously underestimated. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the overall identification of respiratory viruses in adult patients with CAP in Europe, following PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO; CRD42016037233)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835501/inherited-chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-genomes-are-ancient-intact-and-potentially-able-to-reactivate-from-telomeres
#17
Enjie Zhang, Adam J Bell, Gavin S Wilkie, Nicolás M Suárez, Chiara Batini, Colin D Veal, Isaac Armendáriz-Castillo, Rita Neumann, Victoria E Cotton, Yan Huang, David J Porteous, Ruth F Jarrett, Andrew J Davison, Nicola J Royle
The genomes of human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) have the capacity to integrate into telomeres, the essential capping structures of chromosomes that play roles in cancer and ageing. About 1% of people worldwide are carriers of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6), which is inherited as a genetic trait. Understanding the consequences of integration for the evolution of the viral genome, for the telomere and for the risk of disease associated with carrier status is hampered by a lack of knowledge about ciHHV-6 genomes...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833210/status-and-progress-of-treatment-methods-for-root-caries-in-the-last-decade-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
J Cai, J E A Palamara, D J Manton, M F Burrow
The aim of this literature review is to explore the treatment methods for root caries in laboratory and clinical research in the last decade. A systematic search of publications in PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. The time-span was limited to the last 10 years and English language. Further retrieval was conducted using the search terms of specific therapies or treatments. Titles and abstracts of identified publications were screened. Reviews; case reports; conference abstracts; letters to editor; dissertation and theses; non-English articles; epidemiological studies, diagnostic methods or decision-making process for root caries treatment without assessment of its efficacy; deep carious lesions with inflamed pulp and require pulp capping or endodontic treatment and research on root cementum were excluded...
August 18, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830879/outcomes-associated-with-extraction-versus-capping-and-abandoning-pacing-and-defibrillator-leads
#19
Sean D Pokorney, Xiaojuan Mi, Robert K Lewis, Melissa Greiner, Laurence M Epstein, Roger G Carrillo, Emily P Zeitler, Sana M Al-Khatib, Donald D Hegland, Jonathan P Piccini
Background -Lead management is an increasingly important aspect of care in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED); however, relatively little is known about long-term outcomes after capping and abandoning leads. Methods -Using the 5% Medicare sample, we identified patients with (1) de novo CIED implants between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2013 and (2) a subsequent lead addition or extraction ≥12 months after the de novo implant. Patients who underwent extraction for infection were excluded. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality, device-related infection, device revision, and lead extraction at 1 and 5 years were compared for the extract versus the cap and abandon groups...
August 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830754/focal-therapy-eligibility-determined-by-mri-us-fusion-biopsy
#20
Nima Nassiri, Edward Chang, Patricia Lieu, Alan M Priester, Daniel J A Margolis, Jiaoti Huang, Robert E Reiter, Frederick J Dorey, Leonard S Marks, Shyam Natarajan
PURPOSE: To assess focal therapy (FT) eligibility among men receiving multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and targeted biopsy, with correlation to whole mount histology after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were selected from among the 454 men (2010-2016) with targeted biopsy-proven prostate cancer (CaP) derived from regions of interest (ROI) on mpMRI. FT eligibility was limited to a maximum Gleason score (GS) of 4+3 within ROIs with or without other foci of low-risk CaP (GS 3+3, < 4 mm)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Urology
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