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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533899/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-an-endangered-desert-shrub-and-the-implications-for-conservation
#1
Zhihao Su, Bryce A Richardson, Li Zhuo, Xiaolong Jiang, Wenjun Li, Xiaoshan Kang
Population genetic information can provide valuable insight for the conservation and management of threatened and endangered plant species. Tamarix taklamakanensis is an endangered shrub endemic to arid basins of northwestern China. This species serves to stabilize soils in this region, but has seen substantial loss in its abundance due to depletion of ground water. The populations of this species have become small and fragmented, warranting conservation. Seven microsatellite loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 15 populations in the Tarim Basin, China...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#2
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533561/national-ecosystem-assessments-in-europe-a-review
#3
Matthias Schröter, Christian Albert, Alexandra Marques, Wolke Tobon, Sandra Lavorel, Joachim Maes, Claire Brown, Stefan Klotz, Aletta Bonn
National ecosystem assessments form an essential knowledge base for safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services. We analyze eight European (sub-)national ecosystem assessments (Portugal, United Kingdom, Spain, Norway, Flanders, Netherlands, Finland, and Germany) and compare their objectives, political context, methods, and operationalization. We observed remarkable differences in breadth of the assessment, methods employed, variety of services considered, policy mandates, and funding mechanisms. Biodiversity and ecosystem services are mainly assessed independently, with biodiversity conceptualized as underpinning services, as a source of conflict with services, or as a service in itself...
October 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532471/perfusion-by-arterial-spin-labelling-following-single-dose-tadalafil-in-small-vessel-disease-pastis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Mathilde M H Pauls, Natasha Clarke, Sarah Trippier, Shai Betteridge, Franklyn A Howe, Usman Khan, Christina Kruuse, Jeremy B Madigan, Barry Moynihan, Anthony C Pereira, Debbie Rolfe, Egill Rostrup, Caroline E Haig, Thomas R Barrick, Jeremy D Isaacs, Atticus H Hainsworth
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment in older people, with no licensed treatment. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in small vessel disease. Tadalafil is a widely prescribed phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that increases blood flow in other vascular territories. The aim of this trial is to test the hypothesis that tadalafil increases cerebral blood flow in older people with small vessel disease. METHODS/DESIGN: Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS) is a phase II randomised double-blind crossover trial...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532415/hemodynamic-changes-caused-by-acupuncture-in-healthy-volunteers-a-prospective-single-arm-exploratory-clinical-study
#5
Tae-Hun Kim, Boncho Ku, Jang-Han Bae, Jae-Young Shin, Min-Ho Jun, Jung Won Kang, Junghwan Kim, Jun-Hwan Lee, Jaeuk U Kim
BACKGROUND: Radial pressure pulse wave (RPPW) examination has been a key diagnostic component of traditional Chinese medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in RPPW along with various hemodynamic variables after acupuncture stimulation and to examine the validity of pulse diagnosis as a modern diagnostic tool. METHODS: We conducted acupuncture stimulation at both ST36 acupuncture points in 25 healthy volunteers. We simultaneously assessed the RPPW by pulse tonometry; heart rate variability (HRV) by electrocardiogram; photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals, respiration rate, peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial depth by ultrasonography; and cardiac output by impedance cardiography, before, during and after a session of acupuncture stimulation...
May 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532218/flow-chamber-and-microfluidic-approaches-for-measuring-thrombus-formation-in-genetic-bleeding-disorders
#6
Rogier M Schoeman, Marcus Lehmann, Keith B Neeves
Platelet adhesion and aggregation, coagulation, fibrin formation, and fibrinolysis are regulated by the forces and flows imposed by blood at the site of a vascular injury. Flow chambers designed to observe these events are an indispensable part of doing hemostasis and thrombosis research, especially with human blood. Microfluidic methods have provided the flexibility to design flow chambers with complex geometries and features that more closely mimic the anatomy and physiology of blood vessels. Additionally, microfluidic systems with integrated optics and/or pressure sensors and on-board signal processing could transform what have been primarily research tools into clinical assays...
May 22, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531198/a-real-time-traffic-control-method-for-the-intersection-with-pre-signals-under-the-phase-swap-sorting-strategy
#7
Yiming Bie, Zhiyuan Liu, Yinhai Wang
To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530664/flexible-information-routing-by-transient-synchrony
#8
Agostina Palmigiano, Theo Geisel, Fred Wolf, Demian Battaglia
Perception, cognition and behavior rely on flexible communication between microcircuits in distinct cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying rapid information rerouting between such microcircuits are still unknown. It has been proposed that changing patterns of coherence between local gamma rhythms support flexible information rerouting. The stochastic and transient nature of gamma oscillations in vivo, however, is hard to reconcile with such a function. Here we show that models of cortical circuits near the onset of oscillatory synchrony selectively route input signals despite the short duration of gamma bursts and the irregularity of neuronal firing...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530158/analyzing-circle-of-willis-blood-flow-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-through-3d-stroke-arterial-flow-estimation
#9
Aichi Chien, Fernando Viñuela
Background The objective of ischemic stroke (IS) treatment is to achieve revascularization in cerebral arteries to restore blood flow. However, there is no available method to extract arterial flow data from clinical CTA images. We developed 3D Stroke Arterial Flow Estimation (SAFE), which provides blood flow data throughout the Circle of Willis based on 3D CTA and allows comparison of arterial flow distribution in the brain. Methods We implemented a newly developed 3D vascular reconstruction algorithm for clinical stroke CTA images...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529701/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-dry-age-related-macular-degeneration-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Francesco Bandello, Riccardo Sacconi, Lea Querques, Eleonora Corbelli, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Giuseppe Querques
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most important cause of vision loss in elderly people, is a degenerative disorder of the central retina with a multifactorial etiopathology. AMD is classified in dry AMD (d-AMD) or neovascular AMD depending on the presence of choroidal neovascularization. Currently, no therapy is approved for geographic atrophy, the late form of d-AMD, because no treatment can restore the damage of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or photoreceptors. For this reason, all treatment approaches in d-AMD are only likely to prevent and slow down the progression of existing atrophy...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529671/the-advection-of-microparticles-mcf-7-and-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-in-response-to-very-low-reynolds-numbers
#11
Sinéad T Morley, Michael T Walsh, David T Newport
The lymphatic system is an extensive vascular network that serves as the primary route for the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells (BCCs). The dynamics by which BCCs travel in the lymphatics to distant sites, and eventually establish metastatic tumors, remain poorly understood. Particle tracking techniques were employed to analyze the behavior of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 BCCs which were exposed to lymphatic flow conditions in a 100 μm square microchannel. The behavior of the BCCs was compared to rigid particles of various diameters (η = dp/H= 0...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528785/resonance-tube-phonation-in-water-the-effect-of-tube-diameter-and-water-depth-on-back-pressure-and-bubble-characteristics-at-different-airflows
#12
Greta Wistbacka, Pedro Amarante Andrade, Susanna Simberg, Britta Hammarberg, Maria Södersten, Jan G Švec, Svante Granqvist
OBJECTIVES: Resonance tube phonation with tube end in water is a voice therapy method in which the patient phonates through a glass tube, keeping the free end of the tube submerged in water, creating bubbles. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine flow-pressure relationship, flow thresholds between bubble types, and bubble frequency as a function of flow and back volume. METHODS: A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used for recording the back pressure produced by resonance tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 9 mm submerged at water depths of 0-7 cm...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528391/dynamism-in-the-upstream-invasion-edge-of-a-freshwater-fish-exposes-range-boundary-constraints
#13
Erika S Rubenson, Julian D Olden
Studying the dynamics of species' borders can provide insight into the mechanisms limiting or promoting range expansion in response to environmental change. In the John Day River, Oregon (USA), rising stream temperatures are facilitating the upstream expansion of invasive smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu. Here, where smallmouth bass occupy the upstream limit of its thermal tolerance, we explore population structure and seasonal movement patterns to elucidate the environmental conditions and individual traits that define front edge (where individuals reside year-round) and leading edge (where individuals colonize, but may not establish) limits to its upstream distribution...
May 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528092/structural-strength-analysis-of-amorphous-trehalose-maltodextrin-systems
#14
V A Maidannyk, B Nurhadi, Y H Roos
Fundamental knowledge of physical state of materials gives practically important information for food, biological and pharmaceutical industry. Based on Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation, the strength concept was introduced. This concept provides a simple parameter, S, to express resistance of solids to flow above the glass transition temperature. To develop this approach, miscible trehalose-maltodextrin (0:100; 20:80; 40:60; 60:40; 80:20 and 100:0) systems with different ratios of components were used in the present study...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527965/perfusion-index-an-indicator-of-success-during-endoscopic-thoracic-sympathectomy-for-hyperhidrosis
#15
Eric I-Hun Jeng, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Charles T Klodell
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is indicated for refractory hyperhidrosis. The pulse oximetry-derived perfusion index (PI) quantifies pulsatile blood flow at the oximeter. Thoracic sympathectomy increases blood flow; thus we postulate it will reliably increase PI. We evaluated the ipsilateral finger PI as a predictor of successful sympathectomy during ETS. METHODS: After institutional review board approval and informed consent, 100 adult patients undergoing bilateral ETS were studied...
May 17, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527154/structure-based-classification-for-bile-salt-export-pump-bsep-inhibitors-using-comparative-structural-modeling-of-human-bsep
#16
Sankalp Jain, Melanie Grandits, Lars Richter, Gerhard F Ecker
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) actively transports conjugated monovalent bile acids from the hepatocytes into the bile. This facilitates the formation of micelles and promotes digestion and absorption of dietary fat. Inhibition of BSEP leads to decreased bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile salts in the liver. A number of compounds have been identified to interact with BSEP, which results in drug-induced cholestasis or liver injury. Therefore, in silico approaches for flagging compounds as potential BSEP inhibitors would be of high value in the early stage of the drug discovery pipeline...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526686/amazon-river-dolphins-inia-geoffrensis-modify-biosonar-output-level-and-directivity-during-prey-interception-in-the-wild
#17
Michael Ladegaard, Frants Havmand Jensen, Kristian Beedholm, Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Toothed whales have evolved to live in extremely different habitats and yet they all rely strongly on echolocation for finding and catching prey. Such biosonar based foraging involves distinct phases of searching for, approaching, and capturing prey, where echolocating animals gradually adjust sonar output to actively shape the flow of sensory information. Measuring those outputs in absolute levels requires hydrophone arrays centred on the biosonar beam axis, but this has never been done for wild toothed whales approaching and capturing prey...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#18
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526354/outline-of-a-unified-darwinian-evolutionary-theory-for-physical-and-biological-systems
#19
REVIEW
Carlos Baladrón, Andrei Khrennikov
The scheme of a unified Darwinian evolutionary theory for physical and biological systems is described. Every physical system is methodologically endowed with a classical information processor what turns every system into an agent being also susceptible to evolution. Biological systems retain this structure as natural extensions of physical systems from which they are built up. Optimization of information flows turns out to be the key element to study the possible emergence of quantum behavior and the unified Darwinian description of physical and biological systems...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524252/in-vivo-noninvasive-analysis-of-graphene-nanomaterial-pharmacokinetics-using-photoacoustic-flow-cytometry
#20
Dmitry A Nedosekin, Jacqueline Nolan, Chengzhong Cai, Shawn E Bourdo, Zeid Nima, Alexandru S Biris, Vladimir P Zharov
Graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) are quickly revolutionizing modern electronics, energy generation and storage, clothing and biomedical devices. Due to GBN's variety of physical and chemical parameters that define their toxicity and their aggregation in suspension, interpreting its toxicology without accurate information on graphene's distribution and behavior in live organisms is challenging. In this work, we present a laser-based optical detection methodology for noninvasive detection and pharmacokinetics analysis of GBNs directly in blood flow in mice using in vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC)...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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