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Risks for pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933286/viral-infection-in-the-development-and-progression-of-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Steven Nye, Richard J Whitley, Michele Kong
Viral infections are an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Numerous viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A (H1N1) virus, have been implicated in the progression of pneumonia to ARDS; yet the incidence of progression is unknown. Despite acute and chronic morbidity associated with respiratory viral infections, particularly in "at risk" populations, treatment options are limited. Thus, with few exceptions, care is symptomatic. In addition, mortality rates for viral-related ARDS have yet to be determined...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932261/does-adding-clinical-data-to-administrative-data-improve-agreement-among-hospital-quality-measures
#2
Amresh D Hanchate, Kelly L Stolzmann, Amy K Rosen, Aaron S Fink, Michael Shwartz, Arlene S Ash, Hassen Abdulkerim, Mary Jo V Pugh, Priti Shokeen, Ann Borzecki
BACKGROUND: Hospital performance measures based on patient mortality and readmission have indicated modest rates of agreement. We examined if combining clinical data on laboratory tests and vital signs with administrative data leads to improved agreement with each other, and with other measures of hospital performance in the nation's largest integrated health care system. METHODS: We used patient-level administrative and clinical data, and hospital-level data on quality indicators, for 2007-2010 from the Veterans Health Administration (VA)...
December 5, 2016: Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932109/risk-evaluation-and-outcome-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#3
S Brakemeier, M Dürr, F Bachmann, D Schmidt, J Gaedeke, K Budde
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) affects immunocompromised patients. As a result of effective prophylaxis in the 1st months after kidney transplantation, PJP is increasingly diagnosed in the long term after transplantation. The present study evaluates course and outcome of PJP in a single transplant center from 2010 to 2015. Twenty-three patients presented with PJP at a mean of 53.7 ± 50.2 months after transplantation. Of these, 3 patients underwent ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) living-donor transplantation and 3 patients were treated with the use of belatacept...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932071/clinical-predictors-and-outcome-implications-of-early-readmission-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#4
Asishana A Osho, Anthony W Castleberry, Babatunde A Yerokun, Michael S Mulvihill, Justin Rucker, Laurie D Snyder, Robert D Davis, Matthew G Hartwig
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors and outcome implications for 30-day hospital readmission in lung transplant recipients. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant cases from a single, high-volume lung transplant program between January 2000 and March 2012. Demographic and health data were reviewed for all patients. Risk factors for 30-day readmission (defined as readmission within 30 days of discharge from index lung transplant hospitalization) were modeled using logistic regression, with selection of parameters by backward elimination...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932031/number-of-rib-fractures-thresholds-independently-predict-worse-outcomes-in-older-patients-with-blunt-trauma
#5
Nikita O Shulzhenko, Tiffany J Zens, Megan V Beems, Hee Soo Jung, Ann P O'Rourke, Amy E Liepert, John E Scarborough, Suresh K Agarwal
BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting reports regarding whether the number of rib fractures sustained in blunt trauma is associated independently with worse patient outcomes. We sought to investigate this risk-adjusted relationship among the lesser-studied population of older adults. METHODS: A retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank was performed for patients with blunt trauma who were ≥65 years old and had rib fractures between 2009 and 2012 (N = 67,695)...
December 5, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930526/models-predicting-the-risks-of-six-life-threatening-morbidities-and-bile-leakage-in-14-970-hepatectomy-patients-registered-in-the-national-clinical-database-of-japan
#6
Hideki Yokoo, Hiroaki Miyata, Hiroyuki Konno, Akinobu Taketomi, Tatsuhiko Kakisaka, Norimichi Hirahara, Go Wakabayashi, Mitsukazu Gotoh, Masaki Mori
To construct a robust morbidity risk-prediction model based on a Japanese nationwide web-based database of patients who underwent liver surgery.Although liver resection has become safer, patient mortality and morbidity still occur. This study investigated postoperative morbidity risks in patients who underwent hepatectomy in Japan at institutions registered in the National Clinical Database.This analysis involved 14,970 patients who underwent hepatectomy of more than 1 section, except for left lateral sectionectomy, during 2011 and 2012 at 1192 hospitals in Japan...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929751/recommended-vaccinations-for-asplenic-and-hyposplenic-adult-patients
#7
Paolo Bonanni, Maddalena Grazzini, Giuditta Niccolai, Diana Paolini, Ornella Varone, Alessandro Bartoloni, Bartalesi Filippo, Maria Grazia Santini, Simonetta Baretti, Carlo Bonito, Paola Zini, Mechi Maria Teresa, Niccolini Fabrizio, Magistri Lea, Pulci Maria Beatrice, Sara Boccalini, Angela Bechini
Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation...
December 8, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929242/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-diagnosis-and-management
#8
Alexander Kaysin, Anthony J Viera
Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Risk factors include older age and medical comorbidities. Diagnosis is suggested by a history of cough, dyspnea, pleuritic pain, or acute functional or cognitive decline, with abnormal vital signs (e.g., fever, tachycardia) and lung examination findings. Diagnosis should be confirmed by chest radiography or ultrasonography. Validated prediction scores for pneumonia severity can guide the decision between outpatient and inpatient therapy. Using procalcitonin as a biomarker for severe infection may further assist with risk stratification...
November 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929082/a-retrospective-study-of-pyogenic-liver-abscess-focusing-on-klebsiella-pneumoniae-as-a-primary-pathogen-in-china-from-1994-to-2015
#9
Yun Qian, Chi Chun Wong, Sanchuan Lai, Huarong Chen, Xingkang He, Leimin Sun, Jiaguo Wu, Jiancang Zhou, Jun Yu, Weili Liu, Daoyang Zhou, Jianmin Si
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a common intra-abdominal infection in adults. In this study, we aim to explore demographic and clinical characteristics of PLA focusing on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) induced PLA (KP-PLA) in mainland China. A retrospective review of medical records from all patients with KP-PLA admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital over a 21-year period (1994-2015) was performed. Among 296 PLA cases with confirmed culture-positive data, K. pneumoniae was revealed as the predominant pathogen (n = 189, 63...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927839/does-medicare-advantage-reduce-racial-disparity-in-30-day-rehospitalization-for-medicare-beneficiaries
#10
Yue Li, Xi Cen, Xueya Cai, Dongliang Wang, Caroline Pinto Thirukumaran, Laurent G Glance
This study determined potential racial and ethnic disparities in risk for all-cause 30-day readmission among traditional Medicare (TM) and Medicare Advantage (MA) beneficiaries initially hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or pneumonia. Our analyses of New York State hospital administrative data between 2009 and 2012 found that overall 30-day readmission rate declined from 22.0% in 2009 to 20.7% in 2012 for TM beneficiaries, and from 20.2% in 2009 to 17.9% in 2012 for MA beneficiaries...
December 6, 2016: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927201/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-pneumonia-severity-and-mortality-in-bangladeshi-children-5-years-of-age-before-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction
#11
Shampa Saha, Md Hasan, Lindsay Kim, Jennifer L Farrar, Belal Hossain, Maksuda Islam, Asm Nawshad Uddin Ahmed, M Ruhul Amin, Mohammed Hanif, Manzoor Hussain, Shams El-Arifeen, Cynthia G Whitney, Samir K Saha
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of morbidity and mortality in young children in Bangladesh. We present the epidemiology of pneumonia in Bangladeshi children <5 years before 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction and investigate factors associated with disease severity and mortality. METHODS: Children aged 2-59 months admitted to three Bangladeshi hospitals with pneumonia (i.e., cough or difficulty breathing and age-specific tachypnea without danger signs) or severe pneumonia (i...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926618/does-sensory-transcutaneous-electrical-stimulation-prevent-pneumonia-in-the-acute-stage-of-stroke-a-preliminary-study
#12
Satoshi Hamada, Hirofumi Yamaguchi, Hiroyoshi Hara
Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at risk of developing pulmonary infection, which increases the risk of death. Therefore, optimal management of dysphagia is essential; however, available evidence supporting the effectiveness of dysphagia treatments is limited. Surface electrical stimulation (e-stim) has been developed as a new treatment modality for dysphagia. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of surface sensory e-stim therapy in preventing pulmonary infection in 53 acute stroke patients with dysphagia...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925855/costs-associated-with-influenza-related-hospitalization-in-the-elderly
#13
Núria Torner, Encarna Navas, Núria Soldevila, Diana Toledo, Gemma Navarro, Aurea Morillo, Maria José Pérez, Angela Domínguez
Seasonal influenza epidemics remain a considerable burden in adults, especially in those at higher risk of complications. The aim of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza-related hospitalization in patients aged ≥65 years admitted to 20 hospitals from seven Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Bivariate analysis was used to compare costs in vaccinated and unvaccinated cases. Costs were calculated according to the Spanish National Health System diagnosis-related group tables for influenza and other respiratory system conditions (GRD 89 and GRD 101)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925447/rehospitalization-of-preterm-infants-according-to-the-discharge-risk-level
#14
Burcu Aykanat Girgin, Güler Cimete
PURPOSE: The rehospitalization rate of preterm infants is between 22 and 52% within the first year after discharge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehospitalization of preterm infants within 2 months following discharge, considering the level of risks originating from the infant, parents, and the social factors. DESIGN AND METHODS: The sample was composed of 238 preterm infants and their parents. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, the Post-Discharge Infant Follow-up Form, and the Neonatal Discharge Assessment Tool (N-DAT)...
December 7, 2016: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924871/prognostic-implications-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#15
Kosaku Komiya, Bruce K Rubin, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Hiroshi Mukae, Tomohiro Akaba, Hiroshi Moro, Nobumasa Aoki, Hiroki Tsukada, Shingo Noguchi, Nobuaki Shime, Osamu Takahashi, Shigeru Kohno
: Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. EXPOSURE: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to be at high risk for oral aspiration...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924598/markerless-genome-editing-in-competent-streptococci
#16
Roger Junges, Rabia Khan, Yanina Tovpeko, Heidi A Åmdal, Fernanda C Petersen, Donald A Morrison
Selective markers employed in classical mutagenesis methods using natural genetic transformation can affect gene expression, risk phenotypic effects, and accumulate as unwanted genes during successive mutagenesis cycles. In this chapter, we present a protocol for markerless genome editing in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pneumoniae achieved with an efficient method for natural transformation. High yields of transformants are obtained by combining the unimodal state of competence developed after treatment of S...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924246/adenovirus-and-culture-negative-sepsis-in-a-preterm-neonate
#17
Mohannad Moallem, Eunkyung Song, Preeti Jaggi, Miriam R Conces, Adriana E Kajon, Pablo J Sánchez
Background Respiratory viral infections remain an underrecognized cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Case Report An eight day old, 650 gram birth weight, 23 weeks' gestational age female developed "culture-negative" sepsis manifested by respiratory deterioration, hypoxia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. She was diagnosed with pneumonia and hepatitis due to adenovirus HAdV-D (H29F9) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, but died at the age of 18 days despite treatment with cidofovir and immune globulin intravenous...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924204/combined-use-of-a-double-lumen-tube-and-fogarty-catheter-to-prevent-the-endobronchial-spread-of-infection-a-case-report
#18
Jaewon Kim, Hyelim Lee, Han Park, Chang-Young Jeong
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Patients with Huntington's disease show an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia when the pharyngeal muscle is invaded. We report a case of advanced-stage Huntington's disease in which the patient received right middle lobectomy for a lung abscess caused by repeated aspiration. The best lung isolation technique has not yet been established in these patients. We successfully performed selective lobar isolation of the right lower and middle lobes using a double lumen tube and a Fogarty embolectomy catheter...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922625/infections-in-the-spinal-cord-injured-population-a-systematic-review
#19
L Y Garcia-Arguello, J C O'Horo, A Farrell, R Blakney, M R Sohail, C T Evans, N Safdar
STUDY DESIGN: Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients are an increasing population due to recent military conflicts. SCI patients are at an increased risk of infection, but the epidemiology management and prevention strategies for these infections are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To review the incidence, microbiology and management of pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), urinary tract infections (UTI) and bloodstream infections in the SCI population via literature review...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921227/-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-a%C3%A2-radiological-perspective
#20
REVIEW
P Agarwal, A Wielandner
Due to the high morbidity and mortality, nosocomial pneumonia represents a serious risk in hospitalized patients. The increased risk of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens makes a timely diagnosis and prompt therapy indispensable. A newly occurring or progressive infiltrate in any patient who has been hospitalized for more than 48 h should be viewed with suspicion. In contrast to community acquired pneumonia (CAP), radiography plays a limited role in the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
December 5, 2016: Der Radiologe
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