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Refractory major depression

Barış Akdemir, David G Benditt
The vagus nerve is a major component of the autonomic nervous system and plays a critical role in many body functions including for example, speech, swallowing, heart rate and respiratory control, gastric secretion, and intestinal motility. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) refers to any technique that stimulates the vagus nerve, with electrical stimulation being the most important. Implantable devices for VNS are approved therapy for refractory epilepsy and for treatment-resistant depression. In the case of heart disease applications, implantable VNS has been shown to be beneficial for treating heart failure in both preclinical and clinical studies...
October 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Ram S Mahato, Maria Chona P San Gabriel, Carrol T Longshore, David B Schnur
Body dysmorphic disorder is a common, often disabling condition, and is frequently comorbid with major depressive disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors constitute first line set of somatic interventions but the management of refractory patients remains challenging. Electroconvulsive therapy, an often highly beneficial treatment for medication resistant-depression, is not considered an effective therapeutic alternative for treatment refractory body dysmorphic disorder. Here we present a 50-year-old woman with body dysmorphic disorder and comorbid major depressive disorder who remained incapacitated and suicidal despite several trials with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotic medication...
July 2016: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
D M Rotroff, D G Corum, A Motsinger-Reif, O Fiehn, N Bottrel, W C Drevets, J Singh, G Salvadore, R Kaddurah-Daouk
Ketamine, at sub-anesthetic doses, is reported to rapidly decrease depression symptoms in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Many patients do not respond to currently available antidepressants, (for example, serotonin reuptake inhibitors), making ketamine and its enantiomer, esketamine, potentially attractive options for treatment-resistant MDD. Although mechanisms by which ketamine/esketamine may produce antidepressant effects have been hypothesized on the basis of preclinical data, the neurobiological correlates of the rapid therapeutic response observed in patients receiving treatment have not been established...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Garima Shukla, Priya Agarwal, Rajesh Sagar, Mamta Sood, Aditya Gupta, Ashish Suri, Ajay Garg
Surgery is an established and increasingly utilized treatment option in medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Many psychiatric problems are known to complicate in the postoperative period. Most studies have a follow-up period of less than 24 months. We report the cases of three patients who developed severe psychiatric problems in the late postoperative period after successful temporal lobectomy for refractory epilepsy - Psychosis, major depression with psychosis, and severe anxiety disorder, respectively...
July 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Lisa A Pan, Petra Martin, Thomas Zimmer, Anna Maria Segreti, Sivan Kassiff, Brian W McKain, Cynthia A Baca, Manivel Rengasamy, Keith Hyland, Nicolette Walano, Robert Steinfeld, Marion Hughes, Steven K Dobrowolski, Michele Pasquino, Rasim Diler, James Perel, David N Finegold, David G Peters, Robert K Naviaux, David A Brent, Jerry Vockley
OBJECTIVE: Treatment-refractory depression is a devastating condition with significant morbidity, mortality, and societal cost. At least 15% of cases of major depressive disorder remain refractory to treatment. The authors previously identified a young adult with treatment-refractory depression and multiple suicide attempts with an associated severe deficiency of CSF tetrahydrobiopterin, a critical cofactor for monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis. Treatment with sapropterin, a tetrahydrobiopterin analogue, led to dramatic and long-lasting remission of depression...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kevin M Swiatek, Kim Jordan, Julie Coffman
Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a disabling disorder that can interfere with a patient's capacity to understand and participate in medical care and thus negatively impact individual morbidity and mortality. Hospitalised patients with TRD may require rapid alleviation of severe symptomatology, particularly when suicidal or if unable to participate in care decisions. Ketamine is well known for its anaesthetic effects and its use as a 'street' drug; however, its action as an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist makes ketamine a potential therapy for TRD...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Adem Can, Panos Zanos, Ruin Moaddel, Hye Jin Kang, Katinia S S Dossou, Irving W Wainer, Joseph F Cheer, Douglas O Frost, Xi-Ping Huang, Todd D Gould
Following administration at subanesthetic doses, (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) induces rapid and robust relief from symptoms of depression in treatment-refractory depressed patients. Previous studies suggest that ketamine's antidepressant properties involve enhancement of dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. Ketamine is rapidly metabolized to (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK), which have antidepressant actions independent of N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor inhibition. These antidepressant actions of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, or other metabolites, as well as ketamine's side effects, including abuse potential, may be related to direct effects on components of the dopaminergic (DAergic) system...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ather Muneer
In the majority of cases of bipolar disorder, manic episodes are usually brief and typically responsive to currently available psychopharmacological agents. In contrast, depressive manifestations are more prevalent and persistent, and can present as major depressive/mixed episodes or residual interepisode symptoms. The depressive phase is often associated with other neuropsychiatric conditions, such as anxiety spectrum disorders, substance use disorders, stressor-related disorders, and eating disorders. It is viewed as a systemic disease with associated ailments such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease...
May 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Volker A Coenen, Thomas E Schlaepfer, Peter Goll, Peter C Reinacher, Ulrich Voderholzer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst, Horst Urbach, Tobias Freyer
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising putative modality for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders such as major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Several targets have been posited; however, a clear consensus on differential efficacy and possible modes of action remain unclear. DBS to the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) has recently been introduced for major depression (MD). Due to our experience with slMFB stimulation for MD, and because OCD might be related to similar dysfunctions of the reward system, treatment with slMFB DBS seams meaningful...
June 8, 2016: CNS Spectrums
Erin Yates, Ganesh Balu
UNLABELLED: Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) is the next generation of technology used to treat Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). dTMS has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment modality for MDD and may have secondary benefits in patients with chronic low back pain by reducing pain related morbidity. We are presenting two case studies with MDD and chronic low back pain to demonstrate the effectiveness of both the antidepressant and analgesic effects of dTMS. BACKGROUND: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) utilizes MRI-strength magnetic pulses outside the cranium to stimulate the brain to a depth of approximately 1 cm...
March 2016: Delaware Medical Journal
Rana R McKay, Guillermo De Velasco, Lillian Werner, Joaquim Bellmunt, Lauren Harshman, Christopher Sweeney, Jonathan E Rosenberg, Michelle Hirsch, Sabina Signoretti, Eliezer M Van Allen, Meghara Walsh, Ulka Vaishampayan, David F McDermott, Toni K Choueiri
BACKGROUND: The phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is dysregulated in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Buparlisib is a pan-PI3K inhibitor with activity in advanced solid tumors. The primary objective of the current study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicities of buparlisib and bevacizumab in patients with mRCC. Secondary objectives included efficacy, biomarker discovery, and additional toxicity...
August 1, 2016: Cancer
Ather Muneer
Bipolar disorder is characterized by exacerbations of opposite mood polarity, ranging from manic to major depressive episodes. In the current nosological system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 5(th) edition (DSM-5), it is conceptualized as a spectrum disorder consisting of bipolar disorder type I, bipolar disorder type II, cyclothymic disorder, and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Treatment of all phases of this disorder is primarily with mood stabilizers, but many patients either show resistance to the conventional mood stabilizing medications or are intolerant to their side-effects...
2016: Curēus
Laura Schulze, Sarah Wheeler, Mary Pat McAndrews, Chloe J E Solomon, Peter Giacobbe, Jonathan Downar
The most widely used target for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Despite convergent evidence that the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) may be a promising alternative target for rTMS in TRD, its cognitive safety profile has not previously been assessed. Here, we applied 20 sessions of rTMS to the DMPFC in 21 TRD patients. Before and after treatment, a battery of neuropsychological tasks was administered to evaluate changes in cognition across three general cognitive domains: learning and memory, attention and processing speed, and cognitive flexibility...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Matilda Naesström, Patric Blomstedt, Owe Bodlund
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation is a treatment under investigation for a range of psychiatric disorders. It has shown promising results for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Other indications under investigation include Tourette's syndrome, anorexia nervosa and substance use disorders. AIMS: To review current studies on psychiatric indications for deep brain stimulation (DBS), with focus on OCD and MDD...
October 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Kennedy K E Kukuia, Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode, Priscilla K Mante, Donatus W Adongo
BACKGROUND: One of the major drawbacks of current depression pharmacotherapy is the delay in symptom improvement, aside from the untoward side effects and lack of efficacy against refractory depression. This work therefore investigated a possible rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant effect of Mallotus oppositifolius. METHODS: Onset of the antidepressant effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. oppositifolius was investigated using the open space swim test, a chronic depression model...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Ali Darkazalli, Abdol Aziz Ould Ismail, Nastaren Abad, Samuel C Grant, Cathy W Levenson
PURPOSE: Major depression and related mood disorders are the most common long-term outcomes associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Given the potentially debilitating consequences of depression, and the fact that TBI patients are frequently refractory to antidepressant drugs, new therapies are clearly needed. We hypothesized that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), delivered intravenously, can effectively treat TBI-induced depression and other behavioral deficits associated with TBI...
April 11, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Takayuki Imai, Takahiro Goto, Ko Matsumoto, Koreyuki Kurosawa, Yukinori Asada, Shigeru Saijo, Kazuto Matsuura
Free jejunal transfer is the main technique used for reconstructing a circumferential defect caused by total pharyngo-laryngo-cervical-esophagectomy in certain cancer cases. We report a rare case of severe late-onset dysphagia caused by autonomous spastic peristalsis, which led to complete obstruction of the free jejunal route. A 70-year-old man underwent treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer involving total pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunal transfer. After uneventful peri- and postoperative recovery, he developed sudden-onset severe dysphagia 22 months later...
December 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
V T Ramaekers, J M Sequeira, E V Quadros
Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults...
July 2016: Biochimie
André R Brunoni, Adriano H Moffa, Felipe Fregni, Ulrich Palm, Frank Padberg, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Djamila Bennabi, Emmanuel Haffen, Angelo Alonzo, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-pharmacological intervention for depression. It has mixed results, possibly caused by study heterogeneity. AIMS: To assess tDCS efficacy and to explore individual response predictors. METHOD: Systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. RESULTS: Data were gathered from six randomised sham-controlled trials, enrolling 289 patients. Active tDCS was significantly superior to sham for response (34% v...
June 2016: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Minoru Takeshima, Takashi Oka
BACKGROUND: Difficult-to-treat major depressive disorder (MDD-DT), which involves antidepressant refractoriness or antidepressant-related adverse psychiatric effects, is bipolar in nature; therefore, it may share common temperamental features with bipolar disorder. To examine this hypothesis, affective temperament was compared between MDD-DT, easy-to-treat major depressive disorder (MDD-ET), and bipolar disorder. METHODS: Affective temperament was measured in 320 patients (69, 56, and 195 with MDD-ET, MDD-DT, and bipolar disorder, respectively) using the self-rated questionnaire version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-A), with between-group differences examined using multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for confounders...
April 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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