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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081141/could-a-neuroscientist-understand-a-microprocessor
#1
Eric Jonas, Konrad Paul Kording
There is a popular belief in neuroscience that we are primarily data limited, and that producing large, multimodal, and complex datasets will, with the help of advanced data analysis algorithms, lead to fundamental insights into the way the brain processes information. These datasets do not yet exist, and if they did we would have no way of evaluating whether or not the algorithmically-generated insights were sufficient or even correct. To address this, here we take a classical microprocessor as a model organism, and use our ability to perform arbitrary experiments on it to see if popular data analysis methods from neuroscience can elucidate the way it processes information...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079561/-single-checked-patient-group-directions-during-initial-nurse-assessment-within-paediatric-emergency-departments-of-the-uk-and-ireland
#2
Chris K Bird, Anthony G Sinclair, Stuart Hartshorn
OBJECTIVE: Double checking medications at initial assessment within paediatric emergency departments (EDs) has the potential to delay patient flow, and doubt has been cast on the efficacy of double checking in all but high-risk medications. We aimed to benchmark current practice for the use of Patient Group Direction (PGD) medications at initial assessment in EDs within the Paediatric Emergency Research UK and Ireland (PERUKI) network, with a focus on the use of 'single-checker' PGDs...
January 10, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078733/therapeutic-apheresis-in-immunologic-renal-and-neurological-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Rolf Bambauer, Reinhard Latza, Daniel Burgard, Ralf Schiel
Since the mid 1970s, when membrane modules became available, plasma separation techniques have gained in importance especially in the past few years. The advantages of this method are a complete separation of the corpuscular components from the plasma and due to increased blood flow rate and higher efficacy. Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a poor prognosis without treatment...
January 12, 2017: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077904/regadenoson-in-myocardial-perfusion-study-first-institutional-experiences-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#4
Nermina Beslic, Renata Milardovic, Amera Sadija, Sejla Ceric, Zeljka Raic
INTRODUCTION: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is widely used in the evaluation of known and suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Imaging of heart in stress and rest enables the comparison of myocardial uptake of radiotracer in proportion to the needs and coronary flow, which is used for detection of perfusion defects. Exercise stress and pharmacologic agents are used for the stressing purpose. Novel pharmacologic stressor regadenoson is A2A selective adenosine agonist, which selectively binds to the adenosine receptors in coronary arteries causing coronary dilatation...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077887/examination-of-the-predictive-power-of-electromyography-and-urodynamic-study-in-patients-with-cauda-equina-syndrome-horse-tail-syndrome
#5
Mohammadreza Shahmohammadi, Reza Jalil Khoshuod, Alireza Zali, Amir Saied Seddeghi, Nima Mohseni Kabir
BACKGROUND: Cauda equina syndrome is a rare disorder that causes loss of Lumbar plexus function (nerve roots) lower than conus medullaris. No risk factor has been defined for this disease yet. Due to the high morbidity of Cauda equina syndrome and lack of sufficient information about the connection between the disease and urodynamic findings and EMG (Electromyography) findings, the need for this comprehensive study is felt. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to determine the predictive power of findings resulted from urodynamics and electromyography of perineal region and around sphincter in the clinical cure rate of urination in patients with urinary retention followed by Cauda equina syndrome...
October 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077710/sensory-flow-as-a-basis-for-a-novel-distance-cue-in-freely-behaving-electric-fish
#6
Volker Hofmann, Juan Ignacio Sanguinetti-Scheck, Leonel Gómez-Sena, Jacob Engelmann
: The sensory input that an animal receives is directly linked to its motor activity. Behavior thus enables animals to influence their sensory input, a concept referred to as active sensing. How such behavior can serve as a scaffold for generating sensory information is of general scientific interest. In this article, we investigate how behavior can shape sensory information by using some unique features of the sensorimotor system of the weakly electric fish. Based on quantitative behavioral characterizations and computational reconstruction of sensory input, we show how electrosensory flow is actively created during highly patterned, spontaneous behavior in Gnathonemus petersii...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077646/adenovirus-modulates-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-by-reprogramming-orp1l-vap-protein-contacts-for-cholesterol-transport-from-endosomes-to-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#7
Nicholas L Cianciola, Stacey Chung, Danny Manor, Cathleen R Carlin
: Human adenoviruses generally cause mild self-limiting infections but can lead to serious disease and even be fatal in high-risk individuals, underscoring the importance of understanding how the virus counteracts host defense mechanisms. This study had two goals. First, determine the molecular basis of cholesterol homeostatic responses induced by the early region 3 membrane protein RIDα via its direct interaction with the sterol-binding protein ORP1L. Second, determine how this interaction regulates innate immunity to adenovirus...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076893/-pseudo-feeders-on-fetal-mri-predict-outcome-in-vein-of-galen-malformations
#8
Guillaume Saliou, Irène Vraka, Jean-Paul Teglas, Marie-Victoire Senat, Philippe Durand, Claire Colmant, Augustin Ozanne, Jelena Martinovic, Pierre Tissiere, Catherine Adamsbaum
OBJECTIVE: While vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) can be diagnosed in the fetus, the challenge is predicting the occurrence of its two major complications: cardiopulmonary failure and encephalomalacia. This study attempts to determine which fetal brain MRI features might be used to predict the development of these complications at birth. METHODS: The cohort was extracted from a prospectively-assembled database of VGAM cases managed at a single referral centre from 2000 to 2014...
January 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075531/three-dimensional-imaging-flow-cytometry-through-light-sheet-fluorescence-microscopy
#9
REVIEW
Emilio J Gualda, Hugo Pereira, Gabriel G Martins, Rui Gardner, Nuno Moreno
Flow cytometry is the tool of choice for high-speed acquisition and analysis of large cell populations, with the tradeoff of lacking intracellular spatial information. Although in the last decades flow cytometry systems that can actually acquire two-dimensional spatial information were developed, some of the limitations remained though, namely constrains related to sample size and lack of depth or dynamic information. The combination of fluidics and light-sheet illumination has the potential to address these limitations...
January 11, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075272/measuring-peak-expiratory-flow-rate-what-the-nurse-needs-to-know
#10
Rebecca Myatt
Rationale and key points This article provides information on monitoring a patient's peak expiratory flow rate. It explains the rationale for measuring the peak expiratory flow rate, provides guidance for nurses to undertake this investigation and offers advice on how to instruct patients in the use of this technique. » Measuring the peak expiratory flow rate is an inexpensive, straightforward and useful clinical investigation that enables fluctuations in the patient's respiratory effort to be monitored over time...
January 11, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074785/deformable-registration-of-ct-and-cone-beam-ct-with-local-intensity-matching
#11
Seyoun Park, William Plishker, Harry Quon, John Wong, Raj Shekhar, Junghoon Lee
Cone-beam CT (CBCT) is a widely used intra-operative imaging modality in image-guided radiotherapy and surgery. A short scan followed by a filtered-backprojection is typically used for CBCT reconstruction. While data on the mid-plane (plane of source-detector rotation) is complete, off-mid-planes undergo different information deficiency and the computed reconstructions are approximate. This causes different reconstruction artifacts at off-mid-planes depending on slice locations, and therefore impedes accurate registration between CT and CBCT...
January 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074399/evaluating-the-impact-of-lower-resolutions-of-digital-elevation-model-on-rainfall-runoff-modeling-for-ungauged-catchments
#12
Abul Razzaq Ghumman, Ibrahim Saleh Al-Salamah, Saleem Saleh AlSaleem, Husnain Haider
Geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) usually uses geomorphologic parameters of catchment estimated from digital elevation model (DEM) for rainfall-runoff modeling of ungauged watersheds with limited data. Higher resolutions (e.g., 5 or 10 m) of DEM play an important role in the accuracy of rainfall-runoff models; however, such resolutions are expansive to obtain and require much greater efforts and time for preparation of inputs. In this research, a modeling framework is developed to evaluate the impact of lower resolutions (i...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070749/an-automated-microemboli-detection-and-classification-system-using-backscatter-rf-signals-and-differential-evolution
#13
Karim Ferroudji, Nabil Benoudjit, Ayache Bouakaz
Embolic phenomena, whether air or particulate emboli, can induce immediate damages like heart attack or ischemic stroke. Embolus composition (gaseous or particulate matter) is vital in predicting clinically significant complications. Embolus detection using Doppler methods have shown their limits to differentiate solid and gaseous embolus. Radio-frequency (RF) ultrasound signals backscattered by the emboli contain additional information on the embolus in comparison to the traditionally used Doppler signals...
January 9, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070038/-total-liver-ct-perfusion-imaging-for-evaluation-on-rabbit-liver-vx2-tumor-perfusion-and-comparative-analysis-through-immunohistochemisty
#14
Zhijun Liu, Xueying Long, Hui Liu
To investigate the correlations among total liver CT perfusion parameters, unpaired arteries (UAs) and microvessel area (MVA) in a rabbit liver VX2 tumor model, and to learn the tumoral angiogenesis condition and the mechanisms for perfusion imaging.
 Methods: Rabbits with or without the inoculated VX2 tumor in the liver underwent total liver CT perfusion imaging 2 weeks after the operation. Perfusion parameters included blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), arterial liver perfusion (ALP), portal liver perfusion (PVP), hepatic perfusion index (HPI) for the tumor rim and the surrounding liver tissue...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069205/study-of-a-laboratory-scaled-new-method-for-the-accelerated-continuous-ageing-of-wine-spirits-by-applying-ultrasound-energy
#15
M J Delgado-González, M M Sánchez-Guillén, M V García-Moreno, M C Rodríguez-Dodero, C García-Barroso, D A Guillén-Sánchez
During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068061/looking-at-photoinduced-charge-transfer-processes-in-the-ir-answers-to-several-long-standing-questions
#16
Bogdan Dereka, Marius Koch, Eric Vauthey
Because of its crucial role in many areas of science and technology, photoinduced electron transfer is the most investigated photochemical reaction. Despite this, several important questions remain open. We present recent efforts to answer some of them, which concern both inter- and intramolecular processes. The decisive factor that allowed these issues to be successfully addressed was the use of time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. Many different transient species, such as tight and loose ion pairs (TIPs and LIPs) and exciplexes, have been invoked to explain the dynamics of intermolecular photoinduced charge separation reactions (i...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067266/quantification-of-network-structural-dissimilarities
#17
Tiago A Schieber, Laura Carpi, Albert Díaz-Guilera, Panos M Pardalos, Cristina Masoller, Martín G Ravetti
Identifying and quantifying dissimilarities among graphs is a fundamental and challenging problem of practical importance in many fields of science. Current methods of network comparison are limited to extract only partial information or are computationally very demanding. Here we propose an efficient and precise measure for network comparison, which is based on quantifying differences among distance probability distributions extracted from the networks. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world networks show that this measure returns non-zero values only when the graphs are non-isomorphic...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065933/non-contact-hemodynamic-imaging-reveals-the-jugular-venous-pulse-waveform
#18
Robert Amelard, Richard L Hughson, Danielle K Greaves, Kaylen J Pfisterer, Jason Leung, David A Clausi, Alexander Wong
Cardiovascular monitoring is important to prevent diseases from progressing. The jugular venous pulse (JVP) waveform offers important clinical information about cardiac health, but is not routinely examined due to its invasive catheterisation procedure. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the JVP can be consistently observed in a non-contact manner using a photoplethysmographic imaging system. The observed jugular waveform was strongly negatively correlated to the arterial waveform (r = -0.73 ± 0...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065167/diagnostic-utility-of-brain-activity-flow-patterns-analysis-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#19
J Biederman, P Hammerness, B Sadeh, Z Peremen, A Amit, H Or-Ly, Y Stern, A Reches, A Geva, S V Faraone
BACKGROUND: A previous small study suggested that Brain Network Activation (BNA), a novel ERP-based brain network analysis, may have diagnostic utility in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we examined the diagnostic capability of a new advanced version of the BNA methodology on a larger population of adults with and without ADHD. METHOD: Subjects were unmedicated right-handed 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with and without a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063007/oxygen-exchange-and-energy-metabolism-in-erythrocytes-of-rett-syndrome-and-their-relationships-with-respiratory-alterations
#20
Chiara Ciaccio, Donato Di Pierro, Diego Sbardella, Grazia Raffaella Tundo, Paolo Curatolo, Cinzia Galasso, Marta Elena Santarone, Maurizio Casasco, Paola Cozza, Alessio Cortelazzo, Marcello Rossi, Claudio De Felice, Joussef Hayek, Massimo Coletta, Stefano Marini
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly affecting females, which is associated to a mutation on the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene. In the pathogenesis and progression of classic RTT, red blood cell (RBC) morphology has been shown to be an important biosensor for redox imbalance and chronic hypoxemia. Here we have evaluated the impact of oxidation and redox imbalance on several functional properties of RTT erythrocytes. In particular, we report for the first time a stopped-flow measurement of the kinetics of oxygen release by RBCs and the analysis of the intrinsic affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb)...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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