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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166830/the-role-of-cefepime-in-the-treatment-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-infections
#1
Hansita B Patel, Kathleen A Lusk, Jason M Cota
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy of cefepime for use in infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed literature search (May 2000 to June 2017) was performed using the keyword cefepime and the MeSH terms beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases, and Enterobacteriaceae infections. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All human, English language studies evaluating cefepime use for the treatment of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae infections were included...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165579/investigating-mediators-of-the-poor-pneumonia-outcomes-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-but-uninfected-children
#2
Matthew S Kelly, Jiayin Zheng, Sefelani Boiditswe, Andrew P Steenhoff, Kristen A Feemster, Tonya Arscott-Mills, Boitshepe Seme, Bakgaki Ratshaa, Ikanyeng Rulaganyang, Mohamed Z Patel, Savarra Mantzor, Samir S Shah, Coleen K Cunningham
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected (HIV-EU) children have a higher mortality rate than the children of HIV-negative mothers (HIV-unexposed). Causal mediators of the poor health outcomes of HIV-EU children remain poorly defined. Methods: We conducted a hospital-based prospective cohort study of children aged 1 to 23 months with clinically defined pneumonia. The children were recruited at a referral hospital in Gaborone, Botswana, between April 2012 and June 2016...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164173/factors-related-to-the-severity-of-delirium-in-the-elderly-patients-with-infection
#3
R A Tuty Kuswardhani, Yosef Samon Sugi
Objective: Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome in the elderly characterized by concurrent impairments in cognition and behavior. Infection is one of the most important risk factors for delirium. The objective of this study is to elaborate the factors related to the severity of delirium in the elderly patients with infection. Method: An observational study on the relationship of several clinical parameters and the severity of delirium in elderly patients (more than 60 years) with infection was conducted at Geriatric Inpatient Ward, Sanglah Hospital...
January 2017: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164080/the-incidence-and-short-term-outcomes-of-acute-respiratory-illness-with-cough-in-children-from-a-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-urban-community-in-australia-a-community-based-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Kerry K Hall, Anne B Chang, Jennie Anderson, Daniel Arnold, Vikas Goyal, Melissa Dunbar, Michael Otim, Kerry-Ann F O'Grady
Background: Acute respiratory illnesses with cough (ARIwC) are predominant causes of morbidity in Australian Indigenous children; however, data on disease burden in urban communities are scarce. This study aimed to determine the incidence of ARIwC, the predictors of recurrent (≥4 episodes) ARIwC, and development of chronic cough following an ARIwC in urban, predominantly Indigenous, children aged <5 years from northern Brisbane, Australia. Methods: Prospective cohort study of children aged <5 years registered with a primary healthcare center...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164038/timing-of-decompression-in-patients-with-acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay A Tetreault, Brian K Kwon, Paul M Arnold, Thomas E Mroz, Christopher Shaffrey, James S Harrop, Jens R Chapman, Steve Casha, Andrea C Skelly, Haley K Holmer, Erika D Brodt, Michael G Fehlings
Study Design: Systematic review. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and synthesis of the literature to assess the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of early (≤24 hours) versus late decompression (>24 hours) in adults with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted of Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and Google Scholar to identify studies published through November 6, 2014...
September 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162786/are-there-early-signs-that-predict-development-of-temporomandibular-joint-disease
#6
Adrian Salinas Fredricson, Farid Khodabandehlou, Carina Krüger Weiner, Aron Naimi-Akbar, Johanna Adami, Annika Rosén
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJD) involve orofacial pain and functional limitations that may limit important daily activities such as chewing and speaking. This observational case-control study attempted to identify factors associated with TMJD development, particularly inflammation. The study participants were patients treated at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The cases were patients who received a diagnosis of TMJD, chronic closed lock, or painful clicking and were treated surgically during the period from 2007 through 2011...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162405/identification-of-target-risk-groups-for-population-based-clostridium-difficile-infection-prevention-strategies-using-a-population-attributable-risk-approach
#7
Sung-Hee Oh, Hye-Young Kang
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess the contributions of these factors on CDI burden. METHODS: We conducted a 1:4 matched case-control study using a national claims dataset. Cases were incident CDI without a history of CDI in the previous 84 days, and were age- and sex-matched with control patients. We ascertained exposure, defined as a history of morbidities and drug use within 90 days...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162164/vitamin-d-status-is-associated-with-underweight-and-stunting-in-children-aged-6-36-months-residing-in-the-ecuadorian-andes
#8
Rana R Mokhtar, Michael F Holick, Fernando Sempértegui, Jeffrey K Griffiths, Bertha Estrella, Lynn L Moore, Matthew P Fox, Davidson H Hamer
OBJECTIVE: There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting...
November 22, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161297/prognostic-performance-of-mr-pro-adrenomedullin-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-emergency-department-compared-to-clinical-severity-scores-psi-and-curb
#9
Jacopo Maria Legramante, Maria Mastropasqua, Beniamino Susi, Ottavia Porzio, Marta Mazza, Grazia Miranda Agrippino, Cartesio D Agostini, Antonella Brandi, Germano Giovagnoli, Vito Nicola Di Lecce, Sergio Bernardini, Marilena Minieri
AIM: (i) evaluate the performance of MR-pro-ADM in reflecting the outcome and risk for CAP patients in the emergency department, and (ii) compare the prognostic performance of MR-pro-ADM with that of clinical scores PSI and CURB65. METHODS: Observational prospective, single-center study in patients with suspected community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Eighty one patients underwent full clinical and laboratory assessment as by protocol, and were followed up a 28 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160244/pulmonary-aspiration-in-adjustable-gastric-banding-carriers-undergoing-a-second-surgical-procedure-considerations-on-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
Contardo Vergani, Marco Venturi, Sara Badiali, Barbara Chella, Enrico Mozzi
BACKGROUND: The observation of a relatively high number of pulmonary aspirations (PA) among gastric band (GB) carriers undergoing a second surgery, prompted us to modify our strategy for GB patients candidate to further operation under general anesthesia. MATERIAL OF STUDY AND RESULTS: In January 2013, following the occurrence of PA at the induction of general anesthesia in 1 GB carrier undergoing a further operation, we reviewed our Data Base between January 2005 and 2013, to explore the rate of pulmonary aspiration in patients GB carriers undergoing a second surgery...
November 7, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157959/the-risk-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-following-influenza-virus-infection-a-systematic-and-narrative-review
#11
Ryan E Malosh, Emily T Martin, Justin R Ortiz, Arnold S Monto
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in young children and older adults. Influenza is known to cause severe disease but the risk of developing LRTI following influenza virus infection in various populations has not been systematically reviewed. Such data are important for estimating the impact specific influenza vaccine programs would have on LRTI outcomes in a community. We sought to review the published literature to determine the risk of developing LRTI following an influenza virus infection in individuals of any age...
November 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157110/risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes-of-delirium-in-osteoporotic-hip-fractures
#12
Joon Yub Kim, Jeong Hyun Yoo, Eugene Kim, Ki Bum Kwon, Byeong-Ryong Han, Yongun Cho, Jai Hyung Park
PURPOSE: This study is performed to identify risk factors for delirium in osteoporotic hip fractures and to evaluate the hospitalization cost and clinical outcomes of delirium in osteoporotic hip. METHODS: A total of 221 patients with osteoporotic hip fractures were assessed for eligibility between 2010 and 2014. Among them, 37 patients with delirium were allocated into the delirium group (group D) and 37 patients without delirium were allocated into the non-delirium group (group ND) by matching demographic factors...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156574/infectious-agents-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-diseases-through-oxidative-stress
#13
REVIEW
Marisa Di Pietro, Simone Filardo, Francesca Falasca, Ombretta Turriziani, Rosa Sessa
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that vascular oxidative stress is a critical feature of atherosclerotic process, potentially triggered by several infectious agents that are considered as risk co-factors for the atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). C. pneumoniae has been shown to upregulate multiple enzymatic systems capable of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as NADPH oxidase (NOX) and cyclooxygenase in vascular endothelial cells, NOX and cytochrome c oxidase in macrophages as well as nitric oxide synthase and lipoxygenase in platelets contributing to both early and late stages of atherosclerosis...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153553/effectiveness-of-an-early-switch-from-intravenous-to-oral-antimicrobial-therapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-patients-with-severe-motor-intellectual-disabilities
#14
Masaru Kawamura, Takayuki Hoshina, Masato Ogawa, Takato Nakamoto, Koichi Kusuhara
An early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy is useful for reducing the duration of the hospitalization in adult patients with community acquired-pneumonia, whereas the efficacy of switch therapy for pediatric patients with community acquired (CA)-lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of switch therapy for LRTI in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities (SMID). This retrospective study was performed on 92 patients with SMID who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Hospital of University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017 for the suspicion of bacterial LRTI and were initially treated with an intravenous antimicrobial agent...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153067/-detection-of-influenza-virus-infections-by-molecular-and-immunofluorescence-methods
#15
Deniz Yıldırım, Deniz Özdoğru Sağdıç, Buket Şeflek, Mehmet Çimentepe, İbrahim Bayram, Fügen Yarkın
Influenza virus infections are extremely important for human health due to the occurence of seasonal epidemics and pandemics worldwide. Influenza is associated with high morbidity and may result in serious complications such as life threatening viral or bacterial pneumonia. Especially, young children, older adults, patients with chronic diseases such as heart, lung, kidney, and diabetes and immunosuppressed people are at higher risk for complications and death from influenza virus infections. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of influenza type A and B virus infections and influenza A virus subtypes in hospitalized patients with respiratory tract infections by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Sacace, Italy), conventional RT-PCR and direct immunofluorescence antibody (DFA, Argene SA, France) tests...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150897/determining-best-outcomes-from-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-how-to-achieve-them
#16
REVIEW
Jane Hadfield, Lesley Bennett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources...
November 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150377/urgent-versus-post-stabilisation-antiretroviral-treatment-in-hospitalised-hiv-infected-children-in-kenya-push-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Irene N Njuguna, Lisa M Cranmer, Vincent O Otieno, Cyrus Mugo, Hellen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Barbra Richardson, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Urgent antiretroviral therapy (ART) among hospitalised HIV-infected children might accelerate recovery or worsen outcomes associated with immune reconstitution. We aimed to compare urgent versus post-stabilisation ART among hospitalised HIV-infected children in Kenya. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) HIV-infected, ART-naive children aged 0-12 years who were eligible for treatment to receive ART within 48 h (urgent group) or in 7-14 days (post-stabilisation group) at four hospitals in Kenya (two in Nairobi and two in western Kenya)...
November 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149418/randomized-multicenter-trial-of-lateral-trendelenburg-versus-semirecumbent-body-position-for-the-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#18
Gianluigi Li Bassi, Mauro Panigada, Otavio T Ranzani, Alberto Zanella, Lorenzo Berra, Massimo Cressoni, Vieri Parrini, Hassan Kandil, Giovanni Salati, Paola Selvaggi, Alessandro Amatu, Miquel Sanz-Moncosi, Emanuela Biagioni, Fernanda Tagliaferri, Mirella Furia, Giovanna Mercurio, Antonietta Costa, Tullio Manca, Simone Lindau, Jaksa Babel, Marco Cavana, Chiara Chiurazzi, Joan-Daniel Marti, Dario Consonni, Luciano Gattinoni, Antonio Pesenti, Janine Wiener-Kronish, Cecilia Bruschi, Andrea Ballotta, Pierpaolo Salsi, Sergio Livigni, Giorgio Iotti, Javier Fernandez, Massimo Girardis, Maria Barbagallo, Gabriella Moise, Massimo Antonelli, Maria Luisa Caspani, Antonella Vezzani, Patrick Meybohm, Vladimir Gasparovic, Edoardo Geat, Marcelo Amato, Michael Niederman, Theodor Kolobow, Antoni Torres
PURPOSE: The lateral Trendelenburg position (LTP) may hinder the primary pathophysiologic mechanism of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). We investigated whether placing patients in the LTP would reduce the incidence of VAP in comparison with the semirecumbent position (SRP). METHODS: This was a randomized, multicenter, controlled study in invasively ventilated critically ill patients. Two preplanned interim analyses were performed. Patients were randomized to be placed in the LTP or the SRP...
November 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149242/long-term-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-general-population-in-the-netherlands
#19
Engeline van Duijkeren, Cornelia C H Wielders, Cindy M Dierikx, Angela H A M van Hoek, Paul Hengeveld, Christiaan Veenman, Alice Florijn, Aniek Lotterman, Lidwien A M Smit, Jaap T van Dissel, Catharina B M Maassen, Sabine C de Greeff
Background: This longitudinal study aimed to investigate (risk factors for) persistence of carriage and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum and pAmpC β-lactamase-producing (ESBL/pAmpC) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-E/K) in adults in the Dutch community. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study (ESBL-E/K prevalence 4.5%), a subset of ESBL-E/K positive (n=76) and negative (n=249) individuals volunteered to provide five monthly faecal samples and questionnaires...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#20
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
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