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pneumonia pediatric

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777269/pediatric-appendicitis-severity-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#1
Matthew C Hernandez, Victor Y Kong, John L Bruce, Johnathon M Aho, Grant L Laing, Martin D Zielinski, Damian L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a common pediatric surgical emergency; however, there are few grading systems to assign disease severity. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) recently developed a grading system for a variety of emergency surgical conditions, including appendicitis. The severity of acute appendicitis in younger patients in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) is unknown. We aimed to describe the disease severity in this patient population using the AAST grading system hypothesizing that the AAST grade would correlate with morbidity, management type, and duration of stay...
May 17, 2018: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774893/prevalence-and-antimicrobial-sensitivity-pattern-of-urinary-tract-infection-among-children-with-cerebral-palsy-moshi-tanzania
#2
Amon Ryakitimbo, Rune Philemon, Festo Mazuguni, Levina Msuya
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenging yet common clinical condition. Children with CP bare the greatest risk of contracting UTI because of their difficulties in neuromotor control which lead to delay of bladder control, causing incomplete bladder emptying and urine retention. Method: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted from September 2016 to March 2017 at Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania - Moshi and Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre Neurological Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771625/a-multifaceted-approach-to-rsv-vaccination
#3
Jorge C G Blanco, Marina S Boukhvalova, Trudy G Morrison, Stefanie N Vogel
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of pneumonia and bronchiolitis in infants, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, RSV infections occur throughout different ages, thus, maintaining the virus in circulation, and increasing health risk to more susceptible populations such as infants, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. To date, there is no vaccine approved to prevent RSV infection or minimize symptoms of infection. Current clinical trials for vaccines against RSV are being carried out in four very different populations...
May 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768293/seasonality-of-common-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#4
Susan C Lipsett, Michael C Monuteaux, Andrew M Fine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional sources cite seasonal patterns for common infectious diseases, often based on microbiologic data, but little is known about cyclical trends in clinically diagnosed infectious conditions in the emergency department (ED). We leveraged the publicly available Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to measure the seasonality of the most common pediatric infectious diseases diagnosed in US EDs. METHODS: We searched the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database to identify infectious diagnoses comprising at least 1% of all diagnosis codes ascribed to patients 21 years and younger in US EDs from 2009 to 2013...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765367/detection-of-bacteriophage-particles-containing-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-the-sputum-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#5
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761739/efficacy-safety-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-receiving-subcutaneous-igg-treatment-experience-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia
#6
María Claudia Ortega-López, Javier Garay, Mónica León Pinilla
AIM: Investigate efficacy, safety and quality of life of gammanorm® 16.5% (subcutaneous immunoglobulin [SCIG]) in patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and safety and to lesser extent efficacy in autoimmune diseases. PATIENTS & METHODS: Medical records were extracted from 31 pediatric and 12 adult patients who received SCIG as part of the Personalized Program at University Children's Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia. RESULTS: Mean SCIG dose was 28...
May 15, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759424/lung-ultrasound-findings-undetectable-by-chest-radiography-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#7
Giulio Iorio, Maria Capasso, Salvatore Prisco, Giuseppe De Luca, Carlo Mancusi, Bruno Laganà, Maria Antonietta Piscopo, Vincenzo Comune
The purpose of our study was to evaluate any differences between lung ultrasonography and chest radiography (CR) images in children with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and, if there are any, to analyze the reasons and possible clinical implications. We reviewed the medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric ward from January 2014 to December 2016 and selected only cases discharged with a diagnosis of CAP who had undergone performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and CR within 24 h of each other...
May 11, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756723/-pleuropulmonary-blastoma-case-report
#8
Jenny C Salazar, Manuel Pardo, Víctor M Mora-Bautista
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma corresponds to a malignant primary lung disorder, exclusive of pediatric age, infrequent and of aggressive characteristics. Age on diagnosis is 1 month-12 years. Rates per sex are equal. It can be found inside pleura or lungs. Respiratory distress associated or not with pneumothorax, chest pain and fever are classical clinical signs. These symptoms could be misdiagnosed as pneumonia. Radiologically, a large mass near the pleura at the base of the right lung without air bronchogram is its most common form...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756701/prevalence-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-pediatric-patients-with-acute-asthma-exacerbation
#9
Elías Kassisse, Hecmary García, Linair Prada, Ixora Salazar, Jorge Kassisse
INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma pneumoniae may be involved in refractory asthma exacerbation. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in patients with acute asthma exacerbation. Material and method. A prospective, crosssectional, observational, case-control study was carried out in patients older than 2 years old and younger than 12. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were serologically determined for M. pneumoniae, using the NovaLisa® NovaTec kit for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751747/a-fatal-case-associated-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-a-young-child
#10
Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao, Jiansheng Zeng, Jun Liu, Cong Lu, Xiaolei Guan, Suyun Qian, Zhengde Xie
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral cause of pediatric bronchiolitis and pneumonia worldwide. Risk factors for high mortality and prolonged morbidity after RSV infection include premature birth, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital heart disease, and Down syndrome. However, some previously healthy, full-term children who are infected with RSV also require hospitalization and even experience severe sequelae or death. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we present the case of an RSV-associated death of a child who was born at full-term and developed normally up to the age of 2 years old...
May 11, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748840/clinical-patterns-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producers-a-prospective-hospital-case-control-study
#11
Basima A Almomani, Wail A Hayajneh, Abeer M Ayoub, Mera A Ababneh, Miral A Al Momani
PURPOSE: To assess incidence rate, risk factors and susceptibility patterns associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae in community-acquired urinary tract infections (CA-UTIs). METHODS: A prospective, case-control study was conducted at a tertiary teaching hospital from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016. The results of microbiology cultures were initially screened to include only patients with positive E. coli or K...
May 10, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748750/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-associated-with-distinct-radiographic-presentations
#12
Oana G Falup-Pecurariu, Javier Diez-Domingo, Susanna Esposito, Adam Finn, Fernanda Rodrigues, Vana Spoulou, George A Syrogiannopoulos, Vytautas Usonis, David Greenberg
Chest radiographs from children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were categorized into three distinct presentations and each presentation was correlated to clinical and laboratory findings. Children < 59 months with CAP presenting to pediatric emergency rooms during two years were enrolled prospectively in eight centers across Europe. Clinical and laboratory data were documented and radiographs obtained from patients. Of the 1107 enrolled patients, radiographs were characterized as 74.9% alveolar CAP, 8...
May 11, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746377/risk-factors-for-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-children-hospitalized-with-cap-younger-than-5-years-of-age
#13
Wei Shan, Ting Shi, Kaile Chen, Jian Xue, Yin Wang, Jia Yu, Genming Zhao, Jianmei Tian, Tao Zhang
BACKGROUND: CAP causes great morbidity and mortality as well as enormous economic burden worldwide. This study intended to describe the clinical characteristics of CAP and explore the risk factors of severe CAP among children in downtown Suzhou, China. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of childhood hospitalizations in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014. Children who were residents of downtown Suzhou, 29 days to <5 years of age, with discharge diagnosis codes (ICD-10) J09 to J18 and J20 to J22 were included...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745619/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-first-french-study
#14
Guillaume Geslain, Isabelle Guellec, Romain Guedj, Julia Guilbert, Sandrine Jean, Cécile Valentin, Maryne Demoulin, Yohann Soreze, Ricardo Carbajal, Pierre-Louis Leger, Jerome Rambaud
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a severe intensive complication and remains under estimated in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Center for Disease Control defined criteria for adults and pediatrics without neonatal criteria. The objective of this article was to evaluate the rate, the risks factors and the outcome of neonates suffering from ventilator-associated pneumonia in a French NICU. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study within a one-year period in our NICU...
May 9, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741740/human-coronavirus-nl63-molecular-epidemiology-and-evolutionary-patterns-in-rural-coastal-kenya
#15
Patience K Kiyuka, Charles N Agoti, Patrick K Munywoki, Regina Njeru, Anne Bett, James R Otieno, Grieven P Otieno, Everlyn Kamau, Taane G Clark, Lia van der Hoek, Paul Kellam, D James Nokes, Matthew Cotten
Background: Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a globally endemic pathogen causing mild and severe respiratory tract infections with reinfections occurring repeatedly throughout a lifetime. Methods: Nasal samples were collected in coastal Kenya through community-based and hospital-based surveillance. HCoV-NL63 was detected with multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR, and positive samples were targeted for nucleotide sequencing of the spike (S) protein...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738037/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-infants
#16
Denise Swei Lo, Larissa Rodrigues, Vera Hermina Kalika Koch, Alfredo Elias Gilio
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in young infants. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical, demographic and laboratory features of UTI in infants ≤ 3 months old. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 3 months old with UTI diagnosed in a pediatric emergency department, for the period 2010-2012. UTI was defined as ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen isolated from bladder catheterization...
April 26, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733508/fast-rapid-determinations-of-antibiotic-susceptibility-phenotypes-using-label-free-cytometry
#17
Tzu-Hsueh Huang, Yih-Ling Tzeng, Robert M Dickson
Sepsis, a life-threatening immune response to blood infections (bacteremia), has a ∼30% mortality rate and is the 10th leading cause of US hospital deaths. The typical bacterial loads in adult septic patients are ≤100 bacterial cells (colony forming units, CFU) per ml blood, while pediatric patients exhibit only ∼1000 CFU/ml. Due to the low numbers, bacteria must be propagated through ∼24-hours blood cultures to generate sufficient CFUs for diagnosis and further analyses. Herein, we demonstrate that, unlike other rapid post-blood culture antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs), our phenotypic approach can drastically accelerate ASTs for the most common sepsis-causing gram-negative pathogens by circumventing long blood culture-based amplification...
May 7, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728106/human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-hospitalization-in-young-children-in-italy
#18
Parvanè Kuhdari, Federica Brosio, Cristina Malaventura, Armando Stefanati, Andrea Orsi, Giancarlo Icardi, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is ubiquitous and causes respiratory diseases in both children and adults. Worldwide, hRSV pneumonia is the second cause of postnatal infant death after malaria. Given the high impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and costs, especially in the pediatric population, hRSV is recognized as a global health problem and the WHO, in view of the availability of new vaccines, has urged an active surveillance program of virus-related infections...
May 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724746/a-descriptive-study-of-chlorhexidine-as-a-disinfectant-in-cleft-palate-surgery
#19
Gieljam Johannes Roode, Kurt-Wilhelm Bütow
OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine is seen as the golden standard of disinfectants. It is widely used to clean surgical sites. Many articles indicate resistance of pathogens to chlorhexidine. One study indicated that pathogenic micro-organisms were isolated from the soft palate cleft region in 57% of patients with facial clefts. The objective was to determine if chlorhexidine application is effective in removing pathogens from the surgical site in these patients. Secondly, if any pathogens were isolated, are they resistant to any other antimicrobials...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Medicine & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720921/disulfiram-like-reaction-involving-ceftriaxone-in-a-pediatric-patient
#20
Stephen M Small, Rachel S Bacher, Sheridan A Jost
Several medications have been shown to cause disulfiram-like reactions in patients concomitantly exposed to ethanol, including specific cephalosporin antibiotics that possess a methylthiotetrazole substituent. Within the cephalosporin class, there are few reports of disulfiram-like reactions with ceftriaxone. This case report is the first to involve a pediatric patient, and it describes a mild but likely disulfiram-like reaction manifesting as facial flushing in an 8-year-old male upon receiving a ceftriaxone infusion preceded by a dose of prednisolone elixir (5% ethanol by volume) for presumed community-acquired pneumonia thought to be complicated by an asthma exacerbation...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
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