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Severe major depressive disorder

Alexander J Steiner, Nathalie Boulos, James Mirocha, Stephanie M Wright, Katherine L Collison, Waguih W IsHak
OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) often have high comorbidity, consequently influencing patient-reported outcomes of depressive symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), and functioning. We hypothesized that the combined effects of concurrent PTSD and MDD would result in worse treatment outcomes, whereas individuals who achieved MDD remission would have better treatment outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed 2280 adult participants who received level 1 treatment (citalopram monotherapy) in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study, including 2158 participants with MDD without comorbid PTSD and 122 participants with MDD with comorbid PTSD (MDD + PTSD)...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Itai Danovitch, Alexander Joseph Steiner, Anna Kazdan, Matthew Goldenberg, Margaret Haglund, James Mirocha, Katherine Collison, Brigitte Vanle, Jonathan Dang, Waguih William IsHak
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are common among persons with major depressive disorder (MDD) and have an adverse impact on course of illness and patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether AUD adversely impacted patient-centered outcomes in a sample of research subjects evaluated as part of a large clinical trial for depression. The outcomes of interest to this post hoc analysis are quality of life (QOL), functioning, and depressive symptom severity. METHODS: We analyzed 2280 adult MDD outpatient research subjects using data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression trial...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
M J J Kunst, M Van de Wiel
The current study investigated whether mental health practitioners are influenced by the narrative fallacy when assessing the psychological injuries of trauma victims. The narrative fallacy is associated with our tendency to establish logical links between different facts. In psychodiagnostic assessments, this tendency may result in overdiagnosis of mental disorders when psychological symptoms can be attributed to a traumatic event. Consequently, legal decision makers may be at risk of awarding compensation for psychological injuries which are not severe enough to justify financial reimbursement...
2016: Psychological Injury and Law
Alonso Montoya, Jeremie Lebrec, Karen Mary Keane, Irene Fregenal, Antonio Ciudad, Ángel Moríñigo, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Irene Romera, Inmaculada Gilaberte, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Goals of treating major depressive disorder (MDD) include achieving remission and avoiding relapse. It is possible that patients may have a broader view of remission than what is captured via clinician-rated scales. This patient perspective may, in turn, have an impact on treatment outcomes. METHODS: The association between a broader conceptualization of remission, based on the Remission from Depression Questionnaire (RDQ) score at baseline, and being in symptomatic remission after 6 months was evaluated in subjects (N = 613) with MDD in symptomatic remission at baseline (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAMD-17] ≤7)...
October 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Giulio Perugi, Pierpaolo Medd, Pierpaolo Medd, Cristina Toni, Michela Giorgi Mariani, Chiara Socci, Mauro Mauri
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effectiveness of Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) in the treatment of Bipolar Disorder (BD) in a large sample of bipolar patients with drug resistant depression, mania, mixed state and catatonic features. METHOD: 522 consecutive patients with DSM-IV-TR BD were evaluated prior to and after the ECT course. Responders and nonresponders were compared in subsamples of depressed and mixed patients. Descriptive analyses were reported for patients with mania and with catatonic features...
October 17, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Virgil Radu Enatescu, Ion Papava, Ileana Enatescu, Mirela Antonescu, Andrei Anghel, Edward Seclaman, Ioan Ovidiu Sirbu, Catalin Marian
OBJECTIVE: Significant progress was made in the understanding etiopathogenic factors related to MDD, including through research on the role of micro RNAs (miRs). We investigated plasma miRs as potential markers for MDD in patients treated with antidepressants. METHODS: At the initiation and at the end of twelve weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected and a structured diagnostic interview and a standardized depression rating scale for the presence and severity of major depression were done...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Rui Zhang, Yan Bi, Weibo Niu, Xiaoye Huang, Shiqing Chen, Xingwang Li, Xi Wu, Yanfei Cao, Fengping Yang, Lu Wang, Weidong Li, Yifeng Xu, Lin He, Tao Yu, Guang He
Schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are two common severe mental disorders that have arisen to public awareness in recent years. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders especially in MDD and SZ. The aim of this study is to explore whether the variants in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A gene are susceptible to SZ or MDD in the Chinese Han population. Five SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) (rs1364043, rs10042486, rs6313, rs6311, rs17289304) in these genes were genotyped from 752 SZ patients, 568 MDD patients, and 846 normal controls of Chinese Han origin...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Peter Lam, Susan Lucak, Hanga Galfalvy, Elizabeth Jackson, Jane Fried, Melissa Rosario, Ana Alicia de la Cruz, Arturo Sánchez-Lacay, Samantha Díaz, Franklin Schneier
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently co-occur, yet treating their comorbid presentation is challenging. Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants are efficacious for IBS, but higher doses to treat depressive symptoms present tolerability problems, whereas selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are more tolerable but show inconsistent efficacy for IBS. If efficacious, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors like duloxetine would provide a useful alternative. We explored efficacy, tolerability, and time to onset of action of duloxetine in comorbid IBS-MDD in an open-label, 12-week trial...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
A Rumshisky, M Ghassemi, T Naumann, P Szolovits, V M Castro, T H McCoy, R H Perlis
The ability to predict psychiatric readmission would facilitate the development of interventions to reduce this risk, a major driver of psychiatric health-care costs. The symptoms or characteristics of illness course necessary to develop reliable predictors are not available in coded billing data, but may be present in narrative electronic health record (EHR) discharge summaries. We identified a cohort of individuals admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit between 1994 and 2012 with a principal diagnosis of major depressive disorder, and extracted inpatient psychiatric discharge narrative notes...
October 18, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Francine Marques, Nina Eikelis, Richard Bayles, Nora Straznicky, Dagmara Hering, Murray Esler, Geoffrey Head, Markus Schlaich, Gavin Lambert
OBJECTIVE: Noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves is removed from the neuroeffector junction via the action of the noradrenaline transporter (NET). NET impairment is evident in several clinically important conditions including essential hypertension, major depressive disorder, panic disorder and the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Only in rare instances, however, do coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to account for a defect in NET. The aim of this study was to determine whether rs7194256 (C/T), a SNP in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the NET gene, is associated with diseases associated with NET dysfunction, and to elucidate the mechanism involved...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kyu-Man Han, Daseul Kim, Youngbo Sim, June Kang, Aram Kim, Eunsoo Won, Woo-Suk Tae, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Morphologic changes of the brainstem in major depressive disorder (MDD) have rarely been reported in neuroimaging studies, even though, monoaminergic neurotransmitters are synthesized in several brainstem regions. We aimed to investigate volume changes in each region of the brainstem and their association with antidepressant use or the remission status of MDD. METHODS: A total of 126 patients with MDD and 101 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
K W Miskowiak, C V Ott, J Z Petersen, L V Kessing
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) but treatments targeting cognition are lacking. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies have investigated potential cognition treatments, but overall the evidence is conflicting. We conducted a systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines on PubMed and PsychInfo to evaluate the extant evidence and methodological challenges in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological and behavioural candidate treatments targeting cognition in MDD...
October 13, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Ranran Li, Renrong Wu, Jun Chen, David E Kemp, Ming Ren, Carla Conroy, Philip Chan, Mary Beth Serrano, Stephen J Ganocy, Joseph R Calabrese, Keming Gao
OBJECTIVES: To pilot efficacy and safety data of quetiapine-XR monotherapy or adjunctive therapy to antidepressant(s) in the acute treatment of MDD with current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to ascertain the diagnosis of DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to quetiapine-XR or placebo for up to 8 weeks. Changes from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S), Quick Inventory of Depression Symptomatology-16 items Self-Report (QIDS-16-SR) total scores, and other outcome measures were analyzed with the last observation carried forward strategy and/or mixed-effects modeling for repeated measures...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
David Mischoulon, Lindsay Hylek, Albert S Yeung, Alisabet J Clain, Lee Baer, Cristina Cusin, Dawn Flosnik Ionescu, Jonathan E Alpert, David P Soskin, Maurizio Fava
BACKGROUND: Given the proposed dopaminergic mechanism of low-dose naltrexone (LDN), we examined its efficacy as augmentation for depressive breakthrough on pro-dopaminergic antidepressant regimens. METHODS: 12 adults (67% female, mean age = 45±12) with recurrent DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) on dopaminergic antidepressant regimens (stimulants, dopamine agonists, bupropion [≥300mg/day], aripiprazole [≤2.5mg/day], or sertraline [≥150mg/day]) were randomized to naltrexone 1mg b...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kelly E Gill, Stephanie A Cardenas, Layla Kassem, Thomas G Schulze, Francis J McMahon
BACKGROUND: Anabaptists comprise large and growing Amish and Mennonite populations with a unique genetic heritage and cultural background. Little is known about the symptoms and course of major mood disorders in Anabaptists. Even less is known about the impact of potential moderators on symptom severity and course. METHODS: A sample of Amish and Mennonite participants with bipolar, recurrent unipolar, or schizoaffective bipolar disorder (n = 155) were systematically evaluated with a well-validated instrument...
December 2016: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Seon-Kyeong Jang, Sujin Kim, Chai-Youn Kim, Hyeon-Seung Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
Severe emotional disturbances such as anxiety and depression have been closely related to aberrant attentional processing of emotional stimuli. However, this has been little studied in schizophrenia, which is also characterized by marked emotional impairments such as heightened negative affect and anhedonia. In the current study, we investigated temporal dynamics of motivated attention to emotional stimuli in schizophrenia. For this purpose, we tracked eye movements of 22 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (ISZs) and 19 healthy controls (HCs) to emotional (i...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Linda S Beeber, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Maria Martinez, Yui Matsuda, Anne C Wheeler, Marcia Mandel, Dore LaForett, Julee Waldrop
Objective A higher rate of depressive symptoms is found among mothers of children with disabilities compared to other parents. However, there is a lack of study of mothers with children <3 years of age participating in Early Intervention (EI) programs. This study aims to more fully describe the extent of mood disorders in these mothers including estimated prevalence, severity and factors associated with maternal mental health, using gold standard clinical diagnostic and symptom measures, and test models associating depressive symptoms with contextual factors and child behavior...
October 12, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Christina Pechmann, Franz Petermann, Sören Schmidt, Dennis Nitkowski, Anke Köbach, Martina Ruf, Thomas Elbert
The Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is still practiced in many countries and mainly performed for traditional reasons. In this study, the relationship of the FGM type (type I and type III) with anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder as well as the attitude toward FGM was analyzed. For this purpose the data of N=109 of FGM type I and III affected women from Ethiopia were collected. Analyses show moderation effects. It was found that the symptoms of depression and PTSD were less pronounced with a positive attitude towards the FGM in the sample of severely mutilated women (type III)...
October 11, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
M Fujita, E M Richards, M J Niciu, D F Ionescu, S S Zoghbi, J Hong, S Telu, C S Hines, V W Pike, C A Zarate, R B Innis
Basic studies exploring the importance of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) cascade in major depressive disorder (MDD) have noted that the cAMP cascade is downregulated in MDD and upregulated by antidepressant treatment. We investigated cAMP cascade activity by using (11)C-(R)-rolipram to image phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in unmedicated MDD patients and after ~8 weeks of treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (11)C-(R)-rolipram positron emission tomographic (PET) scans were performed in 44 unmedicated patients during a major depressive episode and 35 healthy controls...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
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