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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345756/clinical-intentions-of-antibiotics-prescribed-upon-discharge-to-hospice-care
#1
Sarah A Servid, Brie N Noble, Erik K Fromme, Jon P Furuno
OBJECTIVES: To better understand the clinical intentions for antibiotic prescribing upon discharge from acute care to hospice care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five hundred forty-four-bed academic, acute-care, tertiary referral hospital in Portland, Oregon. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (≥18) who received an outpatient prescription for antibiotics on discharge from an acute care hospital to hospice care between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 (N = 149)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344688/inflammation-based-prognostic-score-predicts-postoperative-survival-of-patients-with-interstitial-pneumonia-after-undergoing-lung-cancer-resection
#2
Satoru Kobayashi, Yuji Matsumura, Yoko Karube, Morimichi Nishihira, Takashi Inoue, Osamu Araki, Sumiko Maeda, Masayuki Chida
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), which uses serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin levels to indicate systemic inflammatory response and nutrition level, has been reported to be a predictor of overall survival in patients with various types of cancer. We evaluated the usefulness of GPS for prediction of survival of patients with both lung cancer and IIPs following a lung resection procedure...
January 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343987/performance-of-the-lace-index-to-predict-30-day-hospital-readmissions-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Maryam A Hakim, Frances L Garden, Matthew D Jennings, Claudia C Dobler
Background and objective: Patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a high 30-day hospital readmission rate, which has a large impact on the health care system and patients' quality of life. The use of a prediction model to quantify a patient's risk of readmission may assist in directing interventions to patients who will benefit most. The objective of this study was to calculate the rate of 30-day readmissions and evaluate the accuracy of the LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, co-morbidities, and emergency department visits within the last 6 months) for 30-day readmissions in a general hospital population of COPD patients...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343795/recurrent-wheezing-in-neonatal-pneumonia-is-associated-with-combined-infection-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-staphylococcus-aureus-or-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#4
Qin Zhong, Hui Feng, Qi Lu, Xu Liu, Qi Zhao, Yue Du, Xian-Hong Zhang, Jia-Rong Wang
Both viral and bacterial infections can be associated with wheezing episodes in children; however, information regarding combined infections with both viral and bacterial pathogens in full term neonates is limited. We sought to investigate the effects of viral-bacterial codetection on pneumonia severity and recurrent wheezing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on neonates admitted to our hospital with pneumonia from 2009 to 2015. Of 606 total cases, 341 were diagnosed with RSV only, and 265 were diagnosed with both RSV and a potential bacterial pathogen...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341032/-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-nosocomial-pneumonia-update-2017-s3-guideline-of-the-german-society-for-anaesthesiology-and-intensive-care-medicine-the-german-society-for-infectious-diseases-the-german-society-for-hygiene-and-microbiology
#5
K Dalhoff, M Abele-Horn, S Andreas, M Deja, S Ewig, P Gastmeier, S Gatermann, H Gerlach, B Grabein, C P Heußel, G Höffken, M Kolditz, E Kramme, H Kühl, C Lange, K Mayer, I Nachtigall, M Panning, M Pletz, P-M Rath, G Rohde, S Rosseau, B Schaaf, D Schreiter, H Schütte, H Seifert, C Spies, T Welte
Nosocomial pneumonia (HAP) is a frequent complication of hospital care. Most data are available on ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, infections on general wards are increasing. A central issue are infections with multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens which are difficult to treat in the empirical setting potentially leading to inappropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.This guideline update was compiled by an interdisciplinary group on the basis of a systematic literature review. Recommendations are made according to GRADE giving guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP on the basis of quality of evidence and benefit/risk ratio...
January 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340765/orotracheal-tube-as-a%C3%A2-risk-factor-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-preliminary-data-from-a%C3%A2-randomised-trial
#6
Igor Muzlovic, Janja Perme, David Stubljar
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether polyurethane (PU) endotracheal tubes, continuous measurements of cuff pressure and aspiration of the subglottic space as a bundle of parameters could reduce patients' risk for developing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). METHODS: Two groups of patients that differed only in terms of endotracheal tubes and intubation intervention were compared. Group A was ventilated using PU tubes a with conical cuff; they also had continuous cuff pressure measurement and continuous subglottic aspiration...
January 16, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340593/the-clinical-utility-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-nasal-screening-to-rule-out-mrsa-pneumonia-a-diagnostic-meta-analysis-with-antimicrobial-stewardship-implications
#7
Diane M Parente, Cheston B Cunha, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Tristan T Timbrook
Background: Recent literature has highlighted MRSA nasal screening as a possible antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) tool for avoiding unnecessary empiric MRSA therapy for pneumonia, yet current guidelines recommend MRSA therapy based on risk factors. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the diagnostic value of MRSA nasal screening in MRSA pneumonia. Methods: Pubmed and EMBASE were searched from inception to November 2016 for English studies evaluating MRSA nasal screening and development of MRSA pneumonia...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340588/antimicrobial-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carriage-and-infection-in-specialized-geriatric-care-wards-linked-to-acquisition-in-the-referring-hospital
#8
Claire L Gorrie, Mirjana Mirceta, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Kelly L Wyres, Nicholas R Thomson, Richard A Strugnell, Nigel F Pratt, Jill S Garlick, Kerrie M Watson, Peter C Hunter, Steve A McGloughlin, Denis W Spelman, Adam W J Jenney, Kathryn E Holt
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing hospital-associated infections, for which elderly patients are at increased risk. Methods: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study, in which a third of patients admitted to two geriatric wards in a specialized hospital were recruited and screened for carriage of K. pneumoniae by microbiological culture. Clinical isolates were monitored via the hospital laboratory...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339458/co-association-between-group-b-streptococcus-and-candida-albicans-promotes-interactions-with-vaginal-epithelium
#9
Grace R Pidwill, Sara Rego, Howard F Jenkinson, Richard J Lamont, Angela H Nobbs
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis worldwide. In the majority of cases, GBS is transmitted vertically from mother to neonate, making maternal vaginal colonisation a key risk factor for neonatal disease. The fungus Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen of the female genitourinary tract, and the causative agent of vaginal thrush. Carriage of C. albicans has been shown to be an independent risk factor for vaginal colonisation by GBS. However, the nature of interactions between these two microbes is poorly understood...
January 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338717/risk-factors-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in%C3%A2-children-under-five-years-attending-the-bamenda-regional-hospital-in-cameroon
#10
Alexis A Tazinya, Gregory E Halle-Ekane, Lawrence T Mbuagbaw, Martin Abanda, Julius Atashili, Marie Therese Obama
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children worldwide. About 6.6 million children less than 5 years of age die every year in the world; 95% of them in low-income countries and one third of the total deaths is due to ARI. This study aimed at determining the proportion of acute respiratory infections and the associated risk factors in children under 5 years visiting the Bamenda Regional Hospital in Cameroon. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study involving 512 children under 5 years was carried out from December 2014 to February 2015...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336224/treatment-of-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-cellulitis-and-gut-decolonization-with-ceftazidime-avibactam-in-a-migrant-from-libya
#11
Novella Carannante, Carlo Pallotto, Mariano Bernardo, Giovanni Di Caprio, Carlo Tascini
KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) is nowadays a global concern. Ceftazidime/avibactam is the most promising novel antibiotic combination available at the moment. We describe the case of a migrant with no risk factors for an infection due to multidrug resistant bacteria. He suffered from a KPC-Kp cellulitis and was treated with a ceftazidime/avibactam-meropenem-fosfomycin combination that not only eradicated the infection but also decontaminated his gut. Ceftazidime/avibactam-based treatment can be useful also in decontamination procedures...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334197/increased-non-aids-mortality-among-persons-with-aids-defining-events-after-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#12
April C Pettit, Mark J Giganti, Suzanne M Ingle, Margaret T May, Bryan E Shepherd, Michael J Gill, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Sophie Abgrall, Michael S Saag, Julia Del Amo, Amy C Justice, Jose M Miro, Matthias Cavasinni, François Dabis, Antonella D Monforte, Peter Reiss, Jodie Guest, David Moore, Leah Shepherd, Niels Obel, Heidi M Crane, Colette Smith, Ramon Teira, Robert Zangerle, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Timothy R Sterling
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330835/international-guidelines-for-groin-hernia-management
#13
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, more than 20 million patients undergo groin hernia repair annually. The many different approaches, treatment indications and a significant array of techniques for groin hernia repair warrant guidelines to standardize care, minimize complications, and improve results. The main goal of these guidelines is to improve patient outcomes, specifically to decrease recurrence rates and reduce chronic pain, the most frequent problems following groin hernia repair. They have been endorsed by all five continental hernia societies, the International Endo Hernia Society and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery...
January 12, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327212/a-composite-of-functional-status-and-pneumonia-severity-index-improves-the-prediction-of-pneumonia-mortality-in-older-patients
#14
Francisco Sanz, María Morales-Suárez-Varela, Estrella Fernández, Luis Force, María José Pérez-Lozano, Vicente Martín, Mikel Egurrola, Jesús Castilla, Jenaro Astray, Diana Toledo, Ángela Domínguez
BACKGROUND: The baseline health status may be a determinant of interest in the evolution of pneumonia. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the predictive ability of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) mortality by combining the Barthel Index (BI) and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) in patients aged ≥ 65 years. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MAIN MEASURES: In this prospective, observational, multicenter analysis of comorbidities, the clinical data, additional examinations and severity of CAP were measured by the PSI and functional status by the BI...
January 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327152/the-prevalence-and-impact-of-status-epilepticus-secondary-to-intracerebral-hemorrhage-results-from-the-us-nationwide-inpatient-sample
#15
Amol Mehta, Benjamin E Zusman, Lori A Shutter, Ravi Choxi, Ahmed Yassin, Arun Antony, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) has been identified as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in many acute brain injury patient populations. We aimed to assess the prevalence and impact of SE after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a large patient sample to overcome limitations in previous small patient sample studies. METHODS: We queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for patients admitted for ICH from 1999 to 2011, excluding patients with other acute brain injuries...
January 11, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326340/rare-cause-of-pulmonary-cavitation-in-a-75-year-old-man
#16
Jaffar Al-Sheikhli, Hussein Taqi, John Drake, Ayaaz Habib
A 75-year-old man of Asian descent presented to the acute medical unit with signs and symptoms suggestive of a community-acquired pneumonia. He had multiple comorbidities and was relatively immunocompromised as a result. Initial investigations supported the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia complicated by a cavitating lung lesion, and the patient was treated as per hospital guidelines. He continued to deteriorate despite appropriate therapy and developed a hydropneumothorax, requiring the insertion of a chest drain...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326186/factors-associated-with-neonatal-pneumonia-in-india-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-planned-meta-analysis
#17
Sreekumaran Nair, Leslie Edward Lewis, Myron Anthony Godinho, Shruti Murthy, Theophilus Lakiang, Bhumika T Venkatesh
INTRODUCTION: India accounts for more neonatal deaths than any other country. There is a lack of consolidated evidence from India regarding the determining factors of pneumonia in neonates. This systematic review is aimed to consolidate and appraise the evidence on risk factors and determinants of pneumonia among neonates in India. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol is part of a project consisting of three reviews (two systematic reviews and one scoping review) and a qualitative study on neonatal pneumonia in India...
January 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325957/effect-and-feasibility-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-in-patients-with-hemorrhagic-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Zhong Yao, Chao You, Min He
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has shown a good performance in the experimental hemorrhagic stroke. But the clinical application of TH remains controversial since reports regarding its therapeutic effect are inconsistent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Compare TH with control group in terms of mortality, the poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and specific complications...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325222/pneumonia-as-a-cardiovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Marcos I Restrepo, Luis F Reyes
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of death around the globe. Up to 30% of patients admitted to hospital for CAP develop cardiovascular complications (i.e. new/worsening heart failure, new/worsening arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and/or strokes), acutely and up to 10 years thereafter. Cardiac complications result from complex interactions between preexisting conditions, relative ischaemia, upregulation of the sympathetic system, systemic inflammation and direct pathogen-mediated damage to the cardiovascular system...
January 11, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325217/neutrophil-infiltration-to-the-brain-is-platelet-dependent-and-is-reversed-by-blockade-of-platelet-gpib%C3%AE
#20
James A Giles, Andrew D Greenhalgh, Adam Denes, Bernhard Nieswandt, Graham Coutts, Barry W McColl, Stuart M Allan
Neutrophils are key components of the innate immune response, providing host defence against infection and being recruited to non-microbial injury sites. Platelets act as a trigger for neutrophil extravasation to inflammatory sites but mechanisms and tissue-specific aspects of these interactions are currently unclear. Here, we use bacterial endotoxin in mice to trigger an innate inflammatory response in different tissues and measure neutrophil invasion with or without platelet reduction. We show that platelets are essential for neutrophil infiltration to the brain, peritoneum and skin, neutrophil numbers returning to basal levels in the peritoneum and skin and being decreased (~60%) in the brain when platelets are reduced...
January 11, 2018: Immunology
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