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pneumonia pediatric

Jerold Jeyaratnam, Nienke M Ter Haar, Helen J Lachmann, Ozgur Kasapcopur, Amanda K Ombrello, Donato Rigante, Fatma Dedeoglu, Ezgi H Baris, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat, Joost Frenkel
BACKGROUND: Withholding live-attenuated vaccines in patients using interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 blocking agents is recommended by guidelines for both pediatric and adult rheumatic diseases, since there is a risk of infection in an immune suppressed host. However, this has never been studied. This retrospective, multicenter survey aimed to evaluate the safety of live-attenuated vaccines in patients using IL-1 or IL-6 blockade. METHODS: We contacted physicians involved in the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases to investigate potential cases...
March 21, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Zehuai Wen, Jia Wei, Huiling Xue, Yunqin Chen, David Melnick, Jesus Gonzalez, Judith Hackett, Xiaoyan Li, Zhaolong Cao
Background: The etiology, epidemiology, treatment patterns, and clinical outcomes of neonatal and pediatric pneumonia patients in China are not well reported. This retrospective chart review study aimed to describe such information among neonatal (0 to 27 days) and pediatric (28 days to <18 years) pneumonia patients in two regions of China. Methods: Electronic medical records of pneumonia hospitalizations (aged <18 years) admitted between 2008 and 2013 from four hospitals under Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine (Southern China) and between 2010 and 2014 at Peking University People's Hospital (Beijing, Northern China) were reviewed...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Xingyu Zhang, Di Chen, Guifeng Xu, Weichun Huang, Xing Wang
Infection by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is a public health challenge worldwide, in particular among children, which was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There was limited data in pediatric populations, thus this study aimed to investigate molecular epidemiology and drug resistant mechanism of CR-KP strains from pediatric patients in Shanghai, China. A total of 41 clinical CR-KP isolates from sputum, urine, blood or drainage fluid were collected between July 2014 and May 2015 in Shanghai Children's Medical Center...
2018: PloS One
Yusuke Okubo, Nobuaki Michihata, Naho Morisaki, Kazuhiro Uda, Isao Miyairi, Yuichi Ogawa, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia/bronchitis in children, and macrolide-resistant strains are increasing in East Asian countries. Recent practice patterns, especially for antibiotic selection, and benefits of corticosteroid treatment in pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections remain unclear. METHODS: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database, we analyzed recent trends in antibiotic selection and corticosteroid use for pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related respiratory infections, using multivariable mixed effects logistic regressions...
March 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Ashley Gionfriddo, Mika L Nonoyama, Peter C Laussen, Peter N Cox, Megan Clarke, Alejandro A Floh
OBJECTIVES: To promote standardization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention introduced a new ventilator-associated pneumonia classification, which was modified for pediatrics (pediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia according to proposed criteria [PVAP]). We evaluated the frequency of PVAP in a cohort of children diagnosed with ventilator-associated pneumonia according to traditional criteria and compared their strength of association with clinically relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Xiangpeng Chen, Baoping Xu, Jiayun Guo, Changchong Li, Shuhua An, Yunlian Zhou, Aihuan Chen, Li Deng, Zhou Fu, Yun Zhu, Chunyan Liu, Lili Xu, Wei Wang, Kunling Shen, Zhengde Xie
To identify the variations in fusion (F) protein gene of RSV in China, a molecular epidemiological study was conducted. A total of 553 RSV positive specimens were collected from 2338 pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia during a multi-center study conducted during 2014-2016. A total of 252 samples (183 RSV A, 69 RSV B) were selected for F gene sequencing, and analyzed together with 142 F gene sequences downloaded from GenBank. The result showed that all the Chinese RSV A and RSV B strains could be divided respectively into three branches...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Muhammet Furkan Korkmaz, Ahmet Güzel, Mehmet Açıkgöz, Ali Okuyucu, Hasan Alaçam
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Therefore, it is very important for clinicians to detect the presence and severity of pneumonia. Proadrenomedullin (Pro-ADM) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are thought to have potential for CAP evaluation in children. We sought to investigate the value of Pro-ADM and IL-1β levels for severity assessment and outcome prediction in children with CAP...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
Marcelo Land, Paula Maia, Maria de Fátima March, Alvaro Ferreira, Clemax Sant Anna
This study evaluated admissions with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with pleural effusion (PE) in a pediatric university hospital and the impact of the increased average municipal human development index (M-HDI) in the local incidence of the disease in the last decade. METHODS: This is a retrospective longitudinal study of patients (0 to 13 years old) with CAP. The M-DHI of the place of residence of patients was obtained. We calculate the crude odds ratios (OR) of variables related to risk of developing PE...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Michael C Tracy, Roshni Mathew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to provide clinicians engaged in the care of infants and children an update on the current understanding of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic evaluation, and clinical management of complicated pneumonia. The review provides timely information surrounding areas of consensus and ongoing research. RECENT FINDINGS: The epidemiology and etiologies of complicated pneumonia continue to evolve over the past several decades in context of the introduction of new vaccines...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Anıl Er, Aykut Çağlar, Fatma Akgül, Emel Ulusoy, Hale Çitlenbik, Durgül Yılmaz, Murat Duman
AIM: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a new treatment option for pediatric respiratory distress and we aimed to assess early predictive factors of unresponsiveness to HFNC therapy in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHOD: Patients who presented with respiratory distress and were treated by HFNC, were included. The age, gender, weight, medical history, diagnosis, vital signs, oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2 ) ratio, modified Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (mRDAI) scores, medical interventions, duration of HFNC therapy, time to escalation, adverse effects, and laboratory test results were obtained from medical and nursing records...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Miriam Steinberg, Joseph P Gaut, Stanley Paul Hmiel, Aadil Kakajiwala
Monoclonal gammopathies are a rare diagnosis in pediatric patients. A 19-year-old female patient with past medical history of hypogammaglobulinemia and natural killer cell deficiency and stage III follicular lymphoma, in remission, presented with a right-sided pneumonia, noted to have acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Complement C3 and C4 levels were normal. Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen antibodies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Lisa Frigati, Moherdran Archary, Helena Rabie, Martina Penazzato, Nathan Ford
Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. In contrast to adults with advanced HIV disease, cryptococcal disease is not common in childhood, although there is a peak in infancy and adolescence. Interventions such as TB screening in symptomatic children, and isoniazid and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis should be implemented...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Corrie E McDaniel, Wren Haaland, Joshua Parlaman, Chuan Zhou, Arti D Desai
OBJECTIVES: The majority of children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are primarily evaluated in community hospital emergency departments (EDs); however, studies on the management of pediatric CAP have largely targeted care provided in free-standing children's hospital EDs or inpatient settings. The objectives of this study were to examine whether implementation of a CAP pathway within three community hospital EDs and inpatient units improved process measures related to appropriate laboratory testing and antibiotic prescribing, and to compare performance on these measures between the community hospitals and a free-standing children's hospital...
March 7, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Tahereh Haji, Adam Byrne, Tom Kovesi
Following the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7), while overall rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia in children declined, rates of empyema increased. We examined changes in the incidence of hospitalization for pediatric complicated pneumonia (PCOMP) in Eastern Ontario, Canada, particularly since the introduction of the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13). A retrospective chart review was carried out evaluating previously healthy children admitted with PCOMP, which included empyema, parapneumonic effusion, necrotizing pneumonia, and lung abscess between 2002 and 2015...
March 3, 2018: Children
Wei Li, Xianfen Cheng, Linying Guo, Hongri Li, Chunrong Sun, Xiaodai Cui, Qi Zhang, Guowei Song
We assessed the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children.This observational study examined children aged 3 days to 14 years (n = 1582) from the Capital Institute of Pediatrics in 2009 to 2011. There were 797 children in the CAP group and 785 controls. The CAP group was divided into 2 groups: a pneumonia group and pneumonia-induced sepsis group. The serum 25(OH)D level was estimated using micro whole blood chemiluminescence...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiangxiang Shi, Jun Zheng, Tingting Yan
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Here, the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein epitope FFL was redesigned based on its complex crystal structure with motavizumab, an mAb drug in development for the prevention of RSV infections, aiming to obtain therapeutic peptide vaccines with high affinity to induce RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Computational modeling and analysis found that only a small region covering the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of FFL can directly interact with motavizumab and confer stability and specificity to the complex system, while the rest of the epitope primarily serves as a structural scaffold that stabilizes the HTH conformation of motavizumab-binding site...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Wenti Xu, Liru Guo, Xiaochun Dong, Xiaoxia Li, Penghui Zhou, Qiang Ni, Xinying Zhou, Abram L Wagner, Lin Li
Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) occupies a huge disease and economic burden in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of different infectious etiologies among hospitalized patients with SARI in Tianjin, China, from 2015-2016. SARI patients' basic information was collected, along with a throat or serum sample. Nine viruses were detected by RT-PCR, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by the serodia Myco II gelatin particle agglutination test. 585 specimens from 2290 SARI cases were collected...
February 28, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Daniele Donà, Silvia Zingarella, Andrea Gastaldi, Rebecca Lundin, Giorgio Perilongo, Anna Chiara Frigo, Rana F Hamdy, Theoklis Zaoutis, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
BACKGROUND: Italian pediatric antimicrobial prescription rates are among the highest in Europe. As a first step in an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program, we implemented a Clinical Pathway (CP) for Community Acquired Pneumonia with the aim of decreasing overall prescription of antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CP was implemented on 10/01/2015. We collected antibiotic prescribing and outcomes data from children aged 3 months-15 years diagnosed with CAP from 10/15/2014 to 04/15/2015 (pre-intervention period) and from 10/15/2015 to 04/15/2016 (post-intervention period)...
2018: PloS One
M Paz Acuña, Marcela Cifuentes, Francisco Silva, Álvaro Rojas, Jaime Cerda, Jaime Labarca
INTRODUCTION: Incidence of multi-resistant bacteria is an indicator that permits better estimation of the magnitude of bacterial resistance in hospitals. AIM: To evaluate the incidence of relevant multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units (ICUs) of Chile. METHODS: Participating hospitals submitted information about the number of isolates from infected or colonized patients with 7 epidemiologically relevant multi-resistant bacteria in adult and pediatric ICUs between January 1, 2014 and October 31, 2015 and the number of bed days occupied in these units in the same period was requested...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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